78 Scientific Published Articles on the Health Benefits of Coconut Oil!

Robert Young

Robert Young, CPT, MSc, DSc, PhD, Naturopath

Research Scientist at the pH Miracle Center 85 articles

78 Benefits of coconut oil are just phenomenal for your body, skin and hair. There are many nutritional, skin care and hair care products that have coconut oil or coconut powder as an active ingredient in their formulations. There is, unfortunately, some of these products on the market that use processed refined coconut oil. Refined, chemically processed coconut oil is no match to cold-pressed virgin (pure) coconut oil when it comes to the health benefits for YOUR body, skin and hair.

What is Virgin Coconut oil

Cold-Pressed Virgin coconut oil means pure, unrefined coconut oil which is extracted from cold pressing of coconut kernels. Cold pressing involves pressing and grinding process at lower temperatures to retain the original taste, aroma and nutritional value. Most of the coconut oil available these days are refined ones. Refining process involves bleaching and addition of added artificial fragrances. This is the reason that most of the coconut oils available these days are colorless and don’t have that essence of pure coconut oil. The Nutritional content of these refined coconut oils is far less than virgin coconut oil. Refined coconut oil lacks sweet taste, smell and other vital health benefits.

Is Coconut oil healthy or Is It Poison?

There is a general conception that SATURATED FATS are not good to eat because they would add calories which in turn will make you overweight, less energetic and cause sclerotic plaque in the arteries leading to heart disease. This is why you see a lot of processed foods highlighting ZERO SATURATED FATS or ZERO TRANS FATS on their packaging. Trans fats or the crossing linking of hydrogen ions are BAD for YOU but are SATURATED FATS highs in coconut oil BAD for you also and does coconut oil contain trans fats?

A recent lecture by a Harvard professor calling coconut oil “pure poison” has gone viral on YouTube, nearing 1 million views on Wednesday.

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In her talk titled “Coconut oil and other nutritional errors,” Karin Michels, who is an adjunct professor of epidemiology at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, says coconut oil is not healthy, calling it “poison” at least three times in the widely-circulated video.

Dr. Michels states, “I can only warn you urgently about coconut oil,” she says. “This is one of the worst foods you can eat.”

Objective Science vs Subjective Science

Listening to Dr. Michels lecture reminds me of a story I like to tell to illustrate the objectivity vs. the subjectivity of current scientific research. Here is an of example of what I mean:

Objective medical research finding – A new study shows:

1) Japanese eat very little fat and have fewer heart attacks than Americans

Objective medical research finding – A new study shows:

2) Mexicans eat a lot of fat and have fewer heart attacks than Americans

Objective medical research finding – A new study shows:

3) Chinese drink very little red wine and have fewer heart attacks than Americans

Objective medical research finding – A new study shows:

4) Italians drink a lot of red wine and have fewer heart attacks than Americans

Objective medical research finding – A new study shows:

5) Germans drink a lot of beer and eat sausage but suffer fewer heart attacks than Americans

Final subjective medical research conclusion:

Eat and drink whatever you like being American is what kills you!

This conclusion sounds outrageous but this is what we are dealing with when we understand that the sciences are NOT objective BUT subjective based upon the investigators subjective conclusions.

Traditional medical research science can be good, but other ways of knowing should be equally valued! Why? Because science is actually the product of many of the other ways of knowing that research scientists seem to think below their objective measure.

The truth is, there is no way of truly knowing what objectivity is, because we all have our subjective way of experiencing and interpreting the world.

This line of thinking is what led Rene Descarte to doubt everything. But, the only thing he knew he could not doubt was that he was doubting. Hence, his famous pronouncement, “I think, therefore I am.” A better translation would’ve been, I doubt, therefore I know I am because I know it is me that is doubting!

 

Therefore, I would suggest that Dr. Michel’s conclusions concerning the efficacy of coconut oil can only be subjective and her personal perspective or opinion as she views the current research on coconut oil, even though my experience is totally different.

Normal and Low Cholesterol Causes Coronary Heart Disease and Heart Attacks

The largest and longest study on saturated fats and hyper-cholesterol causing coronary heart disease is called the Framingham study. This landmark study started in the 50’s showing that a high-fat diet does NOT cause heart disease! In fact, the higher the cholesterol the lower the risk of coronary heart disease showing the protective benefits of high cholesterol. It is important to note that 80 percent of all people developing coronary heart disease and are at a risk for a heart attack have normal or low cholesterol. The following is the graphic results of this HUGE study that has been kept a secret from the population Worldwide.

The research of Robert O Young PhD shows the same results when the client/patient follows an alkaline lifestyle and diet. The following represents that research of Dr. Young and the effects of the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet, a high-fat diet, including coconut oil. Maren is part of an on-going study being conducted by the University of Utah on diagnosed Familia Hyper-cholesterolemia. Here are the results!

 

Maren also lost over 70 pounds of acidic bound fat following an alkaline lifestyle and diet, including liberal amounts of coconut oil.

So, according to Karin Michels coconut oil would NOT have ANY health benefits because coconut oil is nothing but saturated fat and saturated causes blocked arteries leading to heart disease, weight gain and loss of energy. My own research has found that a high fat diet from plant sources, including coconut oil protects against coronary heart disease leading to heart attacks, the number one cause of death in the World.

The Real Truth About Coconut Oil!

Coconut oil is a medium chain saturated fatty acid; it is not a long chain saturated fatty acid like various fatty meats, butter, cheese, various seed oils etc. Medium chain saturated fatty acids (MCSFAs) are also known as medium chain triglycerides (MCTs). Similarly, long chain saturated fatty acids (LCFAs) are known as long chain triglycerides (LCTs).

Benefits of MCSFAs over LCSFAs

  • Unlike LCSFAs, MCSFAs break down easily putting a lesser burden on your alimentary canal.
  • MCSFAs permeate easily through cell membranes and hence are easily absorbed by your body.
  • MCSFAs are transferred directly to your liver from the small and large intestines. Hence, they are readily converted into energy and are not stored as fats (as in case of LCSFAs)
  • MCSFAs can be metabolized at a faster rate than LCSFAs.

Hence, coconut oil is a medium chain saturated fatty acid and is surely one of those saturated fats which is healthful NOT harmful and surely NOT poisonous!

Coconut oil as an anti-inflammatory:

Benefits of oral consumption of Coconut Oil

Coconut oil contains a fatty acid known as lauric acid. Lauric acid is commonly found in breast milk (this is why coconut oil is an active ingredient in various baby care products). This lauric acid has anti-fungal, anti-viral and anti-bacterial properties. Coconut oil is considered a natural immunity booster for ages.

  • Coconut oil is a natural immunity booster; reduces inflammation and eliminates bad bacteria from your body. In this way, coconut oil fixes all the three issues related to an autoimmune disorder like Psoriasis. Coconut oil detox program is highly recommended by health experts to get rid of Candida (yeast infection).
  • MCSFAs present in coconut oil transforms or destroys various harmful viruses, bacteria, fungi present in your body.
  • MCSFAs present in coconut oil stimulates body metabolism process which in turn brings back all the natural mechanisms like body detoxification, cells repair and growth back on track eventually enhancing your body immunity
  • Coconut oil works amazingly well in dealing with leaky gut syndrome (and fat malabsorption) because MCSFAs present in coconut oil are easily absorbed by your body.
  • Coconut oil helps in weight loss because MCSFAs present in coconut oil goes straight from the small and large intestines to liver where they are converted into energy increasing your energy level. Due to this increased energy level, you would feel satisfied (fuller) and a disciplined diet program, like the pH Miracle diet would be easier for you.

Coconut oil for skin and hair: Benefits of topical application

Topical application of coconut oil is not a new concept. Coconut oil can moisturize your scalp and your body amazingly well. Psoriasis flakes are very dry in nature and quite itchy as well, particularly the scalp psoriasis. Hence, using coconut oil on your scalp can be a soothing experience for you. Pleasing smell of coconut oil is a great news for those who are looking for some natural topical alternatives to those steroids based topical ointments. Coconut oil’s pleasant smell and non sticky nature readily make it an amazing choice for topical application on the skin.

How to use coconut oil

Virgin coconut oil is consumed orally as well as applied on skin to take care of psoriasis.

Oral consumption of coconut oil is possible in two ways:

1. Consuming it as a whole – Take one teaspoonful of virgin coconut oil twice a day, in the morning before breakfast and at night before sleep. You should not eat or drink anything before and after taking it for at least 1 hour to get the best benefits.

2. As an alternative to cooking oil/butter– Thanks to the heat withstanding properties of coconut oil, it can be used as a regular cooking oil in baking, cooking and frying. You can also use it as a spread on bread or as salad dressing.

3. Topical application of coconut oil: Generally, it is advised to apply coconut oil on your skin after taking bath/shower and properly massage it to make sure it is well absorbed by the body. Coconut oil is absorbed by the body readily. Do not forget to massage coconut oil on your scalp also. It is amazingly good for scalp psoriasis.

Where to Buy the Best Cold-Pressed Organic Virgin Coconut oil

Availability of virgin coconut oil in general departmental stores is suspicious. Always buy cold-pressed organic virgin coconut oil by checking the packing label. It should clearly mention that it is cold pressed and unrefined and organic. You can purchase virgin coconut oil from various health stores or online shopping portals like at: http://www.ijuicenow.com

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Good to know: Benefits of Coconut Water

Apart from coconut oil, coconut water is also fortified with a lot of health benefits. Drinking coconut water can improve digestion, reduces acid reflux and is a rich source of various electrolytes (calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus). Drinking coconut water has numerous health benefits with almost no side effects. The recommended dosage is 15-20 ounces of coconut water a day.

The following are 78 peer-reviewed scientific researched and tested human health benefits and uses for cold-pressed organic virgin coconut oil!

78 HUMAN HEALTH BENEFITS and USES FOR COCONUT OIL! and GROWING! (Check back daily on this article for updates on the scientific benefits of COCONUT OIL)

1. Use Coconut Oil with instead of vegetable or seed oils. Coconut oil naturally has a high temperature point, is highly stable due to its high saturated fat content, and imparts very little “coconut” flavor to your foods.

2. In your Coconut oil instead of dairy creamer. Yes – that’s right, use coconut oil, not cows milk which is high in lactose, a sugar that may cause cancer!

3. To wash your face with Coconut oil instead of soap. It sounds strange, but oil washes impurities out better than soap and it doesn’t dry your skin! It takes a week to get use to it – the skin on your face is so use to being dried out by soap and facial cleansers that it’s producing extra oil to counteract it. So, it’ll take a little bit of time for your skin to stop producing all that extra oil.

4. Brush your teeth with Coconut Oil. Coconut oil has many antimicrobial properties which can make it good for eliminating or transforming bacteria and yeast in your mouth. To make your own toothpaste, simply add 2 tablespoons of coconut oil (melt it in surgical stainless steel cookware very briefly so that it’s softened) to 2-3 tablespoons of pHour salts – http://www.phoreveryoung.com. Mix to form a paste and spread on your toothbrush. (The pHour Salts will whitens your teeth because of the sodium and potassium bicarbonate).

5. Coconut oil pulling. This is similar to the previous use in that it helps with oral hygiene. Oil pulling has long been a popular practice in India and with Ayurvedic practitioners. It involves swishing oil around your mouth for 20 minutes before spitting it out. The idea behind the practice is to remove bacteria and yeast from your teeth and mouth, which can then alleviate various other health challenges (including arthritis and fatigue).

6. Coconut oil as a body moisturizer. Our skin absorbs whatever creams we put on it (think of all the topical pain relief medications that work because it gets absorbed through our skin). So, instead of pumping random chemicals from your moisturizers into your skin, many people choose to use coconut oil instead. You can use it at the end of your shower so that it’s more easily absorbed and before your skin has had a chance to dry.

7. Coconut oil as a sun-screen. This is not a high SPF sunscreen, but a 2013 study found that coconut oil absorbs 20% in the UVB region (this equates to something under SPF 10 –). So definitely use coconut oil and stay alkaline so the skin pH is over 7.2 for preventing sun burn.

8. Coconut oil as a hair conditioner. Use coconut oil as a hair conditioner, or use iJuice Conditioner and Shampoo which has a coconut base – http://www.ijuicenow.com. You don’t need much and just rub it into the scalp and hair.

9. Coconut as a supplement. Using iJuice coconut oil as a supplement can help with weight loss and increasing your “HDL” cholesterol while lowering your “LDL” cholesterol.

10. Coconut oil as a massage oil. Coconut oil doesn’t get absorbed into your skin quickly, which ensures your skin stays slippery for longer period of time thereby making it perfect for you to enjoy a long and relaxing massage!

11. Coconut oil for reducing scars.

12. Coconut oil for treating lice. There have been several studies showing it’ efficacy.

13. Coconut oil to soften cracked heels.

14. Coconut oil as a hair serum. Use it to smooth away any frizz just like you would use hair serum for.

15. Coconut oil as a buttery spread. Because coconut oil is solid at room temperature, it’s usually at a perfect spread consistency when heated just a little. It’s perfect for spreading on some Paleo bread.

16. Coconut oil to prevent and treat fungal infections. It’s an easy and cheap cure for things like Athlete’s Foot.

17. Coconut oil as a glaze. When cold, coconut oil becomes solid very quickly. This gives it a white glaze appearance. Perfect to top onto chilled desserts!

18. Coconut oil to season cast iron pans. Instead of using rancid vegetable and seed oils, try using coconut oil.

19. Coconut oil to improve Parkinson’s disease.

20. Coconut oil to condition wooden cutting boards

21. Coconut oil to bake with instead of butter. Coconut oil can be used as a replacement for butter in a lot of recipes.

22. Coconut oil as an easy way to make coconut butter. Here’s my recipe for coconut butter.

23. As an eye make-up remover. This is my personal favorite – why use chemicals in the delicate areas around your eyes when coconut oil works just as well!

24. As a natural remedy for diaper rash.

25. To add to your protein shake.

26. To relieve itching from bug bites.

27. To help lower high blood pressure. study found that coconut oil reduced blood pressure in rats.

28. To lessen the damaging effects of dementia.

29. To heal wounds. A study on rats found extra virgin coconut oil to speed up the healing process (when compared to not using any oil).

30. To reduce puffiness around the eyes. Don’t forget that eating an anti-inflammatory diet will also help with this!

31. As a lip balm. And it tastes great too.

32. To enhance nutrient absorption. Many nutrients are fat-soluble, which means that your body cannot absorb them if there’s not enough fat in what you eat. Coconut oil has been shown to be better than several other oils at this for certain nutrients.

33. To improve osteoporosis.

34. To relieve sun-burn.

35. To improve your memory. A 2004 study found coconut oil to improve cognitive functions in Alzheimer patients.

36. To make lotion bars. One of my favorite lotion bars from a local honey producer contains just 3 ingredients: beeswax, coconut oil, and olive oil.

37. To make soap, shampoo and hair conditioner.

38. To make laundry detergent. Slightly different method to making soap.

39. For hemorrhoid relief.

40. As a hair gel.

41. To remove stretch marks.

42. As a shaving cream. Moisturizes and acts as lubricant!

43. In a nourishing hair mask. Quick recipe here.

44. In an after-shave cream. Simple recipe here.

45. In a nourishing lotion for your skin. Simple recipe here.

46. As a salt scrub. Simple recipe here.

47. In a cough syrup. Simple recipe here.

48. In a sore throat cure. Recipe here.

49. In a homemade natural deodorant. Recipe here.

50. To help hair regrowth (baldness issues). Here’s a guide about it.

51. To make your own cuticle oil. Recipe here.

52. To stop nose bleeds. Cayenne mixed with a little bit of coconut oil has been.

53. To prevent nose bleeds. Rub a little bit up your nose to stop it from drying out in the winter time when your heating is on.

54. To fuel your workouts. Yes, fat is a fuel, and a lot of your body runs on saturated fats (which is the main fat in coconut oil).

55. To build more muscle. Body builders have long used MCT oil (a component of coconut oil) to help them build muscle.

56. As a testosterone booster.

57. As first aid. It’s great to put on cuts and scrapes after washing the wound.

58. To kill off candida yeast growth. 

59. To help cure small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

60. To decrease an insulin spike. It takes longer for your body to digest fats, and so any carbohydrates you eat with the fats will take longer to digest thereby lessening any spikes in your insulin.

61. To stimulate your thyroid.

62. To burn fat around your stomach. A 2009 study concluded that: “It appears that dietetic supplementation with coconut oil…seems to promote a reduction in abdominal obesity.”

63. To remove chewing gum from hair. I had no idea this was even a problem that could arise!

64. To clean and restore leather.

65. To season stoneware. Here’s how to do it with coconut oil.

66. To make good healthy mayo. Here’s my recipe with olive oil – you can substitute coconut oil instead.

67. In a natural vapor rub.

68. As a sexual lubricant.

69. Virgin coconut oil consumption reduced the side effects of chemotherapy and helped improve the functional status and the quality of life of breast cancer patients.

70. Coconut oil was found to be beneficial in female patients with Alzheimer’s dementia.

71. Daily consumption of virgin coconut oil in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

72. Coconut oil may have therapeutic value in treating acute aluminium phosphide poisoning.

73. Coconut oil exhibits beneficial properties for cardiovascular health.

74. Coconut oil is an effective burn wound healing agent.

75. Coconut oil has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities.

76. Safety study: Coconut oil is safe as a cosmetic ingredient.

77. Coconut oil intake may improve brain health by directly activating ketogenesis in astrocytes.

78. Coconut oil contains lauric acid which lowers cholesterol.

Conclusion

Coconut oil is a medium chain fatty acid having incredible health and fitness benefits. It is a powerful body moisturizer and it is anti bacterial and anti fungal in nature. It can help you rid YOUR body of the pleomorphic bacteria and yeast (Candida). It can also help you to reverse the problem of leaky gut syndrome to restrengthen the immunity of YOUR body. Scientific research has shown that coconut oil eases the symptoms of psoriasis by drinking coconut water and applying coconut oil on YOUR skin regularly. The bottom-line is this – Coconut oil is safe and effective and can be used daily in providing human health, energy and vitality and preventing and reversing human sickness and disease.

Scientific Research, Both Human and Animal Studies Proving the Efficacy of Coconut Oil

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1) A diet rich in extra virgin coconut oil seems to favor the reduction of waist circumference and the increase of HDL-C concentrations

Article Publish Status: FREE

Abstract Title:

A COCONUT EXTRA VIRGIN OIL-RICH DIET INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND DECREASES WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AND BODY MASS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE PATIENTS

Abstract Source:

Nutr Hosp. 2015 ;32(5):2144-52. Epub 2015 Nov 1. PMID: 26545671

Abstract Author(s):

Diuli A Cardoso, Annie S B Moreira, Glaucia M M de Oliveira, Ronir Raggio Luiz, Glorimar Rosa

Article Affiliation:

Diuli A Cardoso

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: saturated fat restriction has been recommended for coronary arterial disease, but the role of coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) extra virgin, lauric acid source in the management of lipid profile remains unclear.

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the effect of nutritional treatment associated with the consumption of extra virgin coconut oil in anthropometric parameters and lipid profile.

METHODS: we conducted a longitudinal study of 116 adults of both sexes presenting CAD. Patients were followed in two stages: the first stage (basal-3 months), intensive nutritional treatment. In the second stage (3-6 months), the subjects were divided into two groups: diet group associated with extra virgin coconut oil consumption (GDOC) and diet group (DG). Held monthly anthropometric measurements: body mass, waist circumference (WC), neck circumference (PP), body mass index (BMI). Gauged to collected blood pressure and blood samples were fasted for 12 hours, for total cholesterol analysis and fractions apoproteins (Apo A-1 and B), glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin (I). Comparing the averages at the beginning and end of the study employing the paired Student t-independent. And set the diastolic blood pressure by BMI using ANOVA. Analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package, being significant p<0.05.

RESULTS: the mean age of the population was 62.4± 7.7 years, 63.2% male, 70% elderly, 77.6% infarcted, 52.6% with angina, hypertension and dyslipidemia 100%. In the first stage the nutritional treatment reduced body weight, WC, BMI and PP and insulin concentrations, HbA1C, HOMA-IR and QUICK, without changing the other parameters. In the second stage of the study, it was observed that the GDOC maintained the reduction of body mass, BMI, WC, with a significant difference between groups for DC (-2.1 ± 2,7 cm; p<0.01). In addition, there was an increase in HDL-C concentrations, Apo A, with significant difference in GD, only for HDL-C (3.1± 7.4 mg/dL; p = 0.02).

CONCLUSION: it was observed that the nutritional treatment associated with extra virgin coconut oil consumption reduced the CC and increased HDL-C levels in patients with CAD.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014

Study Type: Human Study

2. Although permethrin lotion is still effective for some people, coconut and anise spray can be a significantly more effective alternative treatment

Abstract Title:

Clinical trial showing superiority of a coconut and anise spray over permethrin 0.43% lotion for head louse infestation, ISRCTN96469780.

Abstract Source:

Eur J Pediatr. 2010 Jan ;169(1):55-62. Epub 2009 Apr 3. PMID: 19343362

Abstract Author(s):

Ian F Burgess, Elizabeth R Brunton, Nazma A Burgess

Article Affiliation:

Medical Entomology Centre, Insect Research&Development Limited, 6 Quy Court, Colliers Lane, Stow-cum-Quy, Cambridge CB25 9AU, UK. ian@insectresearch.com

Abstract:

Permethrin is the most widely used pediculicide, but evidence of resistance from several countries and anecdotal reports from Germany suggest that permethrin lotion is now less effective. We designed a randomized, controlled, parallel group trial involving 100 participants with active head louse infestation to investigate the activity of a coconut and anise spray and to see whether permethrin lotion is still effective, using two applications of product 9 days apart. The spray was significantly more successful (41/50, 82.0%) cures compared with permethrin (21/50, 42.0%; p<0.0001, difference 40.0%, 95% confidence interval of 22.5% to 57.5%). Per-protocol success was 83.3% and 44.7%, respectively. Thirty-three people reported irritant reactions following alcohol contact with excoriated skin. We concluded that, although permethrin lotion is still effective for some people, the coconut and anise spray can be a significantly more effective alternative treatment.

Article Published Date: Jan 01, 2010

Study Type: Human Study

3. Coconut oil was found to be beneficial in female patients with Alzheimer’s dementia

Abstract Title:

[COCONUT OIL: NON-ALTERNATIVE DRUG TREATMENT AGAINST ALZHEIME´S DISEASE]

Abstract Source:

Nutr Hosp. 2015 ;32(6):2822-7. Epub 2015 Dec 1. PMID: 26667739

Abstract Author(s):

Iván Hu Yang, Jose Enrique De la Rubia Ortí, Pablo Selvi Sabater, Sandra Sancho Castillo, Mariano Julián Rochina, Noemí Manresa Ramón, Inmaculada Montoya-Castilla

Article Affiliation:

Iván Hu Yang

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer’s dementia is the most prevalent nowadays. As for treatment, there is no definitive cure drug, thus new therapies are needed. In this regard the medium chain triglycerides are a direct source of cellular energy and can be a nonpharmacological alternative to the neuronal death for lack of it, that occurs in Alzheimer patients.

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the impact of coconut oil in the development of Alzheimer’s dementia, in any degree of dementia. Also determine whether this improvement influences within variables such as sex and suffering or not Type II Diabetes Mellitus.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: a prospective study was conducted in patients with Alzheimer’s dementia, with a control and an intervention group which was administered 40 ml/day of extra virgin coconut oil. The parameters evaluated were the mini test scores Lobo cognitive test, pre and post intervention in both groups.

RESULTS: it was observed in subjects taking the product, a statistically significant increase in test score MECWOLF and therefore an improvement in cognitive status, improving especially women’s, those without diabetes mellitus type II, and severe patients.

CONCLUSION: this study, although preliminary, demonstrated the positive influence of coconut oil at the cognitive level of patients with Alzheimer’s, this improvement being dependent on sex, presence or absence of diabetes and degree of dementia.

Article Published Date: Dec 31, 2014

Study Type: Human Study

4. Medium Chain Triglycerides (coconut fat) increase cognitive performance in Alzheimer’s disease

Abstract Title:

Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adults.

Abstract Source:

Neurobiol Aging. 2004 Mar;25(3):311-4. PMID: 15123336

Abstract Author(s):

Mark A Reger, Samuel T Henderson, Cathy Hale, Brenna Cholerton, Laura D Baker, G S Watson, Karen Hyde, Darla Chapman, Suzanne Craft

Abstract:

Glucose is the brain’s principal energy substrate. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), there appears to be a pathological decrease in the brain’s ability to use glucose. Neurobiological evidence suggests that ketone bodies are an effective alternative energy substrate for the brain. Elevation of plasma ketone body levels through an oral dose of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) may improve cognitive functioning in older adults with memory disorders. On separate days, 20 subjects with AD or mild cognitive impairment consumed a drink containing emulsified MCTs or placebo. Significant increases in levels of the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) were observed 90 min after treatment (P=0.007) when cognitive tests were administered. beta-OHB elevations were moderated by apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype (P=0.036). For 4+ subjects, beta-OHB levels continued to rise between the 90 and 120 min blood draws in the treatment condition, while the beta-OHB levels of 4- subjects held constant (P<0.009). On cognitive testing, MCT treatment facilitated performance on the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog) for 4- subjects, but not for 4+ subjects (P=0.04). Higher ketone values were associated with greater improvement in paragraph recall with MCT treatment relative to placebo across all subjects (P=0.02). Additional research is warranted to determine the therapeutic benefits of MCTs for patients with AD and how APOE-4 status may mediate beta-OHB efficacy.

Article Published Date: Mar 22, 2006

Study Type: Human Study

5. Isocaloric coconut oil enriched Mediterranean diet seems to improve cognitive functions in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

Abstract Title:

Improvement of Main Cognitive Functions in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease after Treatment with Coconut Oil Enriched Mediterranean Diet: A Pilot Study.

Abstract Source:

J Alzheimers Dis. 2018 Jul 20. Epub 2018 Jul 20. PMID: 30056419

Abstract Author(s):

José Enrique de la Rubia Ortí, Mar Rsquo Ia Pilar García-Pardo, Eraci Drehmer, David Sancho Cantus, Mariano Julián Rochina, Maria Asunción Aguilar Calpe, Iván Hu Yang

Article Affiliation:

José Enrique de la Rubia Ortí

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder (mainly in women), and new therapies are needed. In this way, ketone bodies are a direct source of cellular energy and can be obtained from coconut oil, postulating that coconut oil could be a new non-pharmacological alternative in AD patients.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to detect changes in the main cognitive functions of patients with AD after following a coconut oil enriched Mediterranean diet, and to determine whether there are differences in function of stage or sex.

METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal, qualitative, analytic, experimental study was carried out in 44 patients with AD, who were randomly divided into two homogenous groups of 22 patients each: an experimental group of patients who followed a coconut oil enriched Mediterranean diet for 21 days and a control group. In order to determine the cognitive changes after the intervention, we carried out the 7 Minute Screen, which analyses temporal orientation, visuospatial and visuoconstructive abilities, and semantic and episodic memory.

RESULTS: After intervention with coconut oil, improvements in episodic, temporal orientation, and semantic memory were observed, and it seems that the positive effect is more evident in women with mild-moderate state, although other improvements in males and severe state were also shown.

CONCLUSIONS: The isocaloric coconut oil enriched Mediterranean diet seems to improve cognitive functions in patients with AD, with differences according to patient sex and degree of severity of the disease, although more studies in this line are needed.

Article Published Date : Jul 19, 2018

Study Type: Human Study

6. Dietary coconut oil elevates HDL and reduces abdominal obesity in women

Abstract Title:

Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity.

Abstract Source:

Lipids. 2009 Jul;44(7):593-601. Epub 2009 May 13. PMID: 19437058

Abstract Author(s):

Monica L Assunção, Haroldo S Ferreira, Aldenir F dos Santos, Cyro R Cabral, Telma M M T Florêncio

Abstract:

The effects of dietary supplementation with coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting waist circumferences (WC) >88 cm (abdominal obesity) were investigated. The randomised, double-blind, clinical trial involved 40 women aged 20-40 years. Groups received daily dietary supplements comprising 30 mL of either soy bean oil (group S; n = 20) or coconut oil (group C; n = 20) over a 12-week period, during which all subjects were instructed to follow a balanced hypocaloric diet and to walk for 50 min per day. Data were collected 1 week before (T1) and 1 week after (T2) dietary intervention. Energy intake and amount of carbohydrate ingested by both groups diminished over the trial, whereas the consumption of protein and fibre increased and lipid ingestion remained unchanged. At T1 there were no differences in biochemical or anthropometric characteristics between the groups, whereas at T2 group C presented a higher level of HDL (48.7 +/- 2.4 vs. 45.00 +/- 5.6; P = 0.01) and a lower LDL:HDL ratio (2.41 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.8; P = 0.04). Reductions in BMI were observed in both groups at T2 (P < 0.05), but only group C exhibited a reduction in WC (P = 0.005). Group S presented an increase (P < 0.05) in total cholesterol, LDL and LDL:HDL ratio, whilst HDL diminished (P = 0.03). Such alterations were not observed in group C. It appears that dietetic supplementation with coconut oil does not cause dyslipidemia and seems to promote a reduction in abdominal obesity.

Article Published Date: July 01, 2009

Study Type: Human Study

7. Virgin coconut oil consumption reduced the side effects of chemotherapy and helped improve the functional status and the quality of life of breast cancer patients.

Article Publish Status: FREE

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Abstract Title:

The effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) as supplementation on quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients.

Abstract Source:

Lipids Health Dis. 2014 ;13:139. Epub 2014 Aug 27. PMID: 25163649

Abstract Author(s):

Kim Sooi Law, Nizuwan Azman, Eshaifol Azam Omar, Muhammad Yusri Musa, Narazah Mohd Yusoff, Siti Amrah Sulaiman, Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain

Article Affiliation:

Kim Sooi Law

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer amongst Malaysian women. Both the disease and its treatment can disrupt the lives of the woman and adversely affect all aspects of life and thus can alter a woman’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on the quality of life (QOL) of patients diagnosed with breast cancer.

METHODS: This was a prospective study of breast cancer patients admitted into the Oncology Unit of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. The sample consisted of 60 patients with stage III and IV breast cancer allocated to either an intervention group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 30) using a simple random table. QOL was evaluated from the first cycle of chemotherapy to the sixth cycle, and data were collected using a validated Bahasa Malaysia version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Breast Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its breast-specific module (QLQ-BR 23).

RESULTS: The mean age of breast cancer patients was 50.2 (SD = 13.5) years. There were significant mean score differences for functioning and global QOL between groups (α < 0.01). The intervention group also had better scores for symptoms including fatigue, dyspnea, sleep difficulties, and loss of appetite compared to the control group. Although there are deteriorations for sexual enjoyment, the intervention group exhibited improvement in breast functioning and symptom scores for body image, sexual function, future perspective, breast symptoms, and systemic therapy side effects.

CONCLUSION: VCO consumption during chemotherapy helped improve the functional status and global QOL of breast cancer patients. In addition, it reduced the symptoms related to side effects of chemotherapy.

Article Published Date: Dec 31, 2013

Study Type: Human Study

8. Coconut oil may have therapeutic value in treating acute aluminium phosphide poisoning

Abstract Title:

Successful treatment of acute aluminium phosphide poisoning: possible benefit of coconut oil.

Abstract Source:

Hum Exp Toxicol. 2005 Apr;24(4):215-8. PMID: 15957538

Abstract Author(s):

Shahin Shadnia, Mojgan Rahimi, Abdolkarim Pajoumand, Mohammad-Hosein Rasouli, Mohammad Abdollahi

Article Affiliation:

Poison Center, Loghman-Hakim Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Shaheed-Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract:

Aluminium phosphide is used to control rodents and pests in grain storage facilities. It produces phosphine gas, which is a mitochondrial poison. Unfortunately, there is no known antidote for aluminium phosphide intoxication, but our recent experience with a case showed that rapid prevention of absorption by coconut oil might be helpful. In the present case, we used the same protocol in a 28-year-old man who had ingested a lethal amount (12 g) of aluminium phosphide with suicidal intent and was admitted to hospital approximately 6 hours postingestion. The patient had signs and symptoms of severe toxicity, and his clinical course included metabolic acidosis and liver dysfunction. Treatment consisted of gastric lavage with potassium permanganate solution, oral administration of charcoal and sorbitol suspension, intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, magnesium sulphate and calcium gluconate, and oral administration of sodium bicarbonate and coconut oil. Conservative and supportive therapy in the Intensive Care Unit was also provided. The patient survived following rapid treatment and supportive care. It is concluded that coconut oil has a positive clinical significance and can be added to the treatment protocol of acute aluminium phosphide poisoning in humans.

Article Published Date: Apr 01, 2005

Study Type: Human: Case Report

9. Virgin coconut oil is superior to mineral oil in treating atopic dermatitis in a pediatric population.

Abstract Title:

The effect of topical virgin coconut oil on SCORAD index, transepidermal water loss, and skin capacitance in mild to moderate pediatric atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.

Abstract Source:

Abstract Author(s):

Mara Therese Padilla Evangelista, Flordeliz Abad-Casintahan, Lillian Lopez-Villafuerte

Article Affiliation:

Department of Dermatology, Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center, Manila, Philippines.

Abstract:

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease characterized by defects in the epidermal barrier function and cutaneous inflammation, in which transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is increased and the ability of the stratum corneum to hold water is impaired, causing decreased skin capacitance and hydration. This study investigated the effects of topical virgin coconut oil (VCO) and mineral oil, respectively, on SCORAD (SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis) index values, TEWL, and skin capacitance in pediatric patients with mild to moderate AD, using a randomized controlled trial design in which participants and investigators were blinded to the treatments allocated. Patients were evaluated at baseline, and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. A total of 117 patients were included in the analysis. Mean SCORAD indices decreased from baseline by 68.23% in the VCO group and by 38.13% in the mineral oil group (P < 0.001). In the VCO group, 47% (28/59) of patients achieved moderate improvement and 46% (27/59) showed an excellent response. In the mineral oil group, 34% (20/58) of patients showed moderate improvement and 19% (11/58) achieved excellent improvement. The VCO group achieved a post-treatment mean TEWL of 7.09 from a baseline mean of 26.68, whereas the mineral oil group demonstrated baseline and post-treatment TEWL values of 24.12 and 13.55, respectively. In the VCO group, post-treatment skin capacitance rose to 42.3 from a baseline mean of 32.0, whereas that in the mineral oil group increasedto 37.49 from a baseline mean of 31.31. Thus, among pediatric patients with mild to moderate AD, topical application of VCO for eight weeks was superior to that of mineral oil based on clinical (SCORAD) and instrumental (TEWL, skin capacitance) assessments.

Article Published Date: Dec 09, 2013

Study Type: Human Study

10. Caprylic triglyceride impoved certain cases of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease

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Abstract Title:

Retrospective case studies of the efficacy of caprylic triglyceride in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

Abstract Source:

Abstract Author(s):

Steven Douglas Maynard, Jeff Gelblum

Article Affiliation:

Union Associated Physicians Clinic, Terre Haute, IN, USA ; Indiana University School of Medicine, Terre Haute, IN, USA.

Abstract:

Under normal conditions, the adult human brain is fueled primarily by glucose. A prominent feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is region-specific decreases in cerebral glucose metabolism. Ketone bodies are a group of compounds produced from fat stores during periods of low glucose availability that can provide an alternative to glucose for brain metabolism. Consumption of sufficient quantities of caprylic triglyceride (CT) increases plasma concentrations of ketone bodies and may be beneficial in conditions of compromised glucose metabolism, such as AD. The present study describes the use of CT in mild-to-moderate AD in routine clinical practice. Case records from eight patients with extensive monitoring of cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and who had received CT for≥6 months were reviewed. All were outpatients aged ≥50 years, cared for in standard practice, had a diagnosis of probable AD of mild-to-moderate severity (MMSE 14-24), and had received CT for at least 6 months in addition to other approved pharmacotherapy for AD. Response to CT administration asmeasured by MMSE scores varied by patient. However, the rate of decline in MMSE scores appeared slower than previously published reports for patients treated with pharmacotherapy alone. Profiling of individual patients may provide insight regarding those most likely to benefit from addition of CT to currently approved AD pharmacotherapy.

Article Published Date: Dec 31, 2012

Study Type: Human: Case Report

11. Daily consumption of virgin coconut oil in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

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Abstract Title:

Daily Consumption of Virgin Coconut Oil Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

Abstract Source:

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017 ;2017:7251562. Epub 2017 Dec 14. PMID: 29387131

Abstract Author(s):

Surarong Chinwong, Dujrudee Chinwong, Ampica Mangklabruks

Article Affiliation:

Surarong Chinwong

Abstract:

This open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover trial assessed the effect of daily virgin coconut oil (VCO) consumption on plasma lipoproteins levels and adverse events. The study population was 35 healthy Thai volunteers, aged 18-25. At entry, participants were randomly allocated to receive either (i) 15 mL VCO or (ii) 15 mL 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution (as control), twice daily, for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, participants had an 8-week washout period and then crossed over to take the alternative regimen for 8 weeks. Plasma lipoproteins levels were measured in participants at baseline,week-8, week-16, and week-24 follow-up visits. Results. Of 32 volunteers with complete follow-up (16 males and 16 females), daily VCO intake significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 5.72 mg/dL (p = 0.001) compared to the control regimen. However, there was no difference inthe change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between the two regimens. Mild diarrhea was reported by some volunteers when taking VCO, but no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Daily consumption of 30 mL VCO in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No major safety issues of taking VCO daily for 8 weeks were reported.

Article Published Date: Dec 31, 2016

Study Type: Human Study

12. Coconut oil is superior to mineral oil in treating dry skin

Abstract Title:

A randomized double-blind controlled trial comparing extra virgin coconut oil with mineral oil as a moisturizer for mild to moderate xerosis.

Abstract Source:

Dermatitis. 2004 Sep ;15(3):109-16. PMID: 15724344

Abstract Author(s):

Anna Liza C Agero, Vermén M Verallo-Rowell

Article Affiliation:

Department of Dermatology, Makati Medical Center, Makati City, Philippines.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Xerosis is a common skin condition (1) characterized by dry, rough, scaly, and itchy skin, (2) associated with a defect in skin barrier function, and (3) treated with moisturizers. People in the tropics have effectively used coconut oil as a traditional moisturizer for centuries. Recently, the oil also has been shown to have skin antiseptic effects. A moisturizer with antiseptic effects has value, but there are no clinical studies to document the efficacy and safety of coconut oil as a skin moisturizer.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effectivity and safety of virgin coconut oil compared with mineral oil as a therapeutic moisturizer for mild to moderate xerosis.

METHODS: A randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on mild to moderate xerosis in 34 patients with negative patch-test reactions to the test products. These patients were randomized to apply either coconut oil or mineral oil on the legs twice a day for 2 weeks. Quantitative outcome parameters for effectivity were measured at baseline and on each visit with a Corneometer CM825 to measure skin hydration and a Sebumeter SM 810 to measure skin lipids. For safety, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured with a Tewameter TM210, and skin surface hydrogen ion concentration (pH) was measured with a Skin pH Meter PH900. Patients and the investigator separately evaluated, at baseline and at each weekly visit, skin symptoms of dryness, scaling, roughness, and pruritus by using a visual analogue scale and grading of xerosis.

RESULTS: Coconut oil and mineral oil have comparable effects. Both oils showed effectivity through significant improvement in skin hydration and increase in skin surface lipid levels. Safety was demonstrated through no significant difference in TEWL and skin pH. Subjective grading of xerosis by the investigators and visual analogue scales used by the patients showed a general trend toward better (though not statistically evident) improvement with coconut oil than with mineral oil. Safety for both was further demonstrated by negative patch-test results prior to the study and by the absence of adverse reactions during the study.

CONCLUSION: Coconut oil is as effective and safe as mineral oil when used as a moisturizer.

Article Published Date: Aug 31, 2004

Study Type: Human Study

13. Oil pulling can be explored as a safe and effective alternative to Chlorhexidine

Abstract Title:

The Effect of Coconut Oil pulling on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva in Comparison with Chlorhexidine Mouthwash.

Abstract Source:

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2016 ;17(1):38-41. Epub 2016 Jan 1. PMID: 27084861

Abstract Author(s):

Mamta Kaushik, Pallavi Reddy, Roshni Sharma, Pooja Udameshi, Neha Mehra, Aditya Marwaha

Article Affiliation:

Mamta Kaushik

Abstract:

OBJECTIVES: Oil pulling is an age-old practice that has gained modern popularity in promoting oral and systemic health. The scientific verification for this practice is insufficient. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of coconut oil pulling on the count of Streptococcus mutans in saliva and to compare its efficacy with that of Chlorhexidine mouthwash: in vivo. The null hypothesis was that coconut oil pulling has no effect on the bacterial count in saliva.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized controlled study was planned and 60 subjects were selected. The subjects were divided into three groups, Group A:

STUDY GROUP: Oil pulling, Group B:

STUDY GROUP: Chlorhexidine, and Group C:

CONTROL GROUP: Distilled water. Group A subjects rinsed mouth with 10 ml of coconut oil for 10 minutes. Group B subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml Chlorhexidine mouthwash for 1 minute and Group C with 5 ml distilled water for 1 minute in the morning before brushing. Saliva samples were collected and cultured on 1st day and after 2 weeks from all subjects. Colonies were counted to compare the efficacy of coconut oil and Chlorhexidine with distilled water.

RESULTS: Statistically significant reduction in S. mutans count was seen in both the coconut oil pulling and Chlorhexidine group.

CONCLUSION: Oil pulling can be explored as a safe and effective alternative to Chlorhexidine.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Edible oil-pulling therapy is natural, safe and has no side effects. Hence, it can be considered as a preventive therapy at home to maintain oral hygiene.

Article Published Date: Dec 31, 2015

Study Type: Human Study

14. These are the first data to provide evidence that targeted nutrition is associated with the rate of Parkinson’s disease progression

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Abstract Title:

Role of Diet and Nutritional Supplements in Parkinson’s Disease Progression.

Abstract Source:

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017 ;2017:6405278. Epub 2017 Sep 10. PMID: 29081890

Abstract Author(s):

Laurie K Mischley, Richard C Lau, Rachel D Bennett

Article Affiliation:

Laurie K Mischley

Abstract:

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to describe modifiable lifestyle variables associated with reduced rate of Parkinson’s disease (PD) progression.

METHODS: The patient-reported outcomes in PD (PRO-PD) were used as the primary outcome measure, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess dietary intake. In this cross-sectional analysis, regression analysis was performed on baseline data to identify the nutritional and pharmacological interventions associated with the rate of PD progression. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, and years since diagnosis.

RESULTS: 1053 individuals with self-reported idiopathic PD were available for analysis. Foods associated with the reduced rate of PD progression included fresh vegetables, fresh fruit, nuts and seeds, nonfried fish, olive oil, wine, coconut oil, fresh herbs, and spices (P<0.05). Foods associated with more rapid PD progression include canned fruits and vegetables, diet and nondiet soda, fried foods, beef, ice cream, yogurt, and cheese (P<0.05). Nutritional supplements coenzyme Q10 and fish oil were associated with reduced PD progression (P = 0.026 and P = 0.019, resp.), and iron supplementation was associated with faster progression (P = 0.022).

DISCUSSION: These are the first data to provide evidence that targeted nutrition is associated with the rate of PD progression.

Article Published Date: Dec 31, 2016

Study Type: Human Study

15. Virgin coconut oil consumption reduced the side effects of chemotherapy and helped improve the functional status and the quality of life of breast cancer patients

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Abstract Title:

The effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) as supplementation on quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients.

Abstract Source:

Lipids Health Dis. 2014 ;13:139. Epub 2014 Aug 27. PMID: 25163649

Abstract Author(s):

Kim Sooi Law, Nizuwan Azman, Eshaifol Azam Omar, Muhammad Yusri Musa, Narazah Mohd Yusoff, Siti Amrah Sulaiman, Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain

Article Affiliation:

Kim Sooi Law

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer amongst Malaysian women. Both the disease and its treatment can disrupt the lives of the woman and adversely affect all aspects of life and thus can alter a woman’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on the quality of life (QOL) of patients diagnosed with breast cancer.

METHODS: This was a prospective study of breast cancer patients admitted into the Oncology Unit of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. The sample consisted of 60 patients with stage III and IV breast cancer allocated to either an intervention group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 30) using a simple random table. QOL was evaluated from the first cycle of chemotherapy to the sixth cycle, and data were collected using a validated Bahasa Malaysia version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Breast Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its breast-specific module (QLQ-BR 23).

RESULTS: The mean age of breast cancer patients was 50.2 (SD = 13.5) years. There were significant mean score differences for functioning and global QOL between groups (α < 0.01). The intervention group also had better scores for symptoms including fatigue, dyspnea, sleep difficulties, and loss of appetite compared to the control group. Although there are deteriorations for sexual enjoyment, the intervention group exhibited improvement in breast functioning and symptom scores for body image, sexual function, future perspective, breast symptoms, and systemic therapy side effects.

CONCLUSION: VCO consumption during chemotherapy helped improve the functional status and global QOL of breast cancer patients. In addition, it reduced the symptoms related to side effects of chemotherapy.

Article Published Date: Dec 31, 2013

Study Type: Human Study

16. Virgin coconut oil inhalation can alleviate inflammatory conditions of the airways following inhalation

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Abstract Title:

Does Inhalation of Virgin Coconut Oil Accelerate Reversal of Airway Remodelling in an Allergic Model of Asthma?

Abstract Source:

Int J Inflam. 2017 ;2017:8741851. Epub 2017 Jun 4. PMID: 28660089

Abstract Author(s):

N A Kamalaldin, S A Sulaiman, M R Yusop, B Yahaya

Article Affiliation:

N A Kamalaldin

Abstract:

Many studies have been done to evaluate the effect of various natural products in controlling asthma symptoms. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is known to contain active compounds that have beneficial effects on human health and diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of VCO inhalation on airway remodelling in a rabbit model of allergic asthma. The effects of VCO inhalation on infiltration of airway inflammatory cells, airway structures, goblet cell hyperplasia, and cell proliferation following ovalbumin induction were evaluated. Allergic asthma was induced by a combination of ovalbumin and alum injection and/or followed by ovalbumin inhalation. The effect of VCO inhalation was then evaluated via the rescue or the preventive route. Percentage of inflammatory cells infiltration, thickness of epithelium and mucosa regions, and the numbers of goblet and proliferative cells were reduced in the rescue group but not in preventive group. Analysis using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry found that lauric acid and capric acid were among the most abundant fatty acids present in the sample. Significant improvement was observed in rescue route in alleviating the asthma symptoms, which indicates the VCO was able to relieve asthma-related symptoms more than preventing the onset of asthma.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

Study Type : Human Study

17. Virgin coconut oil is safe and effective in reducing visceral adiposity in obese, though healthy, men

Abstract Title:

An open-label pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of virgin coconut oil in reducing visceral adiposity.

Abstract Source:

ISRN Pharmacol. 2011 ;2011:949686. Epub 2011 Mar 15. PMID: 22164340

Abstract Author(s):

Kai Ming Liau, Yeong Yeh Lee, Chee Keong Chen, Aida Hanum G Rasool

Article Affiliation:

Healthy Lifestyle Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang 11800, Malaysia.

Abstract:

Introduction. This is an open-label pilot study on four weeks of virgin coconut oil (VCO) to investigate its efficacy in weight reduction and its safety of use in 20 obese but healthy Malay volunteers. Methodology. Efficacy was assessed by measuring weight and associated anthropometric parameters and lipid profile one week before and one week after VCO intake. Safety was assessed by comparing organ function tests one week before and one week after intake of VCO. Paired t-test was used to analyse any differences in all the measurable variables. Results. Only waist circumference (WC) was significantly reduced with a mean reduction of 2.86 cm or 0.97% from initial measurement (P = .02). WC reduction was only seen in males (P<.05). There was no change in the lipid profile. There was a small reduction in creatinine and alanine transferase levels. Conclusion. VCO is efficacious for WC reduction especially in males and it is safe for use in humans.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2011

Study Type : Human Study

18. Coconut oil exhibits beneficial properties for cardiovascular health

Abstract Title:

Effect of combination therapy of Fatty acids, calcium, vitamin d and boron with regular physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in rat.

Abstract Source:

J Oleo Sci. 2012 ;61(2):103-11. PMID: 22277894

Abstract Author(s):

M R Naghii, P Darvishi, Y Ebrahimpour, G Ghanizadeh, M Mofid, M Hedayati, A R Asgari

Article Affiliation:

Sport Physiology Research Center, and Health School , Baqiyatallah (a.s.) University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN.

Abstract:

The effect of consumption of fatty acids and selected nutrients, along with regular physical activity, on cardiovascular risk factors in rats was investigated.Male rats were divided into the seven groups: Group 1: regular food and drinking water, Group 2: same as Group. 1 + physical activity (whole body vibration; WBV), Group 3: same as Group. 2 + calcium, vitamin D, boron, Group 4: same as Group. 3 + canola oil, Group 5: same as Group. 3 + sunflower oil, Group 6: same as Group. 3 + mix of sunflower oil and canola oil, Group 7: same as Group. 3 + coconut oil. Rats were treated for 8 weeks, and analysis of the frozen plasmas was performed. A- Analysis between the treatment groups and control revealed that vibration training in Group 2 increased body weight (P = 0.04), plasma creatin kinase (CK), (P = 0.02), and estradiol (E2), (P = 0.03). Rats in Group 5 consumed less food and plasma levels of cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased significantly (P = 0.02) in Group 6 and in Group 7 (p<0.05). B- Analysis of data among Group 4 – 7 (the oil consuming groups) and Group 3 revealed significant differences in cholesterol (Chol), LDL-C, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), C- reactive protein (hs-CRP), estradiol (E2), atherogenic index (AI), and risk factor (RF), (p<0.05). In addition, plasma levels of testosterone (T) and free testosterone (FT) in Group 7 had a remarkable but non-significant increase. As a result of vibration training, a similar trend was observed for vitamin D in Group 2-7. The findings show that WBV is effective in improving health status by influencing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Moreover, canola oil and sunflower oil, separately, showed beneficial impacts on CVD risk factors; whereas their combination had negative impacts on lipid profile. Coconut oil revealed to be efficient to provide health benefits in terms of CVD treatments.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2012

Study Type : Animal Study

19. Coconut oil has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities

Abstract Title:

Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

Abstract Source:

Pharm Biol. 2010 Feb;48(2):151-7. PMID: 20645831

Abstract Author(s):

S Intahphuak, P Khonsung, A Panthong

Article Affiliation:

McCormick Faculty of Nursing, Payap University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. sophaphan_in@yahoo.com

Abstract:

This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2010

Study Type : Animal Study

20. Coconut oil is an effective burn wound healing agent

Abstract Title:

Burn wound healing property of Cocos nucifera: An appraisal.

Abstract Source:

Indian J Pharmacol. 2008 Aug;40(4):144-6. PMID: 20040946

Abstract Author(s):

Pallavi Srivastava, S Durgaprasad

Article Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacology, KMC International Centre, Manipal, India.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVES: The study was undertaken to evaluate the burn wound healing property of oil of Cocos nucifera and to compare the effect of the combination of oil of Cocos nucifera and silver sulphadiazine with silver sulphadiazine alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Partial thickness burn wounds were inflicted upon four groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control, Group II received the standard silver sulphadiazine. Group III was given pure oil of Cocos nucifera , and Group IV received the combination of the oil and the standard. The parameters observed were epithelialization period and percentage of wound contraction. RESULTS: It was noted that there was significant improvement in burn wound contraction in the group treated with the combination of Cocos nucifera and silver sulphadiazine. The period of epithelialization also decreased significantly in groups III and IV. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that oil of Cocos nucifera is an effective burn wound healing agent.

Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2008

Study Type : Animal Study

21. Safety study: coconut oil is safe as a cosmetic ingredient

Abstract Title:

Final report on the safety assessment of Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil and related ingredients.

Abstract Source:

Int J Toxicol. 2011 May ;30(3 Suppl):5S-16S. PMID: 21772024

Abstract Author(s):

Christina L Burnett, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Curtis D Klaassen, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen

Article Affiliation:

Cosmetic Ingredient Review, 1101 17th Street, NW, Suite 412, Washington, DC 20036, USA.

Abstract:

Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil, oil from the dried coconut fruit, is composed of 90% saturated triglycerides. It may function as a fragrance ingredient, hair conditioning agent, or skin-conditioning agent and is reported in 626 cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0001% to 70%. The related ingredients covered in this assessment are fatty acids, and their hydrogenated forms, corresponding fatty alcohols, simple esters, and inorganic and sulfated salts of coconut oil. The salts and esters are expected to have similar toxicological profiles as the oil, its hydrogenated forms, and its constituent fatty acids. Coconut oil and related ingredients are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

Article Published Date : Apr 30, 2011

Study Type : Review

22. Phenolic compounds and hormones (cytokinins) found in coconut may assist in preventing the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide, potentially inhibiting a key step in the pathogenesis of AD

Abstract Title:

The role of dietary coconut for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: potential mechanisms of action.

Abstract Source:

Br J Nutr. 2015 May 22:1-14. Epub 2015 May 22. PMID: 25997382

Abstract Author(s):

W M A D B Fernando, Ian J Martins, K G Goozee, Charles S Brennan, V Jayasena, R N Martins

Article Affiliation:

W M A D B Fernando

Abstract:

Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated to provide a large number of products, although it is mainly grown for its nutritional and medicinal values. Coconut oil, derived from the coconut fruit, has been recognised historically as containing high levels of saturated fat; however, closer scrutiny suggests that coconut should be regarded more favourably. Unlike most other dietary fats that are high in long-chain fatty acids, coconut oil comprises medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). MCFA are unique in that they are easily absorbed and metabolised by the liver, and can be converted to ketones. Ketone bodies are an important alternative energy source in the brain, and may be beneficial to people developing or already with memory impairment, as in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Coconut is classified as a highly nutritious ‘functional food’. It is rich in dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals; however, notably, evidence is mounting to support the concept that coconut may be beneficial in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidaemia, elevated LDL, insulin resistance and hypertension – these are the risk factors for CVD and type 2 diabetes, and also for AD. In addition, phenolic compounds and hormones (cytokinins) found in coconut may assist in preventing the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide, potentially inhibiting a key step in the pathogenesis of AD. The purpose of the present review was to explore the literature related to coconut, outlining the known mechanistic physiology, and to discuss the potential role of coconut supplementation as a therapeutic option in the prevention and management of AD.

Article Published Date : May 21, 2015

Study Type : Review

23. Coconut oil protects cortical neurons from amyloid beta toxicity by enhancing signaling of cell survival pathways

Abstract Title:

Coconut oil protects cortical neurons from amyloid beta toxicity by enhancing signaling of cell survival pathways.

Abstract Source:

Neurochem Int. 2017 Jan 23. Epub 2017 Jan 23. PMID: 28126466

Abstract Author(s):

F Nafar, J P Clarke, K M Mearow

Article Affiliation:

F Nafar

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has links with other conditions that can often be modified by dietary and life-style interventions. In particular, coconut oil has received attention as having potentially having benefits in lessening the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer’s disease. In a recent report, we showed that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ was rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Here we investigated treatment with Aβ for 1, 6 or 24 h followed by addition of coconut oil for a further 24 h, or treatment with coconut oil for 24 h followed by Aβ exposure for various periods. Neuronal survival and several cellular parameters (cleaved caspase 3, synaptophysin labeling and ROS) were assessed. In addition, the influence of these treatments on relevant signaling pathways was investigated with Western blotting. In terms of the treatment timing, our data indicated that coconut oil rescues cells pre-exposed to Aβ for1 or 6 h, but is less effective when the pre-exposure has been 24 h. However, pretreatment with coconut oil prior to Aβ exposure showed the best outcomes. Treatment with octanoic or lauric acid also provided protection against Aβ, but was not as effective as the complete oil. The coconut oil treatment reduced the number of cells with cleaved caspase and ROS labeling, as well as rescuing the loss of synaptophysin labeling observed with Aβ treatment. Treatment with coconut oil, as well as octanoic, decanoic and lauric acids, resulted in a modest increase in ketone bodies compared to controls. The biochemical data suggest that Akt and ERK activation may contribute to the survival promoting influence of coconut oil. This was supported by observations that a PI3-Kinase inhibitor blocked the rescue effect of CoOil on Aβ amyloid toxicity. Further studies into the mechanisms of action of coconut oil and its constituent medium chain fatty acids are warranted.

Article Published Date : Jan 22, 2017

Study Type : In Vitro Study

24. In Silico and wet lab studies reveal the cholesterol lowering efficacy of lauric acid

Abstract Title:

In Silico and Wet Lab Studies Reveal the Cholesterol Lowering Efficacy of Lauric Acid, a Medium Chain Fat of Coconut Oil.

Abstract Source:

Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2016 Sep 27. Epub 2016 Aug 27. PMID: 27679437

Abstract Author(s):

Devi Lekshmi Sheela, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla Nazeem, Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Jeksy Jos Manalil, Achuthan C Raghavamenon

Article Affiliation:

Devi Lekshmi Sheela

Abstract:

The coconut oil (CO) contains 91 % of saturated fatty acids in which 72 % are medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) like lauric, capric and caprylic acids. In contrast to animal fat, coconut oil has no cholesterol. Despite this fact, CO is sidelined among other vegetable oils due to the health hazards attributed to the saturated fatty acids. Though various medicinal effects of CO have been reported including the hypolipidemic activity, people are still confused in the consumption of this natural oil. In silico analyses and wet lab experiments have been carried out to identify the hypolipidemic properties of MCFAs and phenolic acids in CO by using different protein targets involved in cholesterol synthesis. The molecular docking studies were carried out using CDOCKER protocol in Accelery’s Discovery Studio, by taking different proteins like HMG- CoA reductase and cholesterol esterase as targets and the different phytocompounds in coconut as ligands. Molecular docking highlighted the potential of lauric acid in inhibiting the protein targets involved in hyperlipidemics. Further, validation of in silico results was carried out through in vivo studies. The activity of key enzymes HMG- CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase were found reduced in animals fed with lauric acid and CO.

Article Published Date : Sep 26, 2016

Study Type : In Vitro Study

25. Coconut oil intake may improve brain health by directly activating ketogenesis in astrocytes

Article Publish Status: FREE

Click here to read the complete article.

Abstract Title:

Lauric Acid Stimulates Ketone Body Production in the KT-5 Astrocyte Cell Line.

Abstract Source:

J Oleo Sci. 2016 Aug 1 ;65(8):693-9. Epub 2016 Aug 15. PMID: 27430387

Abstract Author(s):

Yudai Nonaka, Tetsuo Takagi, Makoto Inai, Shuhei Nishimura, Shogo Urashima, Kazumitsu Honda, Toshiaki Aoyama, Shin Terada

Article Affiliation:

Yudai Nonaka

Abstract:

Coconut oil has recently attracted considerable attention as a potential Alzheimer’s disease therapy because it contains large amounts of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and its consumption is thought to stimulate hepatic ketogenesis, supplying an alternative energy source for brains with impaired glucose metabolism. In this study, we first reevaluated the responses of plasma ketone bodies to oral administration of coconut oil to rats. We found that the coconut oil-induced increase in plasma ketone body concentration was negligible and did not significantly differ from that observed after high-oleic sunflower oil administration. In contrast, the administration of coconut oil substantially increased the plasma free fatty acid concentration and lauric acid content, which is the major MCFA in coconut oil. Next, to elucidate whether lauric acid can activate ketogenesis in astrocytes with the capacity to generate ketone bodies from fatty acids, we treated the KT-5 astrocyte cell line with 50 and 100μM lauric acid for 4 h. The lauric acid treatments increased the total ketone body concentration in the cell culture supernatant to a greater extent than oleic acid, suggesting that lauric acid can directly and potently activate ketogenesis in KT-5 astrocytes. These results suggest that coconut oilintake may improve brain health by directly activating ketogenesis in astrocytes and thereby by providing fuel to neighboring neurons.

Article Published Date : Jul 31, 2016

Study Type : In Vitro Study

26. Coconut oil has antimicrobial activity on Candida species

Abstract Title:

In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria.

Abstract Source:

J Med Food. 2007 Jun;10(2):384-7. PMID: 17651080

Abstract Author(s):

D O Ogbolu, A A Oni, O A Daini, A P Oloko

Article Affiliation:

Department of Medical Microbiology&Parasitology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Abstract:

The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with the availability of fewer antifungal agents with fungicidal actions, prompted this present study to characterize Candida species in our environment and determine the effectiveness of virgin coconut oil as an antifungal agent on these species. In 2004, 52 recent isolates of Candida species were obtained from clinical specimens sent to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Their susceptibilities to virgin coconut oil and fluconazole were studied by using the agar-well diffusion technique. Candida albicans was the most common isolate from clinical specimens (17); others were Candida glabrata (nine), Candida tropicalis (seven), Candida parapsilosis (seven), Candida stellatoidea (six), and Candida krusei (six). C. albicans had the highest susceptibility to coconut oil (100%), with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 25% (1:4 dilution), while fluconazole had 100% susceptibility at an MIC of 64 microg/mL (1:2 dilution). C. krusei showed the highest resistance to coconut oil with an MIC of 100% (undiluted), while fluconazole had an MIC of>128 microg/mL. It is noteworthy that coconut oil was active against species of Candida at 100% concentration compared to fluconazole. Coconut oil should be used in the treatment of fungal infections in view of emerging drug-resistant Candida species.

Article Published Date : Jun 01, 2007

Study Type : In Vitro Study

27. Coconut oil is traditionally used in Indonesian folk medicine for wound management

Abstract Title:

[Wound management with coconut oil in Indonesian folk medicine].

Abstract Source:

Chirurg. 2002 Apr;73(4):387-92. PMID: 12063927

Abstract Author(s):

M Sachs, J von Eichel, F Asskali

Article Affiliation:

Klinik für Allgemein- und Gefässchirurgie, Klinikum der Johann-Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt am Main.

Abstract:

The medical plants which are used to treat wounds and injuries by the ethnic group of Ngada on Flores, an Eastern Indonesian island, will be presented. Additionally, the coconut oil used to treat wounds and to conserve medicinal plants will be analysed biochemically. The people of Ngada use the following plants for wound treatment: seeds of the betel nut (Areca catechu L.), fruits of papaya (Carica papaya L.), leaves of the Indian Hydrocotyle (Centelle asiatica L.), the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma domestica Val. and Curcumara xanthorrhiza Roxb.), leaves of betel (Piper betel L.). Coconut oil is particularly useful because of its biochemical structure: unlike olive oil and animal fatty tissue, it consists of short-chained and saturated fatty acids. These qualities in coconut oil prevent it from becoming oxidized and rancid, thus making it suitable for the preservation of medicinal plants and for wound treatment.

Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2002

Study Type : Commentary

28. Coconut oil attenuates the effects of amyloid-β on cortical neurons in vitro

Coconut oil attenuates the effects of amyloid-β on cortical neurons in vitro.

Abstract Source:

J Alzheimers Dis. 2014 ;39(2):233-7. PMID: 24150106

Abstract Author(s):

Firoozeh Nafar, Karen M Mearow

Article Affiliation:

Firoozeh Nafar

Abstract:

Dietary supplementation has been studied as an approach to ameliorating deficits associated with aging and neurodegeneration. We undertook this pilot study to investigate the effects of coconut oil supplementation directly on cortical neurons treated with amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in vitro. Our results indicate that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ is rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Coconut oil co-treatment also attenuates Aβ-induced mitochondrial alterations. The results of this pilot study provide a basis for further investigation of the effects of coconut oil, or its constituents, on neuronal survival focusing on mechanisms that may be involved.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2013

Study Type : In Vitro Study

29. Coconut Oil Attenuates the Effects of Amyloid-β on Cortical Neurons In Vitro

Abstract Title:

Coconut Oil Attenuates the Effects of Amyloid-β on Cortical Neurons In Vitro.

Abstract Source:

Abstract Author(s):

Firoozeh Nafar, Karen M Mearow

Article Affiliation:

Division of BioMedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada.

Abstract:

Dietary supplementation has been studied as an approach to ameliorating deficits associated with aging and neurodegeneration. We undertook this pilot study to investigate the effects of coconut oil supplementation directly on cortical neurons treated with amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in vitro. Our results indicate that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ is rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Coconut oil co-treatment also attenuates Aβ-induced mitochondrial alterations. The results of this pilot study provide a basis for further investigation of the effects of coconut oil, or its constituents, on neuronal survival focusing on mechanisms that may be involved.

Article Published Date : Oct 21, 2013

Study Type : In Vitro Study

30. Wet process coconut oil extraction is superior to dry extraction in improving lipid metabolic and antioxidant status in cholesterol coadministered rats

Abstract Title:

Wet and dry extraction of coconut oil: impact on lipid metabolic and antioxidant status in cholesterol coadministered rats.

Abstract Source:

Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Aug;87(8):610-6. PMID: 19767885

Abstract Author(s):

K Govindan Nevin, Thankappan Rajamohan

Article Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 581, India.

Abstract:

Because coconut oil extracted by wet process (virgin coconut oil, VCO) is gaining popularity among consumers, this study was conducted to evaluate VCO compared with coconut oil extracted by dry process (copra oil, CO) for their influence on lipid parameters, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant status in rats coadministered with cholesterol. VCO, CO, and cholesterol were fed in a semi-synthetic diet to 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats for 45 days. After the experimental period, lipid and lipid peroxide levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were observed. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the polyphenolic fraction from VCO and CO were also analyzed. The results showed that lipid and lipid peroxide levels were lower in VCO-fed animals than in animals fed either CO or cholesterol alone. Antioxidant enzyme activities in VCO-fed animals were comparable with those in control animals. Although the fatty acid profiles of both oils were similar, a significantly higher level of unsaponifiable components was observed in VCO. Polyphenols from VCO also showed significant radical-scavenging activity compared with those from CO. This study clearly indicates the potential benefits of VCO over CO in maintaining lipid metabolism and antioxidant status. These effects may be attributed in part to the presence of biologically active minor unsaponifiable components.

Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2009

Study Type : Animal Study

31. Virgin coconut oil supplementation ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced systemic toxicity in mice

Abstract Title:

Virgin coconut oil supplementation ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced systemic toxicity in mice.

Abstract Source:

Hum Exp Toxicol. 2015 Mar 24. Epub 2015 Mar 24. PMID: 25805601

Abstract Author(s):

S S Nair, J J Manalil, S K Ramavarma, I M Suseela, A Thekkepatt, A C Raghavamenon

Article Affiliation:

S S Nair

Abstract:

Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is an unrefined kernal oil, prepared from Cocos nucifera L., having substantial nutritional and medicinal value. Experimental studies have suggested its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and hypolipidemic effects. The present study assesses its effect on formalin-induced chronic inflammation and cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced systemic toxicity in murine models. Oral administration of VCO effectively reduced formalin-induced paw oedema in mice with more or less similar efficacy as that of diclofenac. The CTX-induced hike in blood urea, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and liver marker enzymes in mice was marginally decreased by VCO (8 g/kg body weight) ingestion orally. The liver and kidney catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, together with cellular glutathione and TBARS levels, were found to be improved in these animals. Overall the study reveals the protective efficacy of VCO against secondary toxicity induced by CTX possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Article Published Date : Mar 23, 2015

Study Type : Animal Study

32. Virgin coconut oil reduces total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, LDL, and VLDL cholesterol levels and increased HDL cholesterol in serum and tissues

Abstract Title:

Beneficial effects of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and in vitro LDL oxidation.

Abstract Source:

Clin Biochem. 2004 Sep;37(9):830-5. PMID: 15329324

Abstract Author(s):

K G Nevin, T Rajamohan

Article Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, India.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of consumption of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on various lipid parameters in comparison with copra oil (CO). In addition, the preventive effect of polyphenol fraction (PF) from test oils on copper induced oxidation of LDL and carbonyl formation was also studied.

DESIGN AND METHODS: After 45 days of oil feeding to Sprague-Dawley rats, several lipid parameters and lipoprotein levels were determined. PF was isolated from the oils and its effect on in vitro LDL oxidation was assessed.

RESULTS: VCO obtained by wet process has a beneficial effect in lowering lipid components compared to CO. It reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, LDL, and VLDL cholesterol levels and increased HDL cholesterol in serum and tissues. The PF of virgin coconut oil was also found to be capable of preventing in vitro LDL oxidation with reduced carbonyl formation.

CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of virgin coconut oil in lowering lipid levels in serum and tissues and LDL oxidation by physiological oxidants. This property of VCO may be attributed to the biologically active polyphenol components present in the oil.

Article Published Date : Sep 01, 2004

Study Type : Animal Study

33. Virgin coconut oil prevented lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant enzymes in the osteoporotic rat model

Abstract Title:

The Effects of Virgin Coconut Oil on Bone Oxidative Status in Ovariectomised Rat.

Abstract Source:

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012 ;2012:525079. Epub 2012 Aug 15. PMID: 22927879

Abstract Author(s):

Mouna Abdelrahman Abujazia, Norliza Muhammad, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman

Article Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Abstract:

Virgin coconut oil (VCO) was found to have antioxidant property due to its high polyphenol content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the virgin coconut oil on lipid peroxidation in the bone of an osteoporotic rat model. Normal female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 3 months old were randomly divided into 4 groups, with 8 rats in each group: baseline, sham, ovariectomised (OVX) control group, and OVX given 8% VCO in the diet for six weeks. The oxidative status of the bone was assessed by measuring the index of lipid peroxidation, which is malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as well as the endogenous antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the tibia at the end of the study. The results showed that there was a significant decrease in MDA levels in the OVX-VCO group compared to control group. Ovariectomised rats treated with VCO also had significantly higher GPX concentration. The SOD level seemed to be increased in the OVX-VCO group compared to OVX-control group. In conclusion, VCO prevented lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant enzymes in the osteoporotic rat model.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2011

Study Type : Animal Study

34. Virgin coconut oil may improve cardiovascular and liver complications in obesity

Abstract Title:

Coconut Products Improve Signs of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats.

Abstract Source:

Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27. PMID: 29079969

Abstract Author(s):

Sunil K Panchal, Sharyn Carnahan, Lindsay Brown

Article Affiliation:

Sunil K Panchal

Abstract:

Increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome warrants identification of potential therapeutic options for intervention. This study tested commercially available Virgin Coconut Oil and Coconut Nourish, as coconuts are rich sources of lauric and myristic acids. Male Wistar rats were fed either corn starch diet (C); high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H); high-carbohydrate, high-virgin coconut oil diet (HV); or high-carbohydrate, high-coconut Nourish diet (HN) for 16 weeks. Metabolic, liver, and cardiovascular health parameters were measured during and at the end of the study. Virgin coconut oil lowered body weight (C 386±8g, H 516±13g, HV 459±10g), blood glucose concentrations (C 4.2±0.1 mmol/L, H 5.4±0.2 mmol/L, HV 4.6±0.2 mmol/L), systolic blood pressure (C 127±5mmHg, H 149±4mmHg, HV 133±3mmHg,) and diastolic stiffness (C 25.0±1.7, H 31.4±1.2, HV 25.2±2.3,) with improved structure and function of the heart and liver. Coconut Nourish increased total body lean mass (C 255±10g, H 270±16g, HN 303±15g) and lowered plasma total cholesterolconcentrations (C 1.6±0.2 mmol/L, H 1.7±0.1 mmol/L, HN 1.0±0.0 mmol/L), systolic blood pressure (C 127±5mmHg, H 149±4mmHg, HN 130±3mmHg) and diastolic stiffness (C 25.0±1.7, H 31.4±1.2, HN 26.5±1.0), improved structure and function of the heart and liver but increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides (C 0.3±0.1 mmol/L, H 1.1±0.4 mmol/L, HN 1.8±0.2 mmol/L) and non-esterified fatty acids (C 1.2±0.3 mmol/L, H 3.3±0.8 mmol/L, HN 5.6±0.4 mmol/L). Thus, the fiber and protein in coconut Nourish and the medium-chain saturated fatty acids in virgin coconut oil may improvecardiovascular and liver complications in obesity.

Article Published Date : Oct 26, 2017

Study Type : Animal Study

35. Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats–compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil

Abstract Title:

Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats–compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil.

Abstract Source:

Indian J Exp Biol. 2012 Nov ;50(11):802-9. PMID: 23305031

Abstract Author(s):

S Arunima, T Rajamohan

Article Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 581, India.

Abstract:

Effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on lipid levels and regulation of lipid metabolism compared with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and sunflower oil (SFO) has been reported. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with synthetic diet. Results showed that VCO feeding significantly lowered (P<0.05) levels of total cholesterol, LDL+ VLDL cholesterol, Apo B and triglycerides in serum and tissues compared to rats fed CO, OO and SFO, while HDL-cholesterol and Apo A1 were significantly (P<0.05) higher in serum of rats fed VCO than other groups. Hepatic lipogenesis was also down regulated in VCO fed rats, which was evident from the decreased activities of enzymes viz., HMG CoA reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. In addition, VCO significantly (P<0.05) increased the activities of lipoprotein lipase, lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase and enhanced formation of bile acids. Results demonstrated hypolipidemic effect of VCO by regulating the synthesis and degradation of lipids.

Article Published Date : Oct 31, 2012

Study Type : Animal Study

36. Virgin coconut oil has a potential to reduce the development of hypertension and renal injury induced by dietary heated oil.

Abstract Title:

Renoprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats.

Abstract Source:

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Oct ;41(10):1033-1038. Epub 2016 Aug 2. PMID: 27618413

Abstract Author(s):

Yusof Kamisah, Shu-Min Ang, Faizah Othman, Badlishah Sham Nurul-Iman, Hj Mohd Saad Qodriyah

Article Affiliation:

Yusof Kamisah

Abstract:

Virgin coconut oil, rich in antioxidants, was shown to attenuate hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of virgin coconut oil on blood pressure and related parameters in kidneys in rats fed with 5-times-heated palm oil (5HPO). Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Two groups were fed 5HPO (15%) diet and the second group was also given virgin coconut oil (1.42 mL/kg, oral) daily for 16 weeks. The other 2 groups were given basal diet without (control) and with virgin coconut oil. Systolic blood pressure was measured pre- and post-treatment. After 16 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested. Dietary 5HPO increased blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and nitric oxide contents, but decreased heme oxygenase activity. Virgin coconut oil prevented increase in 5HPO-induced blood pressure and renal nitric oxide content as well as the decrease in renal heme oxygenase activity. The virgin coconut oil also reduced the elevation of renal TBARS induced by the heated oil. However, neither dietary 5HPO nor virgin coconut oil affected renal histomorphometry. In conclusion, virgin coconut oil has a potential to reduce the development of hypertension and renal injury induced by dietary heated oil, possibly via its antioxidant protective effects on the kidneys.

Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2016

Study Type : Animal Study

37. Virgin coconut oil extract has potential of ameliorating the deleterious effects on testicles caused by highly active antiretroviral therapy

Article Publish Status: FREE

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Abstract Title:

Coconut Oil Extract Mitigates Testicular Injury Following Adjuvant Treatment with Antiretroviral Drugs.

Abstract Source:

Toxicol Res. 2016 Oct ;32(4):317-325. Epub 2016 Oct 30. PMID: 27818734

Abstract Author(s):

Oluwatosin O Ogedengbe, Ayoola I Jegede, Ismail O Onanuga, Ugochukwu Offor, Edwin Cs Naidu, Aniekan I Peter, Onyemaechi O Azu

Article Affiliation:

Oluwatosin O Ogedengbe

Abstract:

Increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has made the management of drug toxicities an increasingly crucial component of HIV. This study investigated the effects of adjuvant use of coconut oil and HAART on testicular morphology and seminal parameters in Sprague- Dawley rats. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153~169 g were distributed into four groups (A-D) and treated as follows: A served as control (distilled water); B (HAART cocktail- Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine); C (HAART + Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg). After 56 days of treatment, animals were killed and laparotomy to exercise the epididymis for seminal fluid analyses done whilst testicular tissues were processed for histomorphometric studies. Result showed a significant decline in sperm motility (P<0.05) and count (P<0.0001) in HAART-treated animals while there was insignificant changes in other parameters in groups C and D except count that was reduced (P<0.0001) when compared with controls. Histomorphological studies showed HAART caused disorders in seminiferous tubular architecture with significant (P<0.01) decline in epithelial height closely mirrored by extensive reticulin framework and positive PAS cells. Adjuvant Virgin coconut oil + HAART resulted in significant decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter (P<0.05), but other morphometric and histological parameters were similar to control or Virgin coconut oil alone (which showed normal histoarchitecture levels). While derangements in testicular and seminal fluid parameters occurred following HAART, adjuvant treatment with Virgin coconut oil restored the distortions emanating thereof.

Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2016

Study Type : Animal Study

38. Virgin coconut oil could be an efficient nutraceutical in preventing the development of diet induced insulin resistance and associated complications

Abstract Title:

Virgin coconut oil maintains redox status and improves glycemic conditions in high fructose fed rats.

Abstract Source:

J Food Sci Technol. 2016 Jan ;53(1):895-901. Epub 2015 Sep 22. PMID: 26788013

Abstract Author(s):

Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Reshma K Mukesh, Shabna K Ayoob, Smitha K Ramavarma, Indu M Suseela, Jeksy J Manalil, Balu T Kuzhivelil, Achuthan C Raghavamenon

Article Affiliation:

Arunaksharan Narayanankutty

Abstract:

Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO), extracted from fresh coconut kernel possess similar fatty acid composition to that of Copra Oil (CO), a product of dried kernel. Although CO forms the predominant dietary constituent in south India, VCO is being promoted for healthy life due to its constituent antioxidant molecules. High fructose containing CO is an established model for insulin resistance and steatohepatitis in rodents. In this study, replacement of CO with VCO in high fructose diet markedly improved the glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia. The animals fed VCO diet had only 17 % increase in blood glucose level compared to CO fed animals (46 %). Increased level of GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities in VCO fed rats indicate improved hepatic redox status. Reduced lipid peroxidation and carbonyl adducts in VCO fed rats well corroborate with the histopathological findings that hepatic damage and steatosis were comparatively reduced than the CO fed animals. These results suggest that VCO could be an efficient nutraceutical in preventing the development of diet induced insulin resistance and associated complications possibly through its antioxidant efficacy.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

Study Type : Animal Study

39. VCO-treated wounds in rats healed much faster due to higher collagen and antioxidant enzyme activities

Abstract Title:

Effect of topical application of virgin coconut oil on skin components and antioxidant status during dermal wound healing in young rats.

Abstract Source:

Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2010 ;23(6):290-7. Epub 2010 Jun 3. PMID: 20523108

Abstract Author(s):

K G Nevin, T Rajamohan

Article Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, India.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a topical application of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on excision wounds in young rats.

METHODS: Three sets of experiments with 3 groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats each consisting of 6 animals were used for studying wound closure time, antioxidant status and biochemical parameters. Group 1 was the control; groups 2 and 3 were treated with 0.5 and 1.0 ml VCO, respectively, 24 h after wound creation for 10 days. After the experimental period, the healing property of VCO was evaluated by monitoring the time taken for complete epithelization as well as levels of various parameters of the wound’s granulation tissue. The collagen solubility pattern, glycohydrolase activity, and histopathology of the granulation tissue were also analyzed. The antioxidant status during wound healing was monitored continuously for 14 days.

RESULTS: VCO-treated wounds healed much faster, as indicated by a decreased time of complete epithelization and higher levels of various skin components. Pepsin-soluble collagen showed a significant increase in VCO- treated wounds, indicating a higher collagen cross-linking. Glycohydrolase activities were also found to be increased due to a higher turnover of collagen. Antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde levels were found to be increased on the 10th day after wounding, which were found to have returned to normal levels on day 14 in the treated wounds. The lipid peroxide levels were found to be lower in the treated wounds. A histopathological study showed an increase in fibroblast proliferation and neovascularization in VCO-treated wounds compared to controls.

CONCLUSION: The beneficial effect of VCO can be attributed to the cumulative effect of various biologically active minor components present in it.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010

Study Type : Animal Study

40. Roselle seed oil reduces hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia

Abstract Title:

Hypolipidemic and Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Seeds Oil in Experimental Male Rats.

Abstract Source:

J Oleo Sci. 2017 ;66(1):41-49. PMID: 28049927

Abstract Author(s):

Rehab F M Ali, Ayman M El-Anany

Article Affiliation:

Rehab F M Ali

Abstract:

The current investigation aimed to evaluate the influence of roselle seeds oil (RSO), coconut oil (CNO) and binary mixture of them on serum lipids of experimental rats. Fatty acid composition of native and blended oils was determined. Thirty five male Albino rats (145- 160 g) were used throughout this study. The rats were fed AIN-93G diet containing 10% fat from CNO, RSO, B1 (25%RSO+ 75 %CNO), B2 (50 %RSO+ 50 %CNO or B3 (75 %RSO+ 25 % CNO) for eight weeks. Blood samples were collected at the beginning, every two weeks during the experiment, and at the end of the experiment. At the time of sacrifice, organs weights in relation to their body weights were immediately recorded. Substitution of 25, 50 and 75 % of CNO with equal amounts of RSO reduced saturated fatty acids by 16.04, 32.58 and 48.77 %, respectively in blended oils. The content of linoleic (C18:2) increased from not detected level in CNO to 9.81, 19.67 and 29.48 % in CNO blended with 25, 50 and 75 % of RSO, respectively. The relative liver weights of rats fed CNO was significantly higher than that of those fed RSO and blended oils. Mixing CNO with various levels of RSO attenuates the adverse effect in the relative liver weights which caused by CNO administration. At the end of the experiment, blinding coconut oil with 25, 50 and 75 % of roselle oil inhibited the elevation in total cholesterol by 9.69, 28.16 and 36.16 %, respectively compared to CNO rats. Rats fed diet containing CNO for 8 weeks had significantly the highest content (126.49 mg/dl) of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while those fed 100 % RSO (as a source of lipids) had the lowest concentration of LDL-C (64.32 mg/dL). Atherogenic index (AI) values of rats submitted B1, B2 and B3 were about 1.12, 1.23 and 1.28 times as low as those of rats fed CNO diet, respectively. The results of this study indicate that roselle seeds oil (RSO) reduces hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia in rats fed diet rich in saturated fatty acids.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

Study Type : Animal Study

41. Polyphenols isolated from virgin coconut oil attenuate cadmium-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress

Article Publish Status: FREE

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Abstract Title:

Polyphenols isolated from virgin coconut oil attenuate cadmium-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress due to their antioxidant properties and potential benefits on cardiovascular risk ratios in rats.

Abstract Source:

Avicenna J Phytomed. 2018 Jan-Feb;8(1):73-84. PMID: 29387575

Abstract Author(s):

Ademola Clement Famurewa, Fidelis Ebele Ejezie

Article Affiliation:

Ademola Clement Famurewa

Abstract:

Objective: Literature has confirmed the pathogenic role of cadmium (Cd) and its exposure in the induction of dyslipidemia implicated in the development and increasing incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The current study explored whether polyphenolics isolated from virgin coconut oil (VCO) prevent Cd-induced dyslipidemia and investigate the underlying mechanism of action, in rats.

Materials and Methods: Rats were pretreated with VCO polyphenols (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg body weight; orally) 2 weeks prior to concurrent Cd administration (5 mg/kg) for 5 weeks. Subsequently, serum concentrations of lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular risk ratios were determined. Hepatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were analyzed.

Results: Sub-chronic Cd administration significantly increased the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol while markedly reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Hepatic activities of SOD and CAT as well as GSH content were suppressed by Cd, whereas MDA level was obviously increased. The co-administration of VCO polyphenol with Cd remarkably restored lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios and stabilized antioxidant defense systems comparable to control group.

Conclusion: This is the first study presenting that polyphenols isolated from VCO prevent Cd-induced lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk ratios by improving antioxidant defense systems.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2017

Study Type : Animal Study

42. Olive oil contains protective agents that block the expansion of brain core at the expense of penumbral neurons

Abstract Title:

Dietary fats significantly influence the survival of penumbral neurons in a rat model of chronic ischemic by modifying lipid mediators, inflammatory biomarkers, NOS production, and redox-dependent apoptotic signals.

Abstract Source:

Nutrition. 2015 Nov-Dec;31(11-12):1430-42. Epub 2015 Jul 2. PMID: 26429666

Abstract Author(s):

Natalia Lausada, Nathalie Arnal, Mariana Astiz, María Cristina Marín, Juan Manuel Lofeudo, Pablo Stringa, María J Tacconi de Alaniz, Nelva Tacconi de Gómez Dumm, Graciela Hurtado de Catalfo, Norma Cristalli de Piñero, María Cristina Pallanza de Stringa, Eva María Illara de Bozzolo, Enrique Gustavo Bozzarello, Diana Olga Cristalli, Carlos Alberto Marra

Article Affiliation:

Natalia Lausada

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Brain stroke is the third most important cause of death in developed countries. We studied the effect of different dietary lipids on the outcome of a permanent ischemic stroke rat model.

METHODS: Wistar rats were fed diets containing 7% commercial oils (S, soybean; O, olive; C, coconut; G, grape seed) for 35 d. Stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Coronal slices from ischemic brains and sham-operated animals were supravitally stained. Penumbra and core volumes were calculated by image digitalization after 24, 48, and 72 h poststroke. Homogenates and mitochondrial fractions were prepared from different zones and analyzed by redox status, inflammatory markers, ceramide, and arachidonate content, phospholipase A2, NOS, and proteases.

RESULTS: Soybean (S) and G diets were mainly prooxidative and proinflammatory by increasing the liberation of arachidonate and its transformation into prostaglandins. O was protective in terms of redox homeostatic balance, minor increases in lipid and protein damage, conservation of reduced glutathione, protective activation of NOS in penumbra, and net ratio of anti-to proinflammatory cytokines. Apoptosis (caspase-3, milli- and microcalpains) was less activated by O than by any other diet.

CONCLUSION: Dietary lipids modulate NOS and PLA2 activities, ceramide production, and glutathione import into the mitochondrial matrix, finally determining the activation of the two main protease systems involved in programmed cell death. Olive oil appears to be a biological source for the isolation of protective agents that block the expansion of brain core at the expense of penumbral neurons.

Article Published Date : Oct 31, 2015

Study Type : Animal Study

43. Dietary coconut oil increases conjugated linoleic acid-induced body fat loss in mice

Abstract Title:

Dietary coconut oil increases conjugated linoleic acid-induced body fat loss in mice independent of essential fatty acid deficiency.

Abstract Source:

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 Oct 15;1737(1):52-60. Epub 2005 Sep 13. PMID: 16216548

Abstract Author(s):

Kimberly M Hargrave, Michael J Azain, Jess L Miner

Abstract:

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induces a body fat loss that is enhanced in mice fed coconut oil (CO), which lacks essential fatty acids (EFA). Our objective was to determine if CO enhancement of CLA-induced body fat loss is due to the lack of EFA. The CLA-EFA interaction was tested by feeding CO and fat free (FF) diets for varying times with and without replenishment of individual EFA. Mice fed CO during only the 2-week CLA-feeding period did not differ from control mice in their adipose EFA content but still tended (P=0.06) to be leaner than mice fed soy oil (SO). Mice raised on CO or FF diets and fed CLA were leaner than the SO+CLA-fed mice (P<0.01). Mice raised on CO and then replenished with linoleic, linolenic, or arachidonic acid were leaner when fed CLA than mice raised on SO (P<0.001). Body fat of CO+CLA-fed mice was not affected by EFA addition. In summary, CO-fed mice not lacking in tissue EFA responded more to CLA than SO-fed mice. Also, EFA addition to CO diets did not alter the enhanced response to CLA. Therefore, the increased response to CLA in mice raised on CO or FF diets appears to be independent of a dietary EFA deficiency.

Article Published Date : Oct 15, 2005

Study Type : Animal Study

44. Coconut water and coconut milk have antiulcerogenic activity

Abstract Title:

Antiulcerogenic effects of coconut (Cocos nucifera) extract in rats.

Abstract Source:

Phytother Res. 2008 Jul;22(7):970-2. PMID: 18521965

Abstract Author(s):

R O Nneli, O A Woyike

Abstract:

A warm water crude extract of coconut milk and a coconut water dispersion were investigated for their antiulcerogenic effects in male Wistar albino rats. Ulcers were induced in the male rats by subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (40 mg/kg) using standard procedures. The ulcer inhibition rate (UIR) was taken as a measure of the cytoprotection offered by test substances. Coconut milk (2 mL daily oral feeding) produced a stronger percentage (54%) reduction in the mean ulcer area than coconut water (39%). The effect of coconut milk was similar to the effect of sucralfate that reduced the mean ulcer area by 56% in this study. Sucralfate is a conventional cytoprotective agent. The results showed that coconut milk and water via macroscopic observation had protective effects on the ulcerated gastric mucosa. It is concluded that coconut milk offered stronger protection on indomethacin-induced ulceration than coconut water in rats.

Article Published Date : Jul 01, 2008

Study Type : Animal Study

44. Coconut oil supplementation combined with exercise training for 30 days promotes beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system of spontaneous hypertensive rats

Article Publish Status: FREE

Click here to read the complete article.

Abstract Title:

Coconut oil supplementation and physical exercise improves baroreflex sensitivity and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats.

Abstract Source:

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Apr ;40(4):393-400. Epub 2015 Feb 9. PMID: 25659569

Abstract Author(s):

Naiane F B Alves, Suênia K P Porpino, Matheus M O Monteiro, Enéas R M Gomes, Valdir A Braga

Article Affiliation:

Naiane F B Alves

Abstract:

The hypothesis that oral supplementation with virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) and exercise training would improve impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and reduce oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was tested. Adult male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were divided into 5 groups: WKY + saline (n = 8); SHR + saline (n = 8); SHR + coconut oil (2 mL·day(-1), n = 8); SHR + trained (n = 8); and SHR + trained + coconut oil (n = 8). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded and BRS was tested using phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, intravenous) and sodium nitroprusside (25 μg·kg(-1), intravenous). Oxidative stress was measured using dihydroethidium in heart and aorta. SHR + saline, SHR + coconut oil, and SHR + trained group showed higher MAP compared with WKY + saline (175 ± 6, 148 ± 6, 147 ± 7 vs. 113 ± 2 mm Hg; p<0.05). SHR + coconut oil, SHR + trained group, and SHR + trained + coconut oil groups presented lower MAP compared with SHR + saline group (148± 6, 147 ± 7, 134 ± 8 vs. 175 ± 6 mm Hg; p<0.05). Coconut oil combined with exercise training improved BRS in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (-2.47± 0.3 vs. -1.39 ± 0.09 beats·min(-1)·mm Hg(-1); p<0.05). SHR + saline group showed higher superoxide levels when compared with WKY + saline (774± 31 vs. 634 ± 19 arbitrary units (AU), respectively; p<0.05). SHR + trained + coconut oil group presented reduced oxidative stress compared with SHR + saline in heart (622± 16 vs. 774 ± 31 AU, p<0.05). In aorta, coconut oil reduced oxidative stress in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (454± 33 vs. 689 ± 29 AU, p<0.05). Oral supplementation with coconut oil combined with exercise training improved impaired BRS and reduced oxidative stress in SHR.

Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2015

Study Type : Animal Study

45. Coconut oil reduces ruminal fermentation and methanol production in lactating dairy cows

Abstract Title:

Effects of lauric and myristic acids on ruminal fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

Abstract Source:

J Dairy Sci. 2011 Jan;94(1):382-95. PMID: 21183049

Abstract Author(s):

A N Hristov, C Lee, T Cassidy, M Long, K Heyler, B Corl, R Forster

Article Affiliation:

Department of Dairy and Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. anh13@psu.edu

Abstract:

The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of lauric (LA) and myristic (MA) acids on ruminal fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in lactating dairy cows and to identify the FA responsible for the methanogen-suppressing effect of coconut oil. The experiment was conducted as a replicated 3×3 Latin square. Six ruminally cannulated cows (95±26.4 DIM) were subjected to the following treatments: 240 g/cow per day each of stearic acid (SA, control), LA, or MA. Experimental periods were 28 d and cows were refaunated between periods. Lauric acid reduced protozoal counts in the rumen by 96%, as well as acetate, total VFA, and microbial N outflow from the rumen, compared with SA and MA. Ruminal methane production was not affected by treatment. Dry matter intake was reduced 35% by LA compared with SA and MA, which resulted in decreased milk yield. Milk fat content also was depressed byLA compared with SA and MA. Treatment had no effect on milk protein content. All treatments increased milk concentration of the respective treatment FA. Concentration of C12:0 was more than doubled by LA, and C14:0 was increased (45%) by MA compared with SA. Concentration of milk FAC16 FA and MUFA were increased, by LA compared with the other treatments. In this study, LA had profound effects on ruminal fermentation, mediated through inhibited microbial populations, and decreased DMI, milk yield, and milk fat content. Despite the significant decrease in protozoal counts, however, LA had no effect on ruminal methane production. Thus, the antimethanogenic effect of coconut oil, observed in related studies, is likely due to total FA application level, the additive effect of LA and MA, or a combination of both. Both LA and MA modified milk FA profile significantly.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2011

Study Type : Animal Study

46. Coconut oil reduces prostate weight to body ratio

Abstract Title:

Effects of coconut oil on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Abstract Source:

J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007 Jul;59(7):995-9. PMID: 17637195

Abstract Author(s):

María de Lourdes Arruzazabala, Vivian Molina, Rosa Más, Daisy Carbajal, David Marrero, Víctor González, Eduardo Rodríguez

Abstract:

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the benign uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland, leading to difficulty with urination. Saw palmetto lipid extracts (SPLE), used to treat BPH, have been shown to inhibit prostate 5a-reductase, and some major components, such as lauric, myristic and oleic acids also inhibit this enzyme. Coconut oil (CO) is also rich in fatty acids, mainly lauric and myristic acids. We investigated whether CO prevents testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia (PH) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were distributed into seven groups (10 rats each). A negative control group were injected with soya oil; six groups were injected with testosterone (3 mg kg(-1)) to induce PH: a positive control group, and five groups treated orally with SPLE (400 mg kg(-1)), CO or sunflower oil (SO) (400 and 800 mg kg(-1)). Treatments were given for 14 days. Rats were weighed before treatment and weekly thereafter. Rats were then killed and the prostates were removed and weighed. CO (400 and 800 mg kg(-1)), SPLE (400 mg kg(-1)) and SO at 800 mg kg(-1), but not at 400 mg kg(-1), significantly reduced the increase in prostate weight (PW) and PW:body weight (BW) ratio induced by testosterone (% inhibition 61.5%, 82.0%, 43.8% and 28.2%, respectively). Since CO and SPLE, but not SO, contain appreciable concentrations of lauric and myristic acids, these results could be attributed to this fact. In conclusion, this study shows that CO reduced the increase of both PW and PW:BW ratio, markers of testosterone-induced PH in rats.

Article Published Date : Jul 01, 2007

Study Type : Animal Study

47. Coconut oil is superior to safflower oil in enhancing the absorption of tomato carotenoid in an animal model

Abstract Title:

Coconut Oil Enhances Tomato Carotenoid Tissue Accumulation Compared to Safflower Oil in the Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

Abstract Source:

J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Aug 7. Epub 2012 Aug 7. PMID: 22866697

Abstract Author(s):

Lauren E Conlon, Ryan D King, Nancy E Moran, John W Erdman

Abstract:

Evidence suggests that monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats facilitate greater absorption of carotenoids than saturated fats. However, the comparison of consuming a polyunsaturated fat source versus a saturated fat source on tomato carotenoid bioaccumulation has not been examined. Our goal was to determine the influence of coconut oil and safflower oil on tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) fed a 20% fat diet. Coconut oil feeding increased carotenoid concentrations among many compartments including total carotenoids in the serum (p = 0.0003), adrenal glandular phytoene (p = 0.04), hepatic phytofluene (p = 0.0001), testicular all-trans lycopene (p = 0.01), and cis-lycopene (p = 0.006) in the prostate-seminal vesicle complex compared to safflower oil. Safflower oil-fed gerbils had greater splenic lycopene concentrations (p = 0.006) compared to coconut oil-fed gerbils. Coconut oil feeding increased serum cholesterol (p = 0.0001), and decreased hepatic cholesterol (p = 0.0003) compared to safflower oil. In summary, coconut oil, enhanced tissue uptake of tomato carotenoids to a greater degree than safflower oil. These results may have been due to the large proportion of medium chain fatty acids in coconut oil which might have caused a shift in cholesterol flux to favor extrahepatic carotenoid tissue deposition.

Article Published Date : Aug 06, 2012

Study Type : Animal Study

48. Coconut oil has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities

Abstract Title:

Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

Abstract Source:

Pharm Biol. 2010 Feb;48(2):151-7. PMID: 20645831

Abstract Author(s):

S Intahphuak, P Khonsung, A Panthong

Article Affiliation:

McCormick Faculty of Nursing, Payap University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. sophaphan_in@yahoo.com

Abstract:

This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2010

Study Type : Animal Study

49. Coconut oil exhibits beneficial properties for cardiovascular health

Abstract Title:

Effect of combination therapy of Fatty acids, calcium, vitamin d and boron with regular physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in rat.

Abstract Source:

J Oleo Sci. 2012 ;61(2):103-11. PMID: 22277894

Abstract Author(s):

M R Naghii, P Darvishi, Y Ebrahimpour, G Ghanizadeh, M Mofid, M Hedayati, A R Asgari

Article Affiliation:

Sport Physiology Research Center, and Health School , Baqiyatallah (a.s.) University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN.

Abstract:

The effect of consumption of fatty acids and selected nutrients, along with regular physical activity, on cardiovascular risk factors in rats was investigated.Male rats were divided into the seven groups: Group 1: regular food and drinking water, Group 2: same as Group. 1 + physical activity (whole body vibration; WBV), Group 3: same as Group. 2 + calcium, vitamin D, boron, Group 4: same as Group. 3 + canola oil, Group 5: same as Group. 3 + sunflower oil, Group 6: same as Group. 3 + mix of sunflower oil and canola oil, Group 7: same as Group. 3 + coconut oil. Rats were treated for 8 weeks, and analysis of the frozen plasmas was performed. A- Analysis between the treatment groups and control revealed that vibration training in Group 2 increased body weight (P = 0.04), plasma creatin kinase (CK), (P = 0.02), and estradiol (E2), (P = 0.03). Rats in Group 5 consumed less food and plasma levels of cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased significantly (P = 0.02) in Group 6 and in Group 7 (p<0.05). B- Analysis of data among Group 4 – 7 (the oil consuming groups) and Group 3 revealed significant differences in cholesterol (Chol), LDL-C, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), C- reactive protein (hs-CRP), estradiol (E2), atherogenic index (AI), and risk factor (RF), (p<0.05). In addition, plasma levels of testosterone (T) and free testosterone (FT) in Group 7 had a remarkable but non-significant increase. As a result of vibration training, a similar trend was observed for vitamin D in Group 2-7. The findings show that WBV is effective in improving health status by influencing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Moreover, canola oil and sunflower oil, separately, showed beneficial impacts on CVD risk factors; whereas their combination had negative impacts on lipid profile. Coconut oil revealed to be efficient to provide health benefits in terms of CVD treatments.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2012

Study Type : Animal Study

50. Coconut and olive oil consumption is associated with higher levels of testosterone and antioxidants in the testes of rats

Abstract Title:

Dietary lipids modify redox homeostasis and steroidogenic status in rat testis.

Abstract Source:

Phytother Res. 2010 Feb;24(2):163-8. PMID: 18549927

Abstract Author(s):

Graciela E Hurtado de Catalfo, María J T de Alaniz, Carlos A Marra

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: The present study explored the effect of dietary oils on lipid composition, antioxidant status, and the activity of the main steroidogenic enzymes in the testis. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n = 10) fed for 60 d on the same basal diet plus different lipid sources as commercial oils: soybean, olive, coconut, or grapeseed. After sacrifice, testicular lipids and fatty acid composition, free radical biomarkers, antioxidant levels, hormones, and steroidogenic enzymes were determined. RESULTS: The lipid composition of diets produced significant changes in neutral/phospholipids, free/esterified cholesterol, and plasmalogen proportion. Fatty acid patterns of these lipids were also strongly modified, influencing the double bond index. We also found a close correlation between the type of diet and the generation of free radicals. The oxidative stress in testes was higher with the grapeseed oil-supplemented diet and decreased with the other diets in this order: soybean oil > olive oil > coconut oil. Animals fed with the olive oil and coconut oil diets showed the highest testicular levels of antioxidants in addition to significantly high levels of testosterone and 3beta- or 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes. CONCLUSION: Different oils in the diets strongly modified the homeostasis of the testicular antioxidant defense system and, in consequence, affected steroidogenic function, showing a clear correlation with the damage induced. According to our results, an appropriate mixture of olive and soybean oils could be a healthy recommendation.

Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2010

Study Type : Animal Study

51. Ylang ylang oil and lemongrass oil are suitable to be used as green repellents for mosquito control, which are safe for humans, domestic animals and environmental friendly

Abstract Title:

Efficacy of Thai herbal essential oils as green repellent against mosquito vectors.

Abstract Source:

Acta Trop. 2015 Feb ;142:127-30. Epub 2014 Nov 28. PMID: 25438256

Abstract Author(s):

Mayura Soonwera, Siriporn Phasomkusolsil

Article Affiliation:

Mayura Soonwera

Abstract:

Repellency activity of Thai essential oils derived from ylang ylang (Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f.&Thomson: Annonaceae) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf: Poaceae) were tested against two mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). There were compared with two chemical repellents (DEET 20% w/w; Sketolene Shield(®) and IR3535, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate 12.5% w/w; Johnson’s Baby Clear Lotion Anti-Mosquito(®)). Each herbal repellent was applied in three diluents; coconut oil, soybean oil and olive oil at 0.33 μl/cm(2) on the forearm of volunteers. All herbal repellent exhibited higher repellent activity than IR3535 12.5% w/w, but lower repellent activity than DEET 20% w/w. The C. odorata oil in coconut oil exhibited excellent activity with 98.9% protection from bites of A. aegypti for 88.7±10.4 min. In addition, C. citratus in olive oil showed excellent activity with 98.8% protection from bites of C. quinquefasciatus for 170.0±9.0 min. While, DEET 20% w/w gave protection for 155.0±7.1-182.0±12.2 min and 98.5% protection from bites of two mosquito species. However, all herbal repellent provided lower repellency activity (97.4-98.9% protection for 10.5-88.7 min) against A. aegypti thanC. quinquefasciatus (98.3-99.2% protection for 60-170 min). Our data exhibited that C. odorata oil and C. citratus oil are suitable to be used as green repellents for mosquito control, which are safe for humans, domestic animals and environmental friendly.

Article Published Date : Jan 31, 2015

Study Type : Human Study

52. Oil pulling using coconut oil could be an effective adjuvant procedure in decreasing plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis

Article Publish Status: FREE

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Abstract Title:

Effect of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis – A preliminary report.

Abstract Source:

Niger Med J. 2015 Mar-Apr;56(2):143-7. PMID: 25838632

Abstract Author(s):

Faizal C Peedikayil, Prathima Sreenivasan, Arun Narayanan

Article Affiliation:

Faizal C Peedikayil

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Oil pulling or oil swishing therapy is a traditional procedure in which the practitioners rinse or swish oil in their mouth. It is supposed to cure oral and systemic diseases but the evidence is minimal. Oil pulling with sesame oil and sunflower oil was found to reduce plaque related gingivitis. Coconut oil is an easily available edible oil. It is unique because it contains predominantly medium chain fatty acids of which 45-50 percent is lauric acid. Lauric acid has proven anti inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. No studies have been done on the benefits of oil pulling using coconut oil to date. So a pilot study was planned to assess the effect of coconut oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coconut oil pulling/oil swishing on plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. A prospective interventional study was carried out. 60 age matched adolescent boys and girls in the age-group of 16-18 years with plaque induced gingivitis were included in the study and oil pulling was included in their oral hygiene routine. The study period was 30 days. Plaque and gingival indices of the subjects were assessed at baseline days 1,7,15 and 30. The data was analyzed using paired t test.

RESULTS: A statistically significant decrease in the plaque and gingival indices was noticed from day 7 and the scores continued to decrease during the period of study.

CONCLUSION: Oil pulling using coconut oil could be an effective adjuvant procedure in decreasing plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis.

Article Published Date : Feb 28, 2015

Study Type : Human Study

MORE RESEARCH ARTICLES TO COME!

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