The Incredible Health Benefits of Peppermint Essential Oil

732x549_Peppermint_Oil_And_Headaches A favorite herbal medicine of the ancients, peppermint leaves have been found in Egyptian pyramids dating back to 1,000 BC. Modern scientific investigations have now confirmed that this remarkable plant has over a dozen healing properties.

In our continuing effort to educate folks to the vast array of healing agents found in the natural world around us, we are excited to feature peppermint, a member of the aromatic mint family that you may already have squirreled away somewhere in your kitchen cupboard. While most have experienced peppermint as a flavoring agent, or perhaps as a comforting cup of herbal tea, few are aware of its wide range of experimentally confirmed therapeutic properties.

The ancients certainly were aware of the mint family’s medicinal value, having been used as herbal medicines in ancient Egypt, Greek and Rome thousands of years ago.[27] Dried peppermint leaves have even been found in several Egyptian pyramids carbon dating back to 1,000 BC.

Today, modern scientific investigations are revealing an abundance of potential health benefits associated with the use of different components of the peppermint plant, including aromatherapeutic, topical and internal applications.

Most of the human research on peppermint performed thus far indicates this plant has great value in treating gastrointestinal disorders

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1) Irritable Bowel Syndrome – Since the late 90’s it was discovered that enteric-coated peppermint oil capsules are safe and effective in the treatment of this increasingly prevalent disorder.[2] This beneficial effect extends to the pediatric community. In one children’s trial 75% of those receiving peppermint oil had reduced severity of pain associated with IBS within 2 weeks.[3] Another 2005 trial in adults concluded that “Taking into account the currently available drug treatments for IBS Peppermint oil (1-2 capsules t.i.d. over 24 weeks) may be the drug of first choice in IBS patients with non-serious constipation or diarrhea to alleviate general symptoms and to improve quality of life.”[4] In another 2007 trial 75% of patients receiving peppermint oil saw an impressive 50% reduction of “total irritable bowel syndrome score.”[5] Most recently, a study published January of this year found that peppermint oil was effective in relieving abdominal pain in diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome.[6]

2) Colonic spasm – Peppermint oil has been studied as a safe and effective alternative to the drug Buscopan for its ability to reduce spasms during barium enemas.[7] [8]

3) Gastric Emptying Disorders – Peppermint has been found to enhance gastric emptying, suggesting its potential use in a clinical setting for patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders.[9]

4) Functional dyspepsia – A 2000 study published in the journal Ailment Pharmacology and Therapy found that 90 mg of peppermint oil and 50 mg of caraway oil resulted in 67% of patients reporting “much or very much improved” in their symptoms of functional dyspepsia. [10]

5) Infantile Colic: A 2013 study found that peppermint is at least as effective as the chemical simethicone in the treatment of infantile colic.[11]

Other studied applications include

6) Breastfeeding Associated Nipple Pain and Damage: A 2007 study found that peppermint water prevented nipple cracks and nipple pain in breastfeeding mothers.[12]

7) Tuberculosis: A 2009 study found that inhaled essential oil of peppermint was able to rapidly regress tuberculous inflammation, leading the authors to conclude: “This procedure may be used to prevent recurrences and exacerbation of pulmonary tuberculosis.”[13]

8) Allergic rhinitis (hay fever): A 2001 preclinical study found that extracts of the leaves of peppermint inhibit histamine release indicating it may be clinically effective in alleviating the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis.[14]

9) Shingles Associated Pain (Post-Herpetic Neuralgia): A 2002 case study found that topical peppermint oil treatment resulted in a near immediate improvement of shingles associated neuropathic pain symptoms; the therapeutic effects persisted throughout the entire 2 months of follow-up treatment. [15]

10) Memory problems: A 2006 study found that the simple aroma of peppermint enhances memory and increases alertness in human subjects.[16]

11) Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea: A 2013 study found that peppermint oil was found to be effective in reducing chemotherapy-induced nausea, and at reduced cost versus standard drug-based treatment.[17]

12) Prostate Cancer: Preclinical research indicates that peppermint contains a compound known as menthol which inhibits prostate cancer growth.[18] [19]

13) Radiation Damage: Preclinical research indicates peppermint protects against radiation-induced DNA damage and cell death.[20]  [21]

14) Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1: Peppermint has been found to have inhibitory activity against acyclovir-resistant Herpes Simplex virus type 1.[22] [23]

15) Dental Caries/Bad Breath: Peppermint oil extract has been found to be superiorto the mouthwash chemical chlorhexidine inhibiting Streptococus mutans driven biofilm formation associated with dental caries.[24] [25] This may explain why powdered peppermint leaves were used in the Middle Ages to combat halitosis and whiten teeth.

Peppermint is actually a hybridized cross between Water Mint (Mentha aquatica) and Spearmint (Mentha spicata),[26] the latter of which has also been researched to possess remarkable therapeutic properties, such as the ability to exert significant anti-androgenic effects in polycystic ovarian syndrome[28] and ameliorating the related condition of mild hirsutism, marked by excessive hair growth in females.[29]

Like all plant medicines, extreme caution must be exercised when using extracts and especially essential oils. Also, remember that more is not always better. A recent study on the use of rosemary in improving cognitive performance in the elderly found that a lower ‘culinary’ dose (750 mg) was not only more effective in improving cognition (as measured by memory speed) than a higher dose, but the highest dose (6,000 mg) had a significant memory impairing effect.[30] This illustrates quite nicely how less can be more, and why an occasional nightly cup of peppermint tea may be far superior as preventive strategy than taking large ‘heroic’ doses of an herb only after a serious health problem sets in.

To order the iJuice Peppermint oil go to:https://www.ijuicenow.com/product-page/ijuice-peppermint-sage-oil

References

1) Peppermint oil is a safe and effective alternative for the elimination of colonic spasms instead of Buscopan during a double-contrast barium enema

Abstract Title:

Spasmolytic effect of peppermint oil in barium during double-contrast barium enema compared with Buscopan.

Abstract Source:

Clin Radiol. 2003 Apr;58(4):301-5. PMID: 12662951

Abstract Author(s):

T Asao, H Kuwano, M Ide, I Hirayama, J-I Nakamura, K-I Fujita, R Horiuti

Abstract:

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of peppermint oil in barium as a spasmolytic agent during a double-contrast barium enema (DCBE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 383 DCBEs with positive results from occult blood tests were assessed. Patients were assigned to one of four groups: peppermint in barium (n=91), peppermint in tube (n=90), Buscopan (n=105), or no treatment (n=97). After a screening sigmoidoscopy, the DCBEs were performed using air as a distending gas. In the Buscopan group, the DCBE was performed with an intramuscular injection of 20mg Buscopan at the start of the examination. Patients in the no-treatment group underwent DCBE without any spasmolytic agent. A peppermint oil preparation (30ml) was mixed in the barium solution for patients in the peppermint-in-barium group, and the same dose of peppermint oil was included in the enema tube in the peppermint-in-tube group. The presence of spasm on a series of spot films was evaluated without information about the type of spasmolytic agent used. RESULTS: The percentage of patients in the four groups (no treatment, Buscopan, peppermint in tube, and peppermint in barium) with absence of spasm in the entire colon on the series of spot films was 13.4, 38.1, 41.8, and 37.8%, respectively. In the group using peppermint oil or Buscopan, the rate of patients with non-spasm examination was higher than that in no-treatment group (p<0.0005). Peppermint oil had the same spasmolytic effect as the systemic administration of Buscopan in the transverse and descending colon. Peppermint oil had a stronger effect in the caecum and the ascending colon than a Buscopan injection (p<0.005). There was no advantage to placing peppermint oil in the enema tube over mixing it in the barium solution. A total of 157 polyps were found during the DCBE procedures, and no differences were observed in the number of lesions among the four groups. Peppermint oil did not impair image quality. CONCLUSION: Barium solution mixed with peppermint oil was safe and effective for the elimination of colonic spasm during the DCBE procedure, and it could be used instead of Buscopan.

Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2003

Study Type : Human Study

2) Enteric-coated peppermint-oil capsules is safe and effective in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

Abstract Title:

Enteric-coated peppermint-oil capsules in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized trial.

Abstract Source:

J Gastroenterol. 1997 Dec;32(6):765-8. PMID: 9430014

Abstract Author(s):

J H Liu, G H Chen, H Z Yeh, C K Huang, S K Poon

Abstract:

To determine the efficacy and tolerability of an enteric-coated peppermint-oil formulation (Colpermin), we conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in 110 outpatients (66 men/44 women; 18-70 years of age) with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Patients took one capsule (Colpermin or placebo) three to four times daily, 15-30 min before meals, for 1 month. Fifty-two patients on Colpermin and 49 on placebo completed the study. Forty-one patients on Colpermin (79%) experienced an alleviation of the severity of abdominal pain (29 were pain-free); 43 (83%) had less abdominal distension, 43 (83%) had reduced stool frequency, 38 (73%) had fewer borborygmi, and 41 (79%) less flatulence. Corresponding figures for the placebo group were: 21 patients (43%) with reduced pain (4 were pain-free), 14 (29%) with reduced distension, 16 (32%) with reduced stool frequency, 15 (31%) with fewer borborygmi, and 11 (22%) with less flatulence. Symptom improvements after Colpermin were significantly better than after placebo (P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test). One patient on Colpermin experienced heartburn (because of chewing the capsules) and one developed a mild transient skin rash. There were no significant changes in liver function test results. Thus, in this trial, Colpermin was effective and well tolerated.

Article Published Date : Dec 01, 1997

Study Type : Human Study

3) Peppermint oil improves abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. – Article 2

Abstract Title:

Peppermint oil in irritable bowel syndrome.

Abstract Source:

Phytomedicine. 2005 Aug;12(8):601-6. PMID: 16121521

Abstract Author(s):

H G Grigoleit, P Grigoleit

Abstract:

In a literature search 16 clinical trials investigating 180-200 mg enteric-coated peppermint oil (PO) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or recurrent abdominal pain in children (1 study) with 651 patients enrolled were identified. Nine out of 16 studies were randomized double blind cross over trials with (n = 5) or without (n = 4) run in and/or wash out periods, five had a randomized double blind parallel group design and two were open labeled studies. Placebo served in 12 and anticholinergics in three studies as comparator. Eight out of 12 placebo controlled studies show statistically significant effects in favor of PO. Average response rates in terms of “overall success” are 58% (range 39-79%) for PO and 29% (range 10-52%) for placebo. The three studies versus smooth muscle relaxants did not show differences between treatments hinting for equivalence of treatments. Adverse events reported were generally mild and transient, but very specific. PO caused the typical GI effects like heartburn and anal/perianal burning or discomfort sensations, whereas the anticholinergics caused dry mouth and blurred vision. Anticholinergics and 5HT3/4-ant/agonists do not offer superior improvement rates, placebo responses cover the range as in PO trials. Taking into account the currently available drug treatments for IBS PO (1-2 capsules t.i.d. over 24 weeks) may be the drug of first choice in IBS patients with non-serious constipation or diarrhea to alleviate general symptoms and to improve quality of life.

Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2005

Study Type : Human Study

4) Peppermint oil is effective in relieving abdominal pain in diarrhea predominant IBS transiently

Abstract Title:

Efficacy of Peppermint Oil in Diarrhea Predominant IBS – A Double Blind Randomized Placebo – Controlled Study.

Abstract Source:

Mymensingh Med J. 2013 Jan ;22(1):27-30. PMID: 23416804

Abstract Author(s):

M S Alam, P K Roy, A R Miah, S H Mollick, M R Khan, M C Mahmud, S Khatun

Article Affiliation:

Dr Md Shah Alam, EMO, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

Abstract:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is associated with considerable sufferings of patient and Peppermint oil is volatile oil, its active principle is menthol-contain a cyclic monoterpine which has anti-spasmotic properties due to its ability to block calcium channel of intestinal smooth muscles. This study observed the efficacy of peppermint oil for relieving the symptoms and changes of quality of life (QOL) in diarrhea predominant IBS. This was a prospective double blind randomized placebo-controlled study conducted in the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University during July 2008 to September 2009. Patients who fulfilled ROME II were initially selected but those had red flag signs or any organic disease was excluded from the study. Seventy four patients were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to receive either peppermint oil or placebo three times daily for six weeks. Changes of symptoms were assessed three week interval during treatment and two weeks after the end of treatment. Data were analyzed by paired and unpaired ‘t’ test. Finally sixty five patients completed the trial. It was observed that, at six weeks of therapy abdominal pain is markedly improved (mean±SD) 4.94±1.30 in peppermint oil group compared with 6.15±1.24 in placebo group and the difference was statistically highly significant (p>0.001). But two weeks after end of trials pain score again increased (6.09±1.93). Other symptoms and quality of life did not improve significantly. So the study result concludes that peppermint oil is effective in reliving only abdominal pain in diarrhea predominant IBS transiently.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2012

Study Type : Human Study

5) Peppermint oil improves abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. – Article 1

Abstract Title:

Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.

Abstract Source:

Dig Liver Dis. 2007 Jun;39(6):530-6. Epub 2007 Apr 8. PMID: 17420159

Abstract Author(s):

G Cappello, M Spezzaferro, L Grossi, L Manzoli, L Marzio

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: The use of peppermint oil in treating the irritable bowel syndrome has been studied with variable results probably due to the presence of patients affected by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, lactose intolerance or celiac disease that may have symptoms similar to irritable bowel syndrome. AIM: The aim of the study was to test the effectiveness of enteric-coated peppermint oil in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in whom small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, lactose intolerance and celiac disease were excluded. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with irritable bowel syndrome according to the Rome II criteria, with normal lactose and lactulose breath tests and negative antibody screening for celiac disease, were treated with peppermint oil (two enteric-coated capsules twice per day or placebo) for 4 weeks in a double blind study. The symptoms were assessed before therapy (T(0)), after the first 4 weeks of therapy (T(4)) and 4 weeks after the end of therapy (T(8)). The symptoms evaluated were: abdominal bloating, abdominal pain or discomfort, diarrhoea, constipation, feeling of incomplete evacuation, pain at defecation, passage of gas or mucus and urgency at defecation. For each symptom intensity and frequency from 0 to 4 were scored. The total irritable bowel syndrome symptoms score was also calculated as the mean value of the sum of the average of the intensity and frequency scores of each symptom. RESULTS: At T(4), 75% of the patients in the peppermint oil group showed a >50% reduction of basal (T(0)) total irritable bowel syndrome symptoms score compared with 38% in the placebo group (P<0.009). With peppermint oil at T(4) and at T(8) compared with T(0) a statistically significant reduction of the total irritable bowel syndrome symptoms score was found (T(0): 2.19+/-0.13, T(4): 1.07+/-0.10*, T(8): 1.60+/-0.10*, *P<0.01 compared with T(0), mean+/-S.E.M.), while no change was found with the placebo. CONCLUSION: A 4 weeks treatment with peppermint oil improves abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

Article Published Date : Jun 01, 2007

Study Type : Human Study

6) Peppermint oil is effective in relieving abdominal pain in diarrhea predominant IBS transiently

Abstract Title:

Efficacy of Peppermint Oil in Diarrhea Predominant IBS – A Double Blind Randomized Placebo – Controlled Study.

Abstract Source:

Mymensingh Med J. 2013 Jan ;22(1):27-30. PMID: 23416804

Abstract Author(s):

M S Alam, P K Roy, A R Miah, S H Mollick, M R Khan, M C Mahmud, S Khatun

Article Affiliation:

Dr Md Shah Alam, EMO, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

Abstract:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is associated with considerable sufferings of patient and Peppermint oil is volatile oil, its active principle is menthol-contain a cyclic monoterpine which has anti-spasmotic properties due to its ability to block calcium channel of intestinal smooth muscles. This study observed the efficacy of peppermint oil for relieving the symptoms and changes of quality of life (QOL) in diarrhea predominant IBS. This was a prospective double blind randomized placebo-controlled study conducted in the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University during July 2008 to September 2009. Patients who fulfilled ROME II were initially selected but those had red flag signs or any organic disease was excluded from the study. Seventy four patients were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to receive either peppermint oil or placebo three times daily for six weeks. Changes of symptoms were assessed three week interval during treatment and two weeks after the end of treatment. Data were analyzed by paired and unpaired ‘t’ test. Finally sixty five patients completed the trial. It was observed that, at six weeks of therapy abdominal pain is markedly improved (mean±SD) 4.94±1.30 in peppermint oil group compared with 6.15±1.24 in placebo group and the difference was statistically highly significant (p>0.001). But two weeks after end of trials pain score again increased (6.09±1.93). Other symptoms and quality of life did not improve significantly. So the study result concludes that peppermint oil is effective in reliving only abdominal pain in diarrhea predominant IBS transiently.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2012

Study Type : Human Study

7) Peppermint is a simple, safe and inexpensive way to relieve spasm during barium enema

Abstract Title:

Does peppermint oil relieve spasm during barium enema?

Abstract Source:

Br J Radiol. 1995 Aug;68(812):841-3. PMID: 7551780

Abstract Author(s):

M J Sparks, P O’Sullivan, A A Herrington, S K Morcos

Article Affiliation:

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital NHS Trust, Sheffield, UK.

Abstract:

The effectiveness of topical peppermint oil added to barium sulphate suspension in relieving colonic muscle spasm during double contrast barium enema examination was assessed in a double blind study. 141 patients were randomized either to a control group (71 patients) examined with standard barium suspension or to the treatment group which received peppermint oil mixed with the barium preparation. No residual spasm was evident in a significant proportion of patients in the treated group (60%) compared with the control group (35%) (p<0.001). The patients’ acceptability of the procedure was good and there were no adverse effects on the overall quality of the examination. In conclusion, the addition of peppermint oil to the barium suspension seems to reduce the incidence of colonic spasm during the examination. The technique is simple, safe, cheap and it may lessen the need for intravenous administration of spasmolytic agents.

Article Published Date : Aug 01, 1995

Study Type : Human Study

8) Peppermint oil is a safe and effective alternative for the elimination of colonic spasms instead of Buscopan during a double-contrast barium enema

Abstract Title:

Spasmolytic effect of peppermint oil in barium during double-contrast barium enema compared with Buscopan.

Abstract Source:

Clin Radiol. 2003 Apr;58(4):301-5. PMID: 12662951

Abstract Author(s):

T Asao, H Kuwano, M Ide, I Hirayama, J-I Nakamura, K-I Fujita, R Horiuti

Abstract:

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of peppermint oil in barium as a spasmolytic agent during a double-contrast barium enema (DCBE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 383 DCBEs with positive results from occult blood tests were assessed. Patients were assigned to one of four groups: peppermint in barium (n=91), peppermint in tube (n=90), Buscopan (n=105), or no treatment (n=97). After a screening sigmoidoscopy, the DCBEs were performed using air as a distending gas. In the Buscopan group, the DCBE was performed with an intramuscular injection of 20mg Buscopan at the start of the examination. Patients in the no-treatment group underwent DCBE without any spasmolytic agent. A peppermint oil preparation (30ml) was mixed in the barium solution for patients in the peppermint-in-barium group, and the same dose of peppermint oil was included in the enema tube in the peppermint-in-tube group. The presence of spasm on a series of spot films was evaluated without information about the type of spasmolytic agent used. RESULTS: The percentage of patients in the four groups (no treatment, Buscopan, peppermint in tube, and peppermint in barium) with absence of spasm in the entire colon on the series of spot films was 13.4, 38.1, 41.8, and 37.8%, respectively. In the group using peppermint oil or Buscopan, the rate of patients with non-spasm examination was higher than that in no-treatment group (p<0.0005). Peppermint oil had the same spasmolytic effect as the systemic administration of Buscopan in the transverse and descending colon. Peppermint oil had a stronger effect in the caecum and the ascending colon than a Buscopan injection (p<0.005). There was no advantage to placing peppermint oil in the enema tube over mixing it in the barium solution. A total of 157 polyps were found during the DCBE procedures, and no differences were observed in the number of lesions among the four groups. Peppermint oil did not impair image quality. CONCLUSION: Barium solution mixed with peppermint oil was safe and effective for the elimination of colonic spasm during the DCBE procedure, and it could be used instead of Buscopan.

Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2003

Study Type : Human Study

9) Peppermint may have therapeutic value in gastric emptying disorders

Abstract Title:

Early effects of peppermint oil on gastric emptying: a crossover study using a continuous real-time 13C breath test (BreathID system).

Abstract Source:

J Gastroenterol. 2007 Jul;42(7):539-42. Epub 2007 Jul 25. PMID: 17653649

Abstract Author(s):

Masahiko Inamori, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Keiko Akimoto, Koji Fujita, Hirokazu Takahashi, Masato Yoneda, Yasunobu Abe, Kensuke Kubota, Satoru Saito, Norio Ueno, Atsushi Nakajima

Article Affiliation:

Gastroenterology Division, Yokohama City University, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between peppermint oil and gastric emptying by using a novel noninvasive technique for measuring gastric emptying with a continuous real-time (13)C breath test (BreathID system, Oridion, Israel). METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive a test meal (200 kcal per 200 ml) containing 0.64 ml of peppermint oil or the test meal alone, after fasting overnight. A (13)C-acetic acid breath test was continuously performed with the BreathID system, which monitors gastric emptying, for 4 h after the administration of the test meal. Using Oridion Research Software (beta version), the time for emptying of 50% of the labeled meals (T 1/2), the analog to the scintigraphy lag time for 10% emptying of the labeled meal (T lag), the gastric emptying coefficient (GEC), and the regression-estimated constants (beta and kappa) were calculated. The parameters between two occasions were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: After peppermint oil intake, the T lag and beta constant were significantly decreased. No significant differences in T 1/2, GEC, or kappa were observed between the two occasions. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in the T lag and beta constant suggests acceleration of gastric emptying during the early phase. This study showed that peppermint oil enhances gastric emptying, suggesting the potential use of peppermint oil in clinical settings for patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

Article Published Date : Jul 01, 2007

Study Type : Human Study

10) Peppermint oil and caraway oil have a therapeutic effect in patients suffering from functional dyspepsia

Abstract Title:

Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of peppermint oil and caraway oil in patients suffering from functional dyspepsia.

Abstract Source:

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Dec;14(12):1671-7. PMID: 11121917

Abstract Author(s):

B May, S Köhler, B Schneider

Article Affiliation:

University Medical Clinic and Out-patient Clinic, Bochum, Germany.

Abstract:

AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of enteric coated capsules containing a fixed combination of 90 mg peppermint oil and 50 mg caraway oil (PCC; Enteroplant) in patients with functional dyspepsia. METHODS: A total of 96 out-patients received one capsule twice daily of PCC or placebo for 28 days. Primary efficacy variables were the intra-individual change in (i) pain intensity and (ii) sensation of pressure, heaviness and fullness between days 1 and 29, and the investigators’ rating of (iii) global improvement (Clinical Global Impressions [CGI] item 2) on day 29. A global type I error of alpha=0.05 was controlled by a priori ordering of hypotheses. RESULTS: All patients were evaluable for efficacy and safety. On day 29, the average intensity of pain was reduced by 40% vs. baseline in the PCC group and by 22% in the placebo group. With regards to pressure, heaviness and fullness, a 43% reduction was observed for PCC vs. 22% for placebo. In CGI item 2, 67% (PCC) vs. 21% (placebo) of the patients were described as much or very much improved. In all three target parameters, the superiority of PCC over placebo was statistically significant. Six patients (PCC: 5; placebo: 1) reported adverse events, either unrelated to the trial, or attributable to an aggravation of the disease under investigation. Eructation with peppermint taste did not occur. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the good tolerability and the favourable risk-benefit ratio of PCC for the treatment of functional dyspepsia.

Article Published Date : Dec 01, 2000

Study Type : Human Study

11) Peppermint is at least as effective as the drug simethicone in the treatment of infantile colic

Article Publish Status: FREE

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Abstract Title:

Effectiveness of Mentha piperita in the Treatment of Infantile Colic: A Crossover Study.

Abstract Source:

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012 ;2012:981352. Epub 2012 Jul 12. PMID: 22844342

Abstract Author(s):

João Guilherme Bezerra Alves, Rita de Cássia Coelho Moraes de Brito, Telma Samila Cavalcanti

Article Affiliation:

Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Rua dos Coelhos, 301 Boa Vista, 52050-080 Recife, PE, Brazil.

Abstract:

Background. Infantile colic is a distressing and common condition for which there is no proven standard treatment. Objective. To compare the efficacy of Mentha piperita with simethicone in treatment for infantile colic. Methods. A double-blind crossover study was performed with 30 infants attending IMIP, Recife, Brazil. They were randomized to use Mentha piperita or simethicone in the treatment of infantile colic during 7 days with each drug. Primary outcomes were mother_s opinion about responses to the treatment, number of daily episodes of colic, and time spent crying, measured by a chronometer. Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests were used to compare the results. This study was previously approved by the Ethical Committee in Research at IMIP. Results. At baseline daily episodes of infantile colic was 3.9 (±1.1) and the mean crying time per day was 192 minutes (±51.6). At the end of the study daily episodes of colic fell to 1.6 (±0.6) and the crying duration decreased to 111 (±28) minutes. All mothers reported decrease of frequency and duration of the episodes of infantile colic and there were nodifferences between responses to Mentha piperita and simethicone. Conclusions. These findings suggest that Mentha piperita may be used to help control infantile colic. However, these results must be repeated by others studies.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2011

Study Type : Human Study

12) Peppermint water is effective in the prevention of nipple pain and damage associated with breastfeeding

Abstract Title:

Effect of peppermint water on prevention of nipple cracks in lactating primiparous women: a randomized controlled trial.

Abstract Source:

Int Breastfeed J. 2007;2:7. Epub 2007 Apr 19. PMID: 17442122

Abstract Author(s):

Manizheh Sayyah Melli, Mohammad Reza Rashidi, Abbas Delazar, Elaheh Madarek, Mohammad Hassan Kargar Maher, Alieh Ghasemzadeh, Kamran Sadaghat, Zohreh Tahmasebi

Article Affiliation:

Department of Obstetrics&Gynecology, Alzahra Teaching Hospital, South Artesh Avenue, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. manizheh_610@yahoo.com

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Nipple pain and damage in breastfeeding mothers are common causes of premature breastfeeding cessation. Peppermint water is popularly used for the prevention of nipple cracks in the North West of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of peppermint water in the prevention of nipple cracks during breastfeeding in comparison with the application of expressed breast milk (EBM). METHODS: One hundred and ninety-six primiparous breastfeeding women who gave birth between February and May 2005 in a teaching hospital in Tabriz, Iran, were randomized to receive either peppermint water or EBM. Each woman was followed for up to three visits or telephone calls within 14 days and then by telephone call at week six postpartum. RESULTS: Women who were randomized to receive peppermint water were less likely to experience nipple and areola cracks (9%) compared to women using EBM (27%; p<0.01). Women who used the peppermint water on a daily basis were less likely to have a cracked nipple than women who did not use peppermint water (relative risk 3.6, 95%CI: 2.9, 4.3). Nipple pain in the peppermint water group was lower than the expressed breast milk group (OR 5.6, 95% CI: 2.2, 14.6; p<0.005). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that peppermint water is effective in the prevention of nipple pain and damage. Further studies are needed to assess the usefulness of peppermint water in conjunction with correct breastfeeding techniques.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2007

Study Type : Human Study

13) Inhalation of the essential oil of peppermint may prevent recurrences and exacerbations of pulmonary tuberculosis

Abstract Title:

[Use of essential oil of peppermint (Mentha piperita) in the complex treatment of patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].

Abstract Source:

Virol J. 2009 Jan 20;6:8. PMID: 17128800

Abstract Author(s):

V A Shkurupiĭ, O A Odintsova, N V Kazarinova, K G Tkrachenko

Abstract:

The paper describes the effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita) essential oil inhaled by patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis in the penitentiary system. This procedure is shown to be most effective in infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis in the phase of resorption of infiltrates and/or closure of decay cavities. The efficiency is determined by the rapid positive changes in a tuberculous process, which appear as a rapider regression of tuberculous inflammation, causing small residual changes. This procedure may be used to prevent recurrences and exacerbations of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Article Published Date : Jan 20, 2009

Study Type : Human Study

14) Peppermint may be clinically effective in alleviating the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis

Abstract Title:

Effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) extracts on experimental allergic rhinitis in rats.

Abstract Source:

Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Jan;24(1):92-5. PMID: 11201253

Abstract Author(s):

T Inoue, Y Sugimoto, H Masuda, C Kamei

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to clarify the effects of extracts of the leaves of Mentha piperita L. on experimental allergic rhinitis. The 50% EtOH extract of peppermint inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells induced by compound 48/80. The effect was dose-dependent and significant inhibition was observed at a concentration of 3 microg/ml. In addition, the 50% EtOH eluate separated from the 50% EtOH extract of peppermint by column chromatography (DIAION HP-20) was also effective in inhibiting histamine release at a concentration of 1 microg/ml. Nasal symptoms, sneezing and nasal rubbing induced by antigen challenge in actively sensitized rats were inhibited by oral administration of the 50% EtOH eluate. Significant inhibition of sneezing and nasal rubbing was observed at doses of 300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., respectively. Furthermore, the 50% EtOH eluate inhibited dye leakage into the nasal cavity of rats induced by antigen in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that extracts of Mentha piperita L. may be clinically effective in alleviating the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2001

Study Type : Human Study

15) Peppermint oil has been used to successfully treat post-herpetic neuralgia

Abstract Title:

A novel treatment of postherpetic neuralgia using peppermint oil.

Abstract Source:

Clin J Pain. 2002 May-Jun;18(3):200-2 PMID: 12048423

Abstract Author(s):

Simon J Davies, Louise M Harding, Andrew P Baranowski

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Postherpetic neuralgia remains a difficult problem to treat. A number of therapies have been shown to be effective, but some patients have intractable pain. PATIENT: The case of a 76-year-old woman whose pain had been resistant to standard therapies is described. The pattern of quantitative sensory testing results for this patient led the authors to believe that she had an “irritable nociceptor” type of pathophysiology. INTERVENTION: The patient was instructed to apply neat peppermint oil (containing 10% menthol) to her skin, resulting in an almost immediate improvement in her pain. This pain relief persisted for 4-6 hours after application of the oil. RESULTS: The patient was successfully treated with topical peppermint oil. During 2 months of follow-up she has had only a minor side effect, with continuing analgesia. The authors believe this is the first evidence of peppermint oil (or menthol) having a strong analgesic effect on neuropathic pain. The possible mechanisms of action of peppermint oil are discussed.

Article Published Date : May 01, 2002

Study Type : Human: Case Report

16) The aroma of peppermint enhances memory and increases alertness in human subjects

Abstract Title:

Modulation of cognitive performance and mood by aromas of peppermint and ylang-ylang.

Abstract Source:

Nutr Cancer. 2006;55(1):53-62. PMID: 18041606

Abstract Author(s):

Mark Moss, Steven Hewitt, Lucy Moss, Keith Wesnes

Abstract:

This study provides further evidence for the impact of the aromas of plant essential oils on aspects of cognition and mood in healthy participants. One hundred and forty-four volunteers were randomly assigned to conditions of ylang-ylang aroma, peppermint aroma, or no aroma control. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment battery, with mood scales completed before and after cognitive testing. The analysis of the data revealed significant differences between conditions on a number of the factors underpinning the tests that constitute the battery. Peppermint was found to enhance memory whereas ylang-ylang impaired it, and lengthened processing speed. In terms of subjective mood peppermint increased alertness and ylang-ylang decreased it, but significantly increased calmness. These results provide support for the contention that the aromas of essential oils can produce significant and idiosyncratic effects on both subjective and objective assessments of aspects of human behavior. They are discussed with reference to possible pharmacological and psychological modes of influence.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2006

Study Type : Human Study

17) Peppermint and Spearmint essential oils are safe and effective for antiemetic treatment in patients, as well as being cost effective

Article Publish Status: FREE

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Abstract Title:

Antiemetic activity of volatile oil from Mentha spicata and Mentha× piperita in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

Abstract Source:

Ecancermedicalscience. 2013 ;7:290. Epub 2013 Jan 31. PMID: 23390455

Abstract Author(s):

Z Tayarani-Najaran, E Talasaz-Firoozi, R Nasiri, N Jalali, Mk Hassanzadeh

Article Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 91775-1365, Iran.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: This study is aimed at determining the efficacy of Mentha spicata (M. spicata) and Mentha× piperita (M. × piperita) in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).

METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind clinical trial study. Prior to the study, patients were randomly assigned into four groups to receive M. spicata or M.× piperita. Statistical analysis included the χ(2) test, relative risk, and Student’s t-test. Fifty courses were analysed for each group that met our eligibility criteria. The treatment and placebo groups applied essential oils of M. spicata, M. × piperita, or a placebo, while the control group continued with their previous antiemetic regimen. Patients or guardians recorded the number of emetic events, the intensity of nausea over 20 h of chemotherapy, as well as any possible adverse effects that occurred during this time.

RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in the intensity and number of emetic events in the first 24 h with M. spicata and M.× piperita in both treatment groups (p<0.05) when compared with the control and no adverse effects were reported. The cost of treatment was also reduced when essential oils were used.

CONCLUSION: M. spicata or M.× piperita essential oils are safe and effective for antiemetic treatment in patients, as well as being cost effective.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2012

Study Type : Human Study

18) Peppermint oil exhibits antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2, including an acyclovirresistant strain of HSV-1

Abstract Title:

Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro.

Abstract Source:

Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):504-10. PMID: 13678235

Abstract Author(s):

A Schuhmacher, J Reichling, P Schnitzler

Abstract:

The virucidal effect of peppermint oil, the essential oil of Mentha piperita, against herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of peppermint oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 0.002% and 0.0008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Peppermint oil exhibited high levels of virucidal activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in viral suspension tests. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 82% and 92% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Higher concentrations of peppermint oil reduced viral titers of both herpesviruses by more than 90%. A clearly time-dependent activity could be demonstrated, after 3 h of incubation of herpes simplex virus with peppermint oil an antiviral activity of about 99% could be demonstrated. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of the essential oil, peppermint oil was added at different times to the cells or viruses during infection. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited when herpes simplex virus was pretreated with the essential oil prior to adsorption. These results indicate that peppermint oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell. Thus this essential oil is capable to exert a direct virucidal effect on HSV. Peppermint oil is also active against an acyclovir resistant strain of HSV-1 (HSV-1-ACV(res)), plaque formation was significantly reduced by 99%. Considering the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate the skin, peppermint oil might be suitable for topical therapeutic use as virucidal agent in recurrent herpes infection.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2003

Study Type : In Vitro Study

19) Menthol, a naturally occurring compound from peppermint oil, exhibits some anti-prostate cancer activity

Abstract Title:

Menthol regulates TRPM8-independent processes in PC-3 prostate cancer cells.

Abstract Source:

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Apr;1770(4):659-65. Epub 2006 Nov 23. PMID: 18955132

Abstract Author(s):

Su-Hwa Kim, Joo-Hyun Nam, Eun-Jung Park, Byung-Joo Kim, Sung-Joon Kim, Insuk So, Ju-Hong Jeon

Article Affiliation:

Department of Physiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-Dong, Chongno-Gu, Seoul 110-799, Korea.

Abstract:

Menthol, a naturally occurring compound from peppermint oil, binds and activates the TRPM8 Ca(2+)-permeable channel that exhibits abnormal expression patterns in prostate cancer, suggesting that TRPM8 links Ca(2+) transport pathways to tumor biology. We thus investigated the cellular responses of prostate cancer cells to menthol. Here we found that menthol increases [Ca(2+)](i) via Ca(2+) influx mechanism(s) independent of TRPM8 in PC-3 cells. We demonstrated that menthol induces cell death at supramillimolar concentrations in PC-3 cells and the cell death is not suppressed by low extracellular Ca(2+) condition which indicates that menthol-induced cell death is not associated with Ca(2+) influx pathways. In addition, we showed that menthol increases a phosphorylated form of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in PC-3 cells through TRPM8-independent mechanisms. Thus, our data indicate that there is an apparent lack of causality between TRPM8 activation and menthol-induced cell death and that menthol can regulate TRPM8-independent Ca(2+)-transport and cellular processes.

Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2007

Study Type : In Vitro Study

20. Peppermint has neuro-protective properties against gamma irradiation induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis

Abstract Title:

Mentha piperita as a pivotal neuro-protective agent against gamma irradiation induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis : Mentha extract as a neuroprotective against gamma irradiation.

Abstract Source:

Cytotechnology. 2013 Jan ;65(1):145-56. Epub 2012 Sep 21. PMID: 23011739

Abstract Author(s):

Hanaa A Hassan, Hani S Hafez, Mona S Goda

Article Affiliation:

Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt, drhanaahassan@yahoo.com.

Abstract:

Ionizing radiation is classified as a potent carcinogen, and its injury to living cells, in particular to DNA, is due to oxidative stress enhancing apoptotic cell death. Our present study aimed to characterize and semi-quantify the radiation-induced apoptosis in CNS and the activity of Mentha extracts as neuron-protective agent. Our results through flow cytometry exhibited the significant disturbance and arrest in cell cycle in % of M1: SubG1 phase, M2: G0/1 phase of diploid cycle, M3: S phase and M4: G2/M phase of cell cycle in brain tissue (p < 0.05). Significant increase in % of apoptosis and P53 protein expression as apoptotic biomarkers were coincided with significant decrease in Bcl(2) as an anti-apoptotic marker. The biochemical analysis recorded a significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid contents. Moreover, numerous histopathological alterations were detected in brain tissues of gamma irradiated mice such as signs of chromatolysis in pyramidal cells of cortex, nuclear vacuolation, numerous apoptotic cell, and neural degeneration. On the other hand, gamma irradiated mice pretreated with Mentha extract showed largely an improvement in all the above tested parameters through a homeostatic state for the content of brain apoptosis and stabilization of DNA cycle with a distinct improvement in cell cycle analysis and antioxidant defense system. Furthermore, the aforementioned effects of Mentha extracts through down-regulation of P53 expression and up-regulation of Bcl(2) domain protected brain structure from extensive damage. Therefore, Mentha extract seems to have a significant role to ameliorate the neuronal injury induced by gammairradiation.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2012

Study Type : Animal Study

21) Peppermint protects against radiation-induced testicular damage

Abstract Title:

Protection against radiation-induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn.).

Abstract Source:

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009 Apr;104(4):329-34. PMID: 19320637

Abstract Author(s):

Ravindra M Samarth, Meenakshi Samarth

Article Affiliation:

Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302055, India. rmsamarth@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:

The protective effects of Mentha piperita leaf extract against radiation-induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given M. piperita leaf extract orally (1 g/kg body weight/day) for three consecutive days before radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma-radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days after irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, and acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. Radiation treatment showed reduction in the testis weight during all days of observation, however, in the M. piperita leaf extract-pretreated irradiated group there was a significant increase in testis weight. Radiation treatment induced moderate to severe testicular atrophy with degeneration of germ cells in seminiferous tubules. The tubules were shrunken and greatly depleted of germ cells. Sertoli cells with few germ cells were observed in the lumen. However, animals pre-treated with M. piperita leaf extract and exposed to radiation showed normal testicular morphology with regular arrangement of germ cells and slight degeneration of seminiferous epithelium. Significant decreases in the lipid peroxidation and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The M. piperita leaf extract showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonols. The results of the present study suggest that M. piperita has a significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, the content of flavonoids and flavonols of M. piperita leaf extract may be held responsible for radioprotective effect due to their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2009

Study Type : Animal Study

22) Extracts from plants in the Lamiacea family inhibit HSV-1, HSV-2 and acyclovir-resistant strains of HSV-1

Abstract Title:

Antiviral effect of aqueous extracts from species of the Lamiaceae family against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro.

Abstract Source:

Planta Med. 2006 Dec;72(15):1378-82. Epub 2006 Nov 7. PMID: 17091431

Abstract Author(s):

Silke Nolkemper, Jürgen Reichling, Florian C Stintzing, Reinhold Carle, Paul Schnitzler

Abstract:

Aqueous extracts from species of the Lamiaceae family were examined for their antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus (HSV). Extracts from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), peppermint (Mentha x piperita), prunella (Prunella vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) were screened. Their inhibitory activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), type 2 (HSV-2) and an acyclovir-resistant strain of HSV-1 (ACV (res)) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells in a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC (50)) of the extracts for HSV plaque formation were determined in dose-response studies. All test compounds showed a high antiviral activity against HSV-1, HSV-2 and ACV (res). In order to identify the mode of antiviral action, the extracts were added to the cells or viruses at different stages of infection. Both types of Herpes virus including ACV (res) were considerably neutralized after treatment with the extracts prior to infection. At maximum non-cytotoxic concentrations of the extracts, plaque formation was significantly reduced by > 90% for HSV-1 and HSV-2 and > 85% for ACV (res). In time-response studies over a period of 2 hours, a clearly time-dependent activity was demonstrated. These results indicate that the extracts affect HSV before adsorption, but have no effect on the intracellular virus replication. Therefore, the extracts exert their antiviral effect on free HSV and offer a chance to use them for topical therapeutic application against recurrent HERPES infections.

Article Published Date : Dec 01, 2006

Study Type : In Vitro Study

23) Peppermint oil exhibits antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2, including an acyclovir resistant strain of HSV-1

Abstract Title:

Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro.

Abstract Source:

Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):504-10. PMID: 13678235

Abstract Author(s):

A Schuhmacher, J Reichling, P Schnitzler

Abstract:

The virucidal effect of peppermint oil, the essential oil of Mentha piperita, against herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of peppermint oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 0.002% and 0.0008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Peppermint oil exhibited high levels of virucidal activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in viral suspension tests. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 82% and 92% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Higher concentrations of peppermint oil reduced viral titers of both herpesviruses by more than 90%. A clearly time-dependent activity could be demonstrated, after 3 h of incubation of herpes simplex virus with peppermint oil an antiviral activity of about 99% could be demonstrated. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of the essential oil, peppermint oil was added at different times to the cells or viruses during infection. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited when herpes simplex virus was pretreated with the essential oil prior to adsorption. These results indicate that peppermint oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell. Thus this essential oil is capable to exert a direct virucidal effect on HSV. Peppermint oil is also active against an acyclovir resistant strain of HSV-1 (HSV-1-ACV(res)), plaque formation was significantly reduced by 99%. Considering the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate the skin, peppermint oil might be suitable for topical therapeutic use as virucidal agent in recurrent herpes infection.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2003

Study Type : In Vitro Study

24) Peppermint and rosemary extract are superior to the chemical chlorhexidine in preventing dental biofilm formation

Abstract Title:

Phytotherapeutic prevention of dental biofilm formation.

Abstract Source:

Phytother Res. 2008 Sep;22(9):1162-7. PMID: 18729251

Abstract Author(s):

Iraj Rasooli, Shojaedin Shayegh, Massoud Taghizadeh, Shakiba Darvish Alipoor Astaneh

Article Affiliation:

Department of Biology, Shahed University, Opposite Imam Khomeini’s Shrine, Tehran-Qom Highway, Tehran, Iran. rasooli@shahed.ac.ir

Abstract:

The antimicrobial and biofilm formation preventive properties of Mentha piperita and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and chlorhexidine were assessed against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus pyogenes. 26 and 20 compounds were identified by GC and GC-MS analysis in hydrodistilled oils from M. piperita and R. officinalis, respectively. The minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the M. piperita and R. officinalis oils and chlorhexidine were (6000, 2000, 8000 ppm) and (1000, 4000, 1000 ppm) for S. mutans and S. pyogenes, respectively. The decimal reduction time (D) of S. mutans exposed to the oils at their MBC levels was 2.8 min while chlorhexidine showed a longer time. The D values of S. pyogenes on exposure to the MBC levels of M. piperita and R. officinalis oils and of chlorhexidine were 2.14, 4.28 and 2.8 min, indicating a higher efficacy of M. piperita oil. Biofilm formation was performed by growing S. mutans culture with and without essential oils in LB medium in polystyrene tubes. In vitro biofilm inhibitory properties were in the order M. piperita>R. officinalis>chlorhexidine. In vivo experiments on the antibiofilm properties revealed that all concentrations of the oils were significantly (p<0.001) more effective than chlorhexidine. In conclusion, essential oils may be considered as safe agents in the development of novel antibiofilm agents.

Article Published Date : Sep 01, 2008

Study Type : In Vitro Study

25) Peppermint and to a lesser extent cumin essential oil compare favorably to the chemical chlorhexidine as anti-gingival dental plaque agents

Abstract Title:

Phytotherapeutic inhibition of supragingival dental plaque.

Abstract Source:

Nat Prod Res. 2008 Mar 20;22(5):428-39. PMID: 18404563

Abstract Author(s):

Shojaedin Shayegh, Iraj Rasooli, Massoud Taghizadeh, Shakiba Darvish Alipoor Astaneh

Article Affiliation:

Department of prosthetics, College of Dentistry, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract:

Antimicrobial activities and biofilm-formation preventive properties of Mentha piperita and Cuminum cyminum essential oils and chlorhexidine were assessed against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus pyogenes. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis led to the identification of 26 and 32 compounds in the essential oils of M. piperita and C. cyminum, respectively. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the oils and chlorhexidine and microbial decimal reduction time (D value) were determined. Antibacterial and in vivo biofilm preventive efficacies of all the concentrations of M. piperita oil were significantly (p<0.001) higher. The biofilm inhibitory properties in planktonic cultures were in M. piperita>chlorhexidine>C. cyminum order. In vivo experiments conducted on male and female volunteers who brushed with essential oil blended toothpastes indicated that lower concentrations of the oils, in particular the M. piperita oil, were significantly higher (p<0.001) and effective during the course of the study as compared to chlorhexidine. In conclusion, there may be a potential role for essential oils in the development of novel anticaries treatments.

Article Published Date : Mar 20, 2008

Study Type : In Vitro Study

26) The Complete Illustrated Book of Herbs, Alex Frampton, The Reader’s Digest Association, 2009

27) A. Sustrikova, I. Salamon, Essential oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) from fields in Eastern Slovakia., 2004: Zahradnictvi Horticultural Science 31(1): 31-36

28) Spearmint herbal tea has significant anti-androgen effects in polycystic ovarian syndrome

Abstract Title:

Spearmint herbal tea has significant anti-androgen effects in polycystic ovarian syndrome. A randomized controlled trial.

Abstract Source:

Phytother Res. 2009 Jul 7. PMID: 19585478

Abstract Author(s):

Paul Grant

Abstract:

Hirsutism in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), consequent to elevated androgen levels leads to significant cosmetic and psychological problems. Recent research in Turkey has shown that spearmint tea has antiandrogenic properties in females with hirsutism. No research has yet been undertaken to assess whether a reduction in androgen levels brought about by spearmint tea, translates to a clinical improvement in the degree of hirsutism.This study was a two centre, 30 day randomized controlled trial. Forty two volunteers were randomized to take spearmint tea twice a day for a 1 month period and compared with a placebo herbal tea. At 0, 15 and 30 days of the study serum androgen hormone levels and gonadotrophins were checked, the degree of hirsutism was clinically rated using the Ferriman-Galwey score and a questionnaire (the modified DQLI = Dermatology Quality of Life Index) was used to assess improvements in the level of self-reported hirsutism.Forty one of 42 patients completed the study. Free and total testosterone levels were significantly reduced over the 30 day period in the spearmint tea group (p < 0.05). LH and FSH also increased (p < 0.05). Patient’s subjective assessments of their degree of hirsutism scored by the modified DQLI were significantly reduced in the spearmint tea group (p < 0.05). There was, however, no significant reduction in the objective Ferriman-Galwey ratings of hirsutism between the two trial groups over the trial duration (p = 0.12). There was a clear and significant alteration in the relevant hormone levels. This is associated clinically with a reduction in the self-reported degree of hirsutism but unfortunately not with the objectively rated score.It was demonstrated and confirmed that spearmint has antiandrogen properties, the simple fact that this does not clearly translate into clinical practice is due to the relationship between androgen hormones and follicular hair growth and cell turnover time. Simply put, the study duration was not long enough. The original studies from Turkey were in fact only 5 days long. The time taken for hirsutism to resolve is significant and a much longer future study is proposed as the preliminary findings are encouraging that spearmint has the potential for use as a helpful and natural treatment for hirsutism in PCOS. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Article Published Date : Jul 07, 2009

Study Type : Human Study

29) Spearmint can be an alternative to antiandrogenic treatment for mild hirsutism

Abstract Title:

Effect of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae) teas on androgen levels in women with hirsutism.

Abstract Source:

Phytother Res. 2007 May;21(5):444-7. PMID: 17310494

Abstract Author(s):

Mehmet Akdoğan, Mehmet Numan Tamer, Erkan Cüre, Medine Cumhur Cüre, Banu Kale Köroğlu, Namik Delibaş

Abstract:

Mentha spicata Labiatae, known as spearmint and Mentha piperita Labiatae, known as peppermint can be used for various kinds of illnesses in herbal medicine and flavoring in industry. M. spicata Labiatae grows on the Anamas plateau of Yenithornarbademli town of Isparta, located in southwest part of Turkey. In this town, clinicians thought that consumption of tea steeped with M. spicata or M. piperita caused a diminished libido. Because antiandrogenic effects of spearmint and peppermint were found previously in rats, it was decided to observe the effect of this herbal tea on the androgen levels in hirsute women.Twenty-one female hirsute patients, 12 with polycystic ovary syndrome and 9 with idiopathic hirsutism were included to the study. They were took a cup of herbal tea which was steeped with M. spicata for 5 days twice a day in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycles. After treatment with spearmint teas, there was a significant decrease in free testosterone and increase in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol. There were no significant decreases in total testosterone or dehydroepiandrostenedione sulphate levels. Spearmint can be an alternative to antiandrogenic treatment for mild hirsutism. Further studies are needed to test the reliability of these results and the availability of spearmint as a drug for hirsutism. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Article Published Date : May 01, 2007

Study Type : Human Study

30) “Short-term study on the effects of rosemary on cognitive function in an elderly population.”

Abstract Title:

Short-term study on the effects of rosemary on cognitive function in an elderly population.

Abstract Source:

J Med Food. 2012 Jan ;15(1):10-7. Epub 2011 Aug 30. PMID: 21877951

Abstract Author(s):

Andrew Pengelly, James Snow, Simon Y Mills, Andrew Scholey, Keith Wesnes, Leah Reeves Butler

Article Affiliation:

Herbal Medicine Department, Tai Sophia Institute, Laurel, Maryland 20723, USA. apengelly@tai.edu

Abstract:

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has traditional reputations that justify investigation for a potential role in reducing widespread cognitive decline in the elderly. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, repeated-measures crossover study was conducted to investigate possible acute effects of dried rosemary leaf powder on cognitive performance. Twenty-eight older adults (mean age, 75 years) were tested using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment system 1, 2.5, 4, and 6 hours following a placebo and four different doses of rosemary. Doses were counterbalanced, and there was a 7-day washout between visits. There was a biphasic dose-dependent effect in measures of speed of memory: the lowest dose (750 mg) of rosemary had a statistically significant beneficial effect compared with placebo (P=.01), whereas the highest dose (6,000 mg) had a significant impairing effect (P<.01). There were significant deleterious effects on other measures of cognitive performance, although these were less consistent. Speed of memory is a potentially useful predictor of cognitive function during aging. The positive effect of the dose nearest normal culinary consumption points to the value of further work on effects of low doses over the longer term.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2011

Study Type : Human Study

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