There are two University research studies
supporting the acid theory of cancer. The
title of the two studies are:
1) “Mathematical Modelling of Tumour Acidity
Regulation of Intracellular pH,” by S.D. Webb,
J.A. Sherratt and R. G. Fish (online at:
http://www.ideallibrary.com) Published in the Journal
of Theoretical Biology, (1999) 196, 237-250.
Article No. jtbi.1998.0836.
2) “Acid-mediated tumor invasion: How does
vasculature affect the growth characteristics,”
by B. S. Govindan W. B. Spillman, Jr.,
J. L. Robertson and W. R. Huckle.
(1) Virginia Tech Applied Biosciences Center
(2) Department of Physics
(3) Center for Comparative Oncology at
(4) Department of Biomedical Sciences and
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.
We studied the growth of an implanted avascular
tumor in rats, in two-dimensions, based on a
model where the mechanism of invasion is
centered on tumor-induced acidification of
the micro-environment and consequent death of
The spatial distribution of the acid density
around the tumor is found using mean-field
analysis. By assuming that the viability of
both normal and tumor cells falls sharply
below certain threshold values of the local
pH, we determine the conditions for the
formation and radius of a necrotic core at
the center, as a function of the tumor
radius. We show mathematically that
the mean micro-vessel density (MVD) plays
a pivotal role in determining the growth
characteristics of the tumor. When the MVD
is sufficiently small, accumulation of excess
acid inside the tumor leads to the formation of
a necrotic core, which occupies a significant
fraction of the total area in large tumors.
However, necrosis is reduced when the mean MVD
inside the tumor is larger than outside because
of the more efficient removal of excess acid.
At sufficiently high MVD, necrosis might be
absent in the tumor, or confined to small
regions mostly devoid of micro-vessels.
Quantitative estimates of MVD for these different
phases of growth are obtained, and verified using
explicit cellular automaton simulations. Recent
experimental studies on the correlation between
necrosis and MVD support our main conclusions.
If you would like copies of these two very
important studies on the acidic nature of
cancer please email us at:
For over 200 research articles by
Dr. Robert O. Young go to:
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cancer may I suggest listening to,
The pH Miracle for Cancer.
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Copyright © 2007 by Robert O. Young, Ph.D.