The Most Important Article I Have Ever Written!
The blood “knows” that!
We’re better off not to interfere.
Now, back to the blood and Interstitium fluids.
Naturopathic Practitioner – The pH Miracle Ti Sana Detox Medical Spa and Universal Medical Imaging Group
Historical analysis suggests that conventional understandings of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) may be misguided; further examination may be necessary. Here, a theoretical analysis provides an alternative explanation for DIC pathology; it is suggested that the cause and mechanics of DIC are largely due to the proliferation of several intravascular microforms and their associated metabolic toxic acidic waste products — Mycrozymian Acidic Toxins (MAT) and Exotoxic-Mycotoxic-Producing Microorganisms (EMPO). The Mycotoxic Oxidative Stress Test (MOST) is presented here as an easy, inexpensive and non-invasive alternative to conventional measurements for the detection of intravascular acidic toxins, DIC and oxidative stress.
More than 150 years ago, British physician T. W. Jones asked the question, “Why does the blood circulating in the vessels not coagulate?” though a general answer to this question is now obvious, the biochemical mechanisms involved in how the blood coagulates (clots) are complex and varied, and all the intricacies have not yet been explained. A. Trousseau, recognized that the blood of cancer patients is in a hyper-coagulable state in the process of coagulation, even while confined in the blood vessels. The name given to this discovery is still in use today, as “Trousseau’s Syndrome.” Early in his career, Rudolph Virchow, the Father of Pathology, was interested in thrombosis and embolism. He speculated that intravascular blood could be altered so it would clot as a result of a stimulus too weak to clot normal blood. In 1856 Virchow delivered a lecture setting forth this concept.
Although the concept of partial clotting within vessels reaches back to the beginnings of modern medicine, much of the discovery of its biochemical mechanisms – the activation of clotting factors – has been left to chance. The admission of a patient to the hospital with an unceplained bleeding disorder challenged researchers to discover the cause of hemorrhaging. Analysis of blood from normal persons helped in the study of the patient with the blood disorder. A new clotting factor was hereby discovered which was missing from the patient’s blood. For this reason, several clotting factors have been named after the individuals in which they were missing: e.g., Christmas factor (factor IX), Hageman factor (factor XII).
In this article, the causes of pathological (intravascular) clotting will be described, as will various methods of detecting this condition, especially a blood test I call the Mycotoxin Oxidative Stress Test (MOST).
Blood clotting is a highly detailed chemical-mechanism involving many distinct components. The problem for the hematologist hs been to understand it at the biochemical level. Undoubtedly, efforts to fully understand blood clotting will continue for many more years.
Recalling Antione Bechamp’s and Gunther Enderlein’s research into the sub cellular living elements and combining this with what is known of colloidal flocculation, it is suggested that the clotting of blood begins with the end-linking (polymerizing) of the fundamental protein unit called by Bechamp the microzyma. A chain of these living units constitutes fibrinogen, which is still dispersed 9micro-hetergenous0 in the blood, and it may or may not be further processed. If processing continues, it will be either by continued end-linking or by cross-linking. End-linked fibrinogen is referred to here as fibrin monomer, which I have suggested is a repair protein also dispersed in the blood. Due to a number of blood clotting factors, the process may continue until the excess fibrin monomer and/or until fibrin becomes excessively end-linked.
Cross-linking the polymerized strands to form a three-dimensional network results in what is called the hard clot (fibrin – the major protein of clotting blood). Factor XIII, which instigates the forming of these blood networks. is always present but latent in the blood, and must be activated before the formation can occur. Persons who are producing fibrin monomer or excessively linked fibrinogen are said to be in a hyper-coagulable state, while those having diminished ability to form clots are in a hypo-coagulated state. It is the activation of the colloidal clotting factors which is so complex. Blood clotting may occur through many pathways and be initiated by many different stimuli. Regardless of initiation factors, the process is a sequence of events in which the activation of one factor triggers another, until, after a series of discrete steps, fibrin is formed.
When blood is clotted prematurely, and the factors involved are consumed (incorporated into) the body recognizes a deficiency of clotting agents and generates more. Thus, people with a tendency to clot excessively will alternate between a hyper coagulable state and a hypo-coagulatable state. When in the hypo coagulated state, such people hemorrhage until the deficient clotting factors are replaced. When only fibrin monomer or excessively linked fibrinogen is formed (no cross-linking), it is quite subtle and may go undetected. It may be detected by a change in blood viscosity (sedimentation rate), by the Mycotoxic Oxidative Stress Test (described later), or by other more subtle means. If strands of fibrinogen are cross-linked, however, a suggicient amount of insoluble precipitate of fires may result, and these can be detected microscopically using a phase contrast and dark-field microscopy in prepared slides of fresh tissue or blood. An excessive formation of fibrin leads to an impairment in circulation, and eventual organ failure usually results.
With this background, we are in a position to consider a standard medical term: disseminated intravascular coagultion (DIC). This term encompasses the hyper coagulable state, i refer to as pathological blood coagulation which consists of both insoluble and excess dispersed polymers of colloidal proteins.
Before discussing DIC in more detail, it si necessary to introduce its fur important ingredients according to this view – mycotoxins, endotoxins, exotoxins, and tissue factor. Any of these elements, or any combination of them, can play a major role in initiating unwanted DIC. However, mycotoxins or the acids from yeast have been found to be the underlying element which instigates and intensifies the participation of the other three. Each will now be described in turn and brought into the clotting picture.
(Micrograph 1: left, shows normal hyper-coagulated blood in a healthy blood clot sample and right, hypo coagulated blood in an unhealthy blood clot sample)
As discussed in the main text of my published book, Sick and Tired book[7 ]. acidification of blood and body tissues and organs and the accompanying lack of oxygen lead to pathological metabolic fermentation, which is carried out primarily by yeast and mold. Such pathological microorganisms, or their precursors, ar inherent to the human body and to all higher organisms. Their precursors according to Bechamp, the microzymas, carry on a nominal and homeostatic fermentation themselves. under healthy conditions. The primary function of yeast and mold is to decompose the body upon the death of the animal or human organism. Their premature overgrowth indicates a biochemical environment akin to death. During pathological metabolic fermentation, high concentrations of several acidic substances called mycotoxins are created. They are highly damaging, always acidic, metabolic products. If not immediately buffered by specific antioxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide and the hydroxyl free-radical, mycotoxins can seriously disrupt the physiology by disrupting normal metabolism and by penetrating blood and body cells and poisoning them. As will be seen, they interact with many of the mechanisms for DIC in various pathological symptomologies.
In my published article called The Finger on the Magic of Life: Antoine Bechamp, 19th Century Genius (1816-1908), I discuss pleomorphism in some detail. Understanding this phenomenon – the rapid evolution of microorganisms across traditional taxonomic lines is helpful in getting a complete picture of DIC. Briefly stated, collodial living microzymas evolve intracellularly into more complex forms (microorganisms), beginning with a healthy primitive stage comprising of repair proteins. As the disease condition worsens, morbid intermediate forms (filterable bacteria or viruses, cell-wall deficient forms and full bacteria) develop from repair proteins, or directly from microzymas. A third macrostage comprises the commonly recognized culminate microorganisms which are yeast, fungus to mold. In terms of pleomorphism, all of these microorganisms represent a single family of variously functioning forms. The culminate forms produce the lions share of acids, which are mycotoxins and the primary focus of my research. For convenience, bacteria, yeast, fungus and mold that produce acidic metabolic wastes and protein cellular fragments called exotoins, endotoxins and mycotoxins will here be referred to collectively ash EMPO, or exotoxic, mycotoxic-producing microorganisms.
What follows is a shortened description or the description and origin of several exotoxins and mycotoxins, referred to collectively microzymian acidic toxins of MAT, which are involved in the processes leading to DIC. The bio-effects, or the pathology of cellular fermentation, of these toxic metabolites are know as mycotic illness, mycotoxicosis, or mycotoxic stress as seen in the MOST and described and published by Dr. Bolin in the 1940’s.
One such metabolic product is acetyl aldehyde, which is formed by cellular breakdown of food, especially carbohydrate and the birth of EMPO. Acetyl aldehyde can also break down into a secondary substance know as ethyl alcohol. Although acetyl aldehyde presents an immediate hazard to health and well-being, nature has provided a means of buffering of neutralizing this acidic by-product of cellular digestion and fermentation almost as soon as it is created. The controls of acetyl aldehyde (and ethyl alcohol) are the sulfur amino acids, cysteine, taurine, methionine and the peptide glutathione which is found in red blood cells and almost all cells utilizing oxygen. In an attempt to buffer or neutralize MAT, the body will also bind or chelate both fats and minerals to them.
Another member of the MAT family is uric acid, which is formed by the digestion of protein and the creation of EMPO. Uric acid can also break down into secondary substance, on of which is alloxan. This has been shown to damage the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells leading to diabetes [Refer to Tables 1 and 2]
A shortage of alkalizing nutrients or an excess of MAT initiates an immune response in which a special class of free radicals which I call microzymian oxidative buffering species (MOBS) are released. These oxygen metabolites carry unpaired electrons and are intended to disrupt bacteria, yeast, fungus and mold, and buffer exotoxins, endotoxins, and mycotoxins. Current medical savants believe that they can disrupt just about anything they contact, including healthy cells and tissue: this is not accurate. The fact is that MOBS carriers a negative surface-charge and repel healthy cells, which also have a negative surface-charge.  It is the positively surface-charged bacteria, yeast/fungus, mold, exotoxins, endotoxins, and mycotoxins that MOBS bind too. This aspect gives some insight into autoimmune phenomena, which are not, as is often maintained, the result of an overburdened immune system. They result either as a side-effect of the immune system’s attempt to remove foreign or toxic elements, or as a direct attempt by the immune system to remove cells or tissue rendered useless or disturbing to the body by MAT.
In every degenerative symptomatology I have studied, I have found excessive MAT and MOBS (see Tables 1-3). Some of these degenerative symptoms and their underlying disease conditions, including cancer are described in my recently published paper on a deficiency on alkaline nutrition and cancer.  But the fact that mycotoxins cause harm to humans and other animals is purely a secondary effect, since, as noted, the primary function of the microorganism is not to cause illness. We know from the fossil record that pleomorphic microforms existed long before animals. In fact, humans and animals developed in terms of microorganisms. The reverse, however, is not true. Since microorganisms appeared first in the developmental sequence, they are not physiologically aware of humans and animals. There is much evidence that human and animal physiologies are highly aware of, and respond to MAT – these acidic compounds signaling the presence of bacteria, yeast, fungi and/or mold or EMPO..
Also involved in the process leading to DIC are endotoxins, substances endogenous to symptogenic (i.e., “pathogenic” in orthodox terms) bacteria. Endotoxins are a family of related substances having certain common characteristics, but differing from one bacterial form (or strain) to another. Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS form a widely diversified group because of (1) the number of long- chain fatty acids composing lipids; (2) the number of individual sugars as well as their modes of linkage to one another; (3) the branching of sugar chains; and (4) the number of possible arrangements of these units. Endotoxins also contain proteins, further compounding the structural diversity.
One theory on endotoxin states that its purpose is to act as a semi-permeable membrane for the bacterium, limiting and regulating substances entering the organism. Endotoxin resides solely on or near the interior surface of the cell membrane and is shed into the surrounding medium only upon the death of the bacterium. Thus, as these microforms die off, or are lysed by bodily activity, endotoxin is released. (This fact may well be an explanation for the Herxheimer reaction, in which a patient becomes worse following the administration of toxic drugs or other forms of treatment that drastically alter the associated organism.) Another endotoxin theory states that LPS are a constituent of the membrane, and as the organism grows, endotoxin fragments are repeatedly sloughed off into the medium. This phenomenon has been observed in the digestive tract. Since bacterial translocation into the blood is not only possible but common where epithelial hyperpermeability exists, one can assume that the process will continue there. Both theories may be correct if we think of the first one as true of “adult” forms, and the second as true of newly developed and expanding ones.
Basic to the structure of an endotoxin is the lipid common to all forms, designated lipid A, to which is attached a “core” polysaccharide, identical for large groups of bacteria. To the core polysaccharide is attached the O-antigen, consisting of various lengths of polysaccharide chains which are chemically unique for each type of organism and LPS. These chains provide endotoxin specificity. Experiments conducted over many years indicate that most, if not all, of the toxic effects of an endotoxin may be attributed to the lipid portion, and it is sometimes used per se in experiments rather than the entire molecule. An important additional feature of lipid A is its phosphate content. Each phosphate group carries a negative charge, and since lipid A is a rather large molecule, it provides, essentially, a negatively charged surface. The importance of this will be seen shortly.
These are the metabolic excretions of bacteria. While endotoxin’s ongoing effect is, in a manner of speaking, in the background, exotoxins, like mycotoxins, present a double-edged sword. Not only do they initiate DIC, but they produce, or influence the body to produce, the various and numerous infectious symptomatologies, such as typhoid fever, diphtheria, etc. (See “Vaccination Reconsidered” in Section 4 of the Appendix of Sick and Tired for details on the action of diphtheria toxin.) By comparison, mycotoxins not only initiate DIC, but there is much evidence to suggest that they produce, or influence the body to produce, degenerative symptomatologies, such as arthritis, diabetes, etc., and cancer and AIDS as well.
Crucial to the understanding of DIC is recognition of the role of tissue factor (TF), formerly known as thromboplastin. This transmembrane lipoprotein exists on the surface of platelets, vascular endothelial cells, leukocytes, monocytes, and most cells producing EMPO. It plays a major role in several biochemical mechanisms leading to DIC.
TF is the primary cell-bound initiator of the blood coagulation cascade. Its gene is activated in wound healing and other conditions. By itself it is capable of initiating clotting, but also becomes active when complexed with factor VII or activated factor VII (Vila). TF has been described as the receptor for factor VII because of the close association between the two proteins and because it causes a shape change (conformational) in factor VII, allowing it to attain activity. Both factor Vila and the TF/VII complex activate factors IX and X, which initiate the clotting cascade and the formation of thrombin.
An infusion of toxins into the blood has a direct effect on TF gene expression in leukocytes. Contact of MAT, endotoxins (lipid A), or exotoxins with leukocytes, activates proteins that bind to DNA nucleotide sequences, thereby activating the TF gene. (See Tables 4-6.)
Endothelial cells damaged in culture by exotoxins, endotoxins, or mycotoxins attract polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), which adhere to the damaged cells. Once the leukocytes are bound, they can still have their TF gene activated if it hasn’t yet occurred, and they may release MOBS in response to toxins and to organisms of disease, possibly creating further disturbances. (Cellular disorganization then releases activating proteins into the blood, which is discussed in more detail later.) Research shows that exotoxic and mycotoxic stress resulting in bound PMNs can be blocked by “antioxidants.” These might better be called anti-exotoxins or antimycotoxins. Both observation and study have led the author to conclude that cellular disorganization is initiated and primarily caused by fermentation pathology, not, as is the current belief, by the MOBS, or free radicals, generated to destroy toxins and microorganisms. MOBS or free radicals, because of their negative charge, are released to chelate or bind EMPO and MAT. It is suggested by current savants that free radical tissue damage is the secondary, “shotgun” effect of intense immune response to EMPO toxification and MAT-damaged cells. This could not be the case since healthy cells or their membranes carry a negative charge and would resist any electromagnetic attraction because of similar charge. The concentration and instability of MAT generated in a compromised terrain, as opposed to the fleeting existence of free radicals, especially exogenous ones, also lead to this conclusion.
Endothelial cells grown in culture can be induced to express tissue factor. In one experiment, no procoagulant activity could be detected in the absence of toxins. However, the addition of mycotoxins from Aspergillus niger or Micrococcus neoformas (Mucor racemosus Fresen) resulted in procoagulant activity which reached a maximum in four to six hours and was dose-dependent. The same experiment was applied using E. coli and Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin with a similar result. A single intravenous injection of a mycotoxin from Aspergillus niger into experimental animals resulted in circulating endothelial cells within five minutes. In other experiments with the mycotoxin, detachment of endothelial cells from the basement membrane was noted. (See Table 8.)
Removal of endothelial cells has dire consequences from two standpoints: First, the surface of these cells is covered with a specific prostaglandin (PGI2) known as prostacyclin. If blood contacts a surface not covered with PGI2, it will clot. For example, surfaces devoid of this prostaglandin are formed whenever a vessel is cut or punctured. An abrasion or other injury may also expose a surface on which PGI2 is lacking. The removal of endothelial cells by exotoxins or mycotoxins creates a surface devoid of PGI2, leading to blood clotting (see Table 7). Secondly, disorganization of endothelial cells creates increased levels of EMPO and MAT which are attracted to an exposed surface (basement membrane) which expresses a negative charge. This also leads to clotting.
It was discovered in 1964 that blood will clot simply from contacting a negatively charged surface. Previously it was believed that the clotting process comprised a cascade of enzyme activity in which one activated the next, etc. The discovery that blood could be clotted simply by contacting a negatively charged surface ruled out the purely enzyme hypothesis. Only some of the known clotting factors have been shown to be enzymes. As a result of this surprising discovery, detailed research was conducted in an attempt to describe the process. In some experiments, the negatively charged surfaces of selected, finely divided, inorganic crystals, including aluminum oxide, barium sulfate, jeweler’s rouge, quartz, and titanium oxide, were considered.
The clotting factor eventually shown to be activated when whole blood contacted negatively charged surfaces was factor XII, also known as the Hageman factor. This is a positively charged protein migrating in an electric field (electrophoresis) toward the anode. It is believed that factor XII is normally in the shape of a hairpin which binds to the negatively charged surface at the bend. Electrostatic attraction forces the two arms to lie flat on the surface, thereby exposing the inner faces and activating the molecule.
It was discovered that if the negatively charged particles were smaller than the clotting factor itself, activation was minimal. Or, if the concentration of clotting factor was too great, there was little or no activation. Both of these observations indicated that the process was one of electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged surface and the clotting factor, which is a “basic” protein, that is, positively charged.
Activation of factor XII allows the activation of factor XI, which then activates factor IX. Thus, the blood clotting cascade continues to the formation of fibrin in the normal manner. However, due to a series of activations begun by contact of factor XII with a negatively charged surface, trace amounts of factor Xa also show up in the blood. Factor VII is activated to Vila by factor Xa. Factor Vila then activates factors IX and X, leading to the formation of thrombin. Factor Xa, with co-factor Va, continues the clotting cascade until fibrinogen is activated, leading to fibrin formation. (See Table 5.)
As discussed earlier in terms of prostacyclin, beneath endothelial cells is another surface—the basement membrane. Called the extracellular matrix, it is a thin, continuous net of specialized tissue between endothelial cells and the underlying connective tissue. It has four or more main constituents, including proteoglycans (protein/polysac- charide). The removal of endothelial cells by’MAT exposes this membrane, which is negatively charged by virtue of its sulfonated polysaccharides in the proteoglycans. This brings a reduced negatively charged surface into direct contact with the blood, which activates factor XII and the clotting cascade.The positively charged toxic components of MAT also activate factor XII, as do disturbed disorganized cells, yeast/fungus cells, moldy cells, and the phosphate groups in the lipid A component of endotoxin. (See Tables 2-5.)
MAT activation of tissue factor gene in leukocytes; subsequent activation of factors VII, IX, and X, resulting in the blood clotting cascade.
MAT activation of tissue factor gene in endothelial cells, again leading to the clotting cascade.
MAT damage to endothelial cells, resulting in neutrophil attraction, with TF gene activation and generation of MOBS, which, in turn, neutralize MAT, protecting healthy endothelial cells or the basement membrane and supporting the janitorial services of the leukocytes.
Removal of negatively charged endothelial cells by positively charged exotoxins, endotoxins, and mycotoxins, creating a surface devoid of PGI2, also exposes the negatively charged basement membrane, leading to the activation of factor XII and initiation of the clotting cascade. Positively charged components of EMPO, exotoxins and mycotoxins, and several other elements, including the lipid A component of bacterial endotoxin, also activate factor XII and the clotting cascade.
Normal, resting (unstimulated) endothelial cells show antithrombotic activity in several ways: (1) by the inhibition of prostacyclin (platelet adhesion and aggregation); (2) the inhibition of thrombin generation; and (3) the activation of the fibrinolytic system, leading to clot lysis. We will take a brief look at the thrombin aspect.
On the surface of endothelial cells is a protein called thrombomodulin, which acts as a receptor for thrombin. When bound to thrombomodulin, thrombin can activate protein C. Activated protein C then catalyzes the proteolytic cleavage of factors Va and Vila, thereby destroying their participation in blood clotting. Thus thrombin, which normally activates fibrinogen, plays an opposite role in this case and inhibits the clotting process.[46,47] (See Table 7.)
On the other side of the coin, the endothelial cell becomes a procoagulant agent when acted on by certain lymphokines, such as interleukin-1. Not only can interleukin-1 induce TF gene expression, but it also suppresses transcription of the thrombomodulin gene in endothelial cells. As in other situations, the lymphokine-activated endothelial cell expresses TF on its surface as a result of TF gene activation. This leads to the production of thrombin and the triggering of the blood clotting cascade. (See Table 5.) Many lymphokines also stimulate adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells damaged by MAT, resulting in recycling of the cells by MOBS, as described later.
Any cell which has gone from an oxidative to a fermentative state can biochemically cause macrophage production of the lymphokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). This protein has been shown to activate the gene for TF in fermenting cells, which are so behaved due to morbid evolution of bacteria, yeast/fungus, and then mold.[49,50] In the author’s view, a cell having been switched entirely to fermentation metabolism as a result of a physical or emotional disturbance of that cell, is what constitutes cancer (see Tables 5 and 13). (One might argue that this definition does not fit all “forms” of cancer, such as leukemia, for example. This is because leukemia is not cancer, but an immune response to the rise in EMPO and MAT in the body, and a relatively easy compensation to correct.)
The surface of many disorganizing or fermented cells (cancer cells) is characterized by small projections in the plasma membrane which pinch off, becoming free vesicles containing toxins as well as TF complexed with factor VII. These vesicles can aggregate and/or lodge anywhere, ultimately releasing their contents. Also, the presence of excessive amounts of TF/factor VII complexes on the surface of fermented cells allows the formation of a fibrin net around the cell and around the entire mass of cells (tumor). This seems to be an attempt by the body to encapsulate and contain the mass. However, fermented cells do escape from the primary fibrin net, perhaps due to some electromagnetic effect, and become free-floating in the circulation. They may thus lodge elsewhere and instigate the fermentation of other cells by fungal penetration or by poisoning them and provoking a morbid evolution of their inherent microzymas.
Because of the surrounding fibrin net, these mobilized fermenting cells are protected from collection by the immune system while in transit.[51,52] (See Table 4.) The blockage or dissolution of fibrin net formation by an anticoagulant such as heparin allows freed, fermenting (metastasizing) cells to be dismantled by natural killer cells and other immune cells (see Tables 5, 12 and 13).
Unsaturated fatty acids are highly susceptible to EMPO as well as MAT. Linoleic acid, a long-chain fatty acid present in white cells, has 18 carbons and 2 unsaturations. Subjected to MAT, linoleic acid binds the exotoxin, endotoxin, or mycotoxin, thereby forming an epoxide at the first unsaturation. Research has revealed that this compound, named leukotoxin, is highly disturbing to other cells. It causes platelet lysis, thereby releasing TF and initiating DIC. (See Table 10.) The fact that MAT result in fermented fats lends further credence to the suggestion that the initial and primary degenerative damage to structures and substances in the body is caused by exotoxins and/or mycotoxins, and that damage by MOBS, or by other free radicals, is not possible.
Another mechanism leading to DIC is the release of a special glycoprotein, sialic acid, from the terminal ends of cell-membrane polysaccharides, where it is always found. Polysaccharides play a highly significant role in biochemical processes, with both enzymes and membrane receptors recognizing various groupings of specific sugars linked in highly specific ways.
Immediately preceding the release of sialic acid in the polysaccharide chain is the sugar galactose. The sialic acid/galactose arrangement is utilized as a biological indicator of cellular and molecular aging. As cells age, sialic acid is naturally expressed from the terminal ends of polysaccharides, thereby exposing galactose. A membrane-bound enzyme from the liver, galactose oxidase, recognizes galactose and eventually disorganizes it, disrupting cell function integrity and hastening demise. Aged red blood cells, which have expressed a significant amount of sialic acid, are removed from the blood by this process. (I theorize that the biological terrain may be at work in normal cell aging. That is, the rate at which sialic acid is expressed is determined by the levels of corrosive acids in the system and the body’s ability to remove them, although there are no doubt intracellular factors at work as well.)
I suggest from my years of clinical research that cellular breakdown is compounded by the fermentation of the galactose by the microzyma. This is a process that begins from within and not necessarily from without. Not only does this action create more sialic acid, it creates other toxic waste products such as acetic aldehyde, alcohol, uric acid, oxalic acid, etc. The increase in cellular disturbances and fermentation of the galactose creates biochemical signals for more galactose oxidase. This leads to greater cellular disorganization and developmental morbidity, especially in the red blood cells, and a rise in the level of detrital serum proteins, which encourages clotting. From this perspective, diabetes, arthritis, atherosclerosis and other symptomatologies become more clearly “degenerative” (see Tables 2-5, 12 and 13).
Fibrinogen is a rather elaborate protein having the structure of three beads on a string. Expressed on the end beads is sialic acid, which indicates the beginning of disorganization of the fibrinogen and a declining negative charge to the positive. Prior to the declining charge and the expression of sialic acid on the end beads, fibrinogen, which is negatively charged, will not polymerize the healthy blood due to mutual repulsion. However, fibrinogen will polymerize to damaged cells, EMPO, MAT and other positively charged areas of the body for repair purposes. Thus, as more and more sialic acid is expressed, there will be a significant reduction in the charge of the fibrinogen, acting as the primary requirement for the polymerization of fibrinogen (hypercoagulable state). The resulting polymer, fibrin monomer, is the protein chain used in the repair of cells and clotting of blood. End-linking will take place after the release of sialic acid (positive charge) by whatever means.
With this background, it is interesting to note that blood taken from persons suffering from anxiety is expressing sialic acid from fibrinogen, and is halfway toward clotting. Hormones released during anxiety states are easily fermented, giving more momentum to MAT and thereby resulting in this important change in fibrinogen. It leads to a clotting pattern characteristic of anxiety stress, and is readily identified in the MOST. As can be seen in this picture, the pattern is a “snowstorm” of protein polymerizations measuring from 2 to 10 microns.
[Micrograph 2: An Anxiety Profile showing a ‘snowstorm’ of 2 to 10 micron protein polymerizations starting from the center of the clot and moving out towards the edge]
As mentioned earlier, despite the attempt by the body to neutralize EMPO and MAT, an excess will initiate the release of MOBS by immune cells. A major MOBS is superoxide, designated chemically as O 2. It may exist alone or be attached to another element, such as potassium (KO’2) or sulfur (SO). Again, however, nature has provided a means of protecting healthy cells—their negative charge. Another protection against superoxide is the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), also found in all healthy cells.
A second member of the MOBS family is hydrogen peroxide (H202). This molecule is very unstable and tends to react rapidly with other biological molecules, damaging them. The release of hydrogen peroxide in the body is a response to the overgrowth of decompositional organisms in a declining pH (compromised biological terrain). The control for healthy cells against hydrogen peroxide is their negative charge and the protective enzyme catalase, one of the most efficient enzymes known.
When leukocytes and other white blood cells are stimulated by the presence of bacteria, yeast/fungus and mold, they treat these organisms as foreign particles to be eliminated. During and prior to phagocytosis, the foregoing oxidative cytotoxins, along with the hydroxyl radical (OH’), are generated and released specifically for neutralizing microforms or harmful substances. This release is referred to as an “oxidative burst.” As a result of fermentation and the production of exotoxins and mycotoxins that ferment galactose from cells, the immune system is activated. An oxidative burst is released to neutralize the morbid microforms and mycotoxicity. Like other biological processes faced with constantly alarming situations, the continued release of MOBS can get out of control. This may damage endothelial cells, the basement membrane, or other body elements, and this activates fibrinogen to fibrin monomer (repair protein), leading to DIC [see Table 9]. Interestingly, the white blood cells capable of neutralizing MAT through MOBS production are the same ones capable of phagocytosis, the process by which foreign matter, waste products and microorganisms are collected and dumped in the liver.
To summarize this section, pathological microforms and their acids create DIC by a number of pathways:
Leukotoxin (linoleic acid bound to mycotoxin) is highly toxic to cells. It causes platelet lysis, thereby releasing TF and initiating DIC.
The expression or release of sialic acid residues from healthy cells that have been disturbed allows for the fermentation of galactose, creating exotoxins and mycotoxins, biochemically activating galactose oxidase, which further disturbs and disorganizes healthy cells. This cycle loads the blood with debris.
EMPO and MAT disturb fibrinogen, which releases sialic acid and reduces the charge, allowing it to polymerize into fibrin monomer and fibrin nets.
The presence of exotoxins, endotoxins, and mycotoxins and their poisoning of cells activates the immune system. White blood cells generate MOBS (e.g., superoxide [0′2] or hydrogen peroxide [H202]). These substances bind to and neutralize EMPO and MAT. MOBS are repelled by healthy endothelial cells and the basement membrane because of their negative charge. Cellular disturbances and disorganization stimulate the generation of fibrin monomer for repair purposes, leading to DIC.
The Sonoclot Coagulation Analyzer provides a reaction-rate record of fibrin and clot formation with platelet interaction. An axially vibrating probe is immersed to a controlled depth in a 0.4 ml sample of blood. The viscous drag imposed upon the probe by the fluid is sensed by the transducer. The electronic circuitry quantifies the drag as a change in electrical output. The signal is transmitted to a chart recorder which provides a representation of the entire clot formation, clot contraction and clot lysis processes. The analyzer is extremely sensitive to minute changes in visco-elasticity and records fibrin formation at a very early stage. The Sonoclot has been evaluated scientifically and shown to provide an accurate measurement of the clotting process.[58,59]
One application of the Analyzer has been the development of a test to distinguish non-advanced breast cancer from tumors that are benign. The rationale for the test is the hypercoagulable state seen in cancer patients (Trousseau’s Syndrome), resulting from the generation of TF by leukocytes (monocytes). (See Table 4.)
DIC can be seen as a two-step process. First, fibrinogen, which is always present in the blood, is activated by any of several mechanisms. This activation leads to an automatic polymerization (chain formation) resulting in fibrin monomer. This is not apparent in a microscope unless the blood is allowed to clot, as in the MOST.[61,62] The second step is the precipitation or deposition of fibrin (hard clot) by several other mechanisms. One of these is the formation of crosslinks through the action of factor XIII. Another such mechanism may be poor circulation in an organ already blocked by deposited fibrin. The deposition of precipitated fibrin may be detected microscopically in tissue sections and diagnosed as DIC.
Because fibrin monomer is not readily detected, a chemical test for it is of immense value in diagnosing DIC. Research has indicated that its detection may be very useful in the early diagnosis of DIC and MAT. There are three fundamental physiologic areas related to blood clotting: (1) the prevention of blood clotting, (2) the clotting of blood, and (3) the removal of clotted blood once it has formed.
Enzymes are present that are capable of removing (lysing) clotted blood, one of which is plasmin. Another enzyme, plasminogen, is always present in the blood, but is inactive as a proteolytic agent. Plasminogen activator converts plasminogen to plasmin, which can degrade deposited fibrin. This process is not specific for fibrin, however, and other proteins may be affected. When fibrin is degraded (fibrinolysis), fibrin monomer, as well as several other products, are formed. Commercial kits are available for the analysis of fibrin degradation. This test is an indirect measure of the presence of DIC and MAT.
Protamine Sulfate: Protamine sulfate is a heparin binder sometimes used in surgery for excessive bleeding. The test, which indicates fibrin strands and fibrin degradation products, is conducted in a test tube, with fibrin monomer and fibrin forming early and polymerization of fibrin degradation products occurring later. Ethanol Gelation: A white precipitate is formed by the addition of ethanol to a solution in a test tube containing fibrin monomer as a degradation product of fibrin, indicating DIC and MAT.
Up to now, blood chemistries have been the primary mode of diagnosis or analysis for the presence of pathology. In the view presented here, the bright-field microscope, is used to easily and inexpensively reveal a disease state as reflected by changes in certain aspects of blood composition and clotting ability. DIC is characterized by the abnormal presence in the blood of fibrin monomer. When allowed to clot, blood containing such an abnormal artifact will exhibit distortions of normal patterns. The presence in the blood of soluble fragments of the extracellular matrix and soluble fibronectin, as well as other factors, will also create abnormal blood clotting patterns as described below.
A small amount of blood from a fingertip is contacted with a microscope slide. A series of drops is allowed to dry and clot in a normal manner. Under the compound microscope, the pattern seen in healthy subjects is essentially the same—a dense mat of red areas interconnected by dark, irregular lines, completely filling the area of the drop. The blood of people under mycotoxic/oxidative stress exhibits a variety of characteristic patterns which deviate from normal, but with one striking, common abnormality: “clear” or white areas, in which the fibrin net/red blood cell conglomerate is missing.
[Micrograph 3; An abnormal clot with striking ‘clear’ or white areas or protein polymerization as seen in the hyper coagulated blood of a patient with lower bowel imbalances]
Why the fibrin net is missing may be understood from the following: Two peptides—A and B—in the central protein bead of the fibrinogen structure become bound in the cross-linking process. There are two ways this can be configured: (1) Thrombin is capable of activating peptides A and B, resulting in the formation of a polymer loosely held together only by hydrogen bonds; (2) With peptides A and B activated normally, the resulting hard clot is insoluble, indicating that the peptides are linked by covalent bonds. The difference in bonds results from factor XIII, an enzyme which links the two fibrin strands with a glutamine-lysine peptide bond.
Additional research has shown that the release of sialic acid from fibrinogen inhibits the action of factor XIII, resulting in a soft, white clot. In addition, acetic aldehyde has been shown to inactivate factor XIII directly. The soft clotting, compounded by other polymeric aggregations (described below), results in clear areas in the dry specimens. In the opposite extreme, high serum levels of calcium, for the purpose of neutralizing MAT, activates factor XIII, leading to excessive cross-linking of fibrin to form a clot harder than normal. This is reflected in the MOST pattern characteristic of definite hypercalcemia— that of a series of cracks in the clot radiating outward from the center, resembling the spokes of a wheel. High serum calcium is the body’s attempt to compensate for the acidity of mycotoxic stress by pulling this alkalizing mineral from bone into the blood. This demand creates endocrine stress in turn, because reabsorption of bone is mediated by parathormone (PTH). Therefore, this clotting pattern indicates calcium deficiency and thyroid/parathyroid imbalance.
[Micrograph 4: A mineral deficiency or more specifically a calcium deficiency pattern associated with an imbalance of they thyroid and/or parathyroid}
Advanced research has shown that there are seven carbohydrate chains in fibrinogen (each terminated by sialic acid). A second action of factor XIII is to ferment a large amount of carbohydrate during clotting. Because carbohydrate is most often water soluble, the loss of this material undoubtedly adds to the insolubility of a clot, while pathological retention contributes to the softness of the abnormal clot.
Clinical experience demonstrates that the MOST is a reliable indicator of exotoxic and mycotoxic stress and, concurrently, of various disorganizing symptomatologies associated with fermentative and oxidative processes. As various cellular degradation occurs, the blood-borne phenomena which accompany such symptoms as diabetes, arthritis, heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis and cancer show up in the MOST, often with sialic acid beads in the clear areas of polymerized proteins. (Determination of the liberation of sialic acid from carbohydrate has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as an accepted indicator for cancer, and is clinically available.)
[Micrograph 5: Sialic acid beads are seen inside the protein
polymerization of the hypocoagulated blood as black dots]
The extent and shape of the clear areas are reflective of particular symptomatologies which have arisen from the way in which the disease condition manifests in a given individual. This observation is borne out by having the patient undergo appropriate alkalizing therapy. With success of treatment based on the patient’s freedom from symptoms, sense of well-being, and live blood exams discussed in the main text of Sick and Tired, Reclaim Your Inner Terrain, Appendix C, repeated analysis with the MOST reveals a progressively improving clotting pattern.
[Micrographs 6 and 7: Medically diagnosed cancer patient with large polymerized protein pools (PPP) in the hypo-coagulated blood above. In the picture below PPP’s have significantly reduced in size and the blood is moving to a more hyper-coagulated state as a result of reducing acid loads with an alkaline lifestyle and diet (7, 70)]
Because of its very nature, the MOST is eminently suited to reveal and measure the presence in the blood of abnormal substances, clotting factors, and disorganization of cells due to an inverted way of living, eating, and thinking, which gives rise to MAT. The MOST indicates both the direct and indirect activity of MAT on blood clotting, endothelium, and the extracellular matrix (described next), as well as on biochemical pathways, including hormonal ones. The generation of excessive MOBS in response to EMPO and MAT, the inability that accompanies all degenerative symptoms to neutralize or eradicate EMPO and MAT, and the recognized hyper- and hypocoagulable states seen in various symptomatologies, will beyond doubt be revealed in the MOST.
[Micrograph 8 and 9: Medically Diagnosed HIV/AIDS micrograph showing above an Aspergullus niger mold crystal using dark field microscopy and below a hypocoagulated blood clot with systemic protein polymerizations measuring in excess of 40 microns using bright field microscopy}
As mentioned, hormones are easily fermented, and this will show up as a hypocoagulated blood pattern in the MOST. It is my opinion, this hypocoagulated blood appears in the MOST as misty clouds of protein polymerizations throughout the clot, as seen in the accompanying picture.
[Micrograph 10: Poor fibrin interconnection in the clot associated with endocrine or hormonal imbalance]
There is now a clearer picture of the biochemical rationale for correlating abnormal blood clotting patterns with the presence of degenerative symptoms. A link between symptoms and the distorted clotted blood patterns has been delineated in the MOST.
Another reason for the abnormal clotting patterns accompanying pathological states, in addition to insufficient bonding of fibrinogen peptides as seen in the MOST, is presence in the blood of water-soluble fragments of the extracellular matrix.
The extracellular matrix (EM) is a three-dimensional gel, binding cells together and composed of five or more major constituents: collagen (protein), hyaluronic acid (polysaccharide), proteoglycans (pro- tein/polysaccharide), fibronectin and laminin. Also included are glycosaminoglycans and elastin. In every degenerative disease studied by this author, evidence has been found for MAT activity destructive of EM.
One of the proteolytic enzymes activated in response to EMPO and MAT is alpha-1 antitrypsin (capable of neutralizing MAT), normally not active in the presence of the enzyme trypsin. The active portion of this anti-exotoxin and antimycotoxin contains the amino acid methionine, which includes a C-S-C linkage. When chelated by the hydroxyl radical (one of the MOBS oxidants), methionine’s central sulfur atom acquires one or two oxygen atoms (forming the sulfone or sulfoxide respectively). The fermentation of methionine is a secondary effect of immune response to an alarming situation, intended to neutralize MAT and prevent degradation of the EM. Once alpha-1 antitrypsin is exhausted, MAT will have more access to the EM. If the EM is damaged beyond repair, then the enzyme trypsin is released to disorganize and recycle the cells involved.
A similar scenario holds for the enzymes collage- nase and elastase. Thus, the absence of alpha-1 antitrypsin in the presence of EMPO and MAT activates three enzymes which degrade the extracellular matrix. Degradation of the EM by enzymes and MAT puts into the blood the water-soluble fragments (proteins and glycoproteins) of normally insoluble EM components (see Table 11). The presence of these fragments modifies the normal clotting pattern (described below), as seen in the M/OST, and is therefore an indication of EM degradation, which is always found with degenerative symptoms. (Also present is fibrin monomer, which has been found in the blood of patients suffering from collagen disease. See Table 11.)
Fibronectin is a molecule in EM having several binding sites for various long-chain molecules— heparin (a sulfonated polysaccharide) and collagen, for example. As such, it functions as a cellular glue, binding cells together as well as various components of the EM. A soluble form of fibronectin is normally found free in the blood, and enters into the formation of a blood clot through the action of factor XIII. This form of fibronectin binds to fibrin. Elevated, bound-serum fibronectin results from EM fragmentation by MAT, and accompanies degenerative symptoms such as arthritis and emphysema (collagen diseases).
Water-soluble fragments of the EM bound by fibronectin form a three-dimensional network or gel in the pathologically clotted blood (fibrin and components of the blood clotting cascade). Since fibronectin binds to both fibrin and collagen, the two polymeric networks are superimposed and intermingled, resulting in a modification of the normal clotting pattern. Exactly how the pattern is modified depends upon the nature of the collagen abnormally present, the nature and extent of hyaluronate present, and the degree to which EM fibronectin has been released by MAT.
Thus, it is easily seen that there are many forms which the pattern of clotted blood may take, depending on the individual and the internal terrain that produced the modifying substances. The MOST reveals not only the presence of exotoxic and mycotoxic stress, but indicates as well the nature of the symptom(s) resulting from the stress (see Table 12). Since MAT underlie the entire complex of events which degrade the extracellular matrix, I must conclude that the absence of these exotoxins, endotoxins and mycotoxins would provide substantial improvements in tissue integrity and the overall physiology and functionality of the organism or animal and human.
 Jones, T.W., “Observations on some points in the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the blood.” British Foreign Medical Review, 1842. 14 : 585.
 Trousseau, A., Phlegmasis alba delens. “Clinque Medicale de L’Hotel Dieu de Paris.”, 1865, 3:94
 Virchow, R., “Hypercoagulability: A review of its development, clinical application, and recent progress.” Gesammelte Abhandlungen our Wussenschaftlichen Medizin, 1856, 26:477.
 Rapaport, S.I., “Blood Coagulation and its Alterations in Hemorrhagic, and Thrombotic Disorders.” The Western Journal of Medicine, 1993; 158: 153.
 Hamilton, P.J. et al., “Disseminatied Intravascular Coagulation: A Review.” Journal of Clinical Pathology, 1978, 31: 609
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 Young, RO, “Sick and Tired, Reclaim Your Inner Terraine,” Woodland Publishing, 1999.
 BeChamp, A., “The Blood and Its Third Anatomical Element,” Hikari Omni Publishing, 1999.
 Schwerdtle, C, Arnoul, F, Enerlein, G, “Introduction to Darkfield Diagnostics”, Semmelweis-Verlag (2006).
 Hawk, BO, Thoma, GE, Inkley, JJ, The Evaluation of the Bolen Test as a Screening Test for Malignancy*, cancerres.aacrjournals.org on December 5, 2015. © 1951 American Association for Cancer Research.
 Uchida, K., “Role of Reactive Aldehyde in Cardiovascular Diseases”, Labortory of Food and Biodynamics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya, Japan , Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 28, Issue 12, 15 June 2000, Pages 1685–1696
 Kutzing, MK, Firestein, BL, “Altered Uric Acid Levels and Disease States”, Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience (M.K.K., B.L.F.), Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering (M.K.K.), Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey. Address correspondence to: Dr. Bonnie L. Firestein, Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
 Claudino, M,. Ceolin,,DS, Alberti, S., Cestari, TM, Spadella, CT, Fischer Rubira-Bullen, IR, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet, Gerson Francisco de Assis, ” Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Triggers the Development of Periodontal Disease in Rats”, Published: December 19, 2007. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001320
 Young RO (2015), “Alkalizing Nutritional Therapy in the Prevention and Reversal of any Cancerous Condition. Int J Complement Alt Med 2(1): 00046. DOI: 10.15406/ijcam.2015.02.00046
 Heloise Pöckel Fernandes, Carlos Lenz Cesar, and Maria de Lourdes Barjas-Castro, “Electrical properties of the red blood cell membrane and immunohematological investigation”, Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter. 2011; 33(4): 297–301. doi: 10.5581/1516-8484.20110080 PMCID: PMC3415751
 Young, RO, “Metabolic and Dietary Acids are the Fuel That Lights the Fuse that Ignites Inflammation that Leads to Cancer”. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/metabolic-dietary-acids-fuse-ignites-inflammation-causes-young. 2015.
 Snaders, R, “Did Bacteria Spark Evolution of Multicellular Life?” Berkeley News, Research, Science and Environment, October 24, 2012.
 Wenner, M, “Humans Carry More Bacterial Cells than Human Ones”. Scientific American, November 30th, 2007.
[21} Animals and humans respond to MAT as a poison.
 Morrison, D.C. et al. The effects of bacterial endotoxins on host mediation systems. American Journal of Pathology, 1978; 93: 526.
 Van Deventer, S.J.H. et al. Intestinal Endotoxemia. Gastroenterology, 1988; 94(3): 825-831.
 Morrison, D.C. et al., op. cit.
 Hu, T. et al. Synthesis of tissue factor messenger RNA and procoagulant activity in breast cancer cells in response to serum stimulation. Thrombosis Research, 1993; 72: 155.
 Rapaport, op. cit. (Ref. 4).
 Mackman et al. Lipopolysaccharides—mediated transcriptional activation of the human tissue factor gene in THP-1 monocytic cells requires both activator protein 1 and nuclear factor kappa B binding sites. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 1991; 174: 1517.
 Yamada, O. et al. Deleterious effects of endotoxins on cultured endothelial cells: An in vitro model of vascular injury. Inflammation, 1981; 5: 115.
 Colucci, M. et al. Cultured human endothelial cells: An in vitro model of vascular injury. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1983; 71: 1893.
 Cho, T.H. et al. Effects of Escherichia coli toxin on structure and permeability of myocardial capillaries.
 Acta Pathologica Japonica, 1991; 41: 12.
 Rapaport, op. cit. (Ref. 4).
 Margolis, J. The interrelationship of coagulation of plasma and release of peptides. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1963; 104: 133.
 23-25. Ibid.
 Morrison, D.C. et al., op. cit.
 Rapaport, op. cit. (Ref. 4).
 Alberts, B. et al, eds. Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1989 (2nd ed.), p. 818.
 Rapaport, op. cit. (Ref. 4).
 Bertz, A., et al. Modulation by cytokines of leukocyte endothelial cell interactions. Implications for thrombosis. Biorheology, 1990; 27: 455.
 Rapaport, op. cit. (Ref. 4).
 Nachman, R.L. et al. Hypercoagulable states. Annab of Internal Medicine, 1993; 119: 819.
 Tallman, M.S., et al. New insights into the pathogenesis of coagulation dysfunction in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Leukemia and Lymphoma, 1993; IT. 27.
 Silberberg, J.M., et al. Identification of tissue factor in two human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Cancer Research, 1989; 49: 5443.
 Grimstad, I.A. et al. Thromboplastin release, but not content, correlates with spontaneous metastasis of cancer cells. International Journal of Cancer, 1988; 41: 427.
 Gunji, Y. et al. Role of fibrin coagulation in protection of murine tumor cells from destruction by cytotoxic cells. Cancer Research, 1988; 48: 5216.
 Sugiyama, S. et al. The role of leukotoxin (9, 10- epoxy-12-octadecenoate) in the genesis of coagulation abnormalities. Life Sciences, 1988; 43: 221.
 White, A. et al, eds. Principles of Biochemistry. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1964, p. 648.
 Mueller, H.E. et al. Increase of microbial neuraminidase activity by the hydrogen peroxide concentration. Experientia, 1972; 23: 397.
 Young, Robert O. Fermentology and oxidology. The study of fungus-produced mycotoxic species and the activation of the immune system and release of microzymian oxidative buffering species (MOBS). Self- published: InnerLight Biological Research Foundation, Alpine, Utah, 1994.
Chandler, WL. et al. Evaluation of a new dynamic viscometer for measuring the viscosity of whole blood and plasma. Clinical Chemistry, 1986; 32: 505.
 Saleem, A. et al. Viscoelastic measurement of clot formation: A new test of platelet function. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, 1983; 13: 115.
 Spillert, C.R. et al. Altered coagulability: An aid toselective breast biopsy. Journal of the National Medical Association, 1993; 85: 273.
 Bowie, E.J. et al. The clinical pathology of intravascular coagulation. Bibliotheca Haematologica, 1983; 49: 217.
 Muller-Berghaus, G. et al. The role of granulocytes in the activation of intravascular coagulation and the precipitation of soluble fibrin by endotoxin. Blood, 1975; 45: 631.
 Bick, R.L. Disseminated intravascular coagulation. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, 1993; 6: 1259.
 Bredbacka, S. et al. Laboratory methods for detecting disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC): New aspects. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 1993; 37: 125.
 Sigma Diagnostics, St. Louis, MO 63178; tel: 314- 771-5765.
 Nachman, R.L. et al. Detection of intravascular coagulation by a serial-dilution protamine sulfate test. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1971; 75: 895.
 Breen, F.A. et al. Ethanol gelation: A rapid screening test for intravascular coagulation. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1970; 69: 1197.
 Hay, E.D., ed. Cell Biology of Extracellular Matrix. New York: Plenum Press, 1981, p. 653.
 Carp, H. et al. In vitro suppression of serum elastase- inhibitory capacity by ROTS generated by phagocytos- ing polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1979; 63: 793.
 Wilson, C.L. The alternatively spliced V region contributes to the differential incorporation of plasma and cellular fibronectins into fibrin clots. Journal of Cell Biology, 1992; 119: 923.
 Young, RO, Young, SR, “The pH Miracle Revised and Updated”, Hachette Publishing, 2010.
Breast thermography uses special infrared-sensitive cameras to digitally record images of the variations in surface temperature of the human breast. The recorded images are called thermograms.
Blood vessels, cysts, other benign sources, and metabolic processes such as growing breast tumors all radiate heat from within the breast. A portion of the radiated heat reaches the surface of the breast, where it composes a stable thermal pattern.
A breast thermography examination consists of recording these thermal patterns and interpreting them according to a strict and complicated analytical procedure. When analyzed properly by highly trained individuals, the images implicitly disclose various pathological and abnormal processes.
Breast thermography is based on two solid principals. First, departure from the normal thermal symmetry of the two breasts indicates abnormality and the possible presence of serious pathology. Second, and especially important in the earliest detection of breast disorders, pre-cancerous growths and cancerous tumors are characterized by thermographically visible changes in the breast’s vascular system.
Thermal Symmetry: Human beings are symmetrical. We have a left side and a right side that in the perfect body, are mirror images of each other. The thermal patterns of two normal, healthy breasts are equally symmetrical uniform temperature distributions interrupted only by the thermal signature of a minimal venous pattern.
The normal functioning of the breast is altered with the presence of a breast disorder, and when the functional behavior of a breast changes, thermal symmetry is lost. The more serious the disorder, the more pronounced are the differences in thermal symmetry of the two breasts. Thermography is the only method available with which we can observe the asymmetry.
Vascular Changes: Developing cancers are characterized by abnormally elevated temperatures (hyperthermia) and hypervascularity. The developing tumor demands blood for both nourishment and cooling, and the body responds by increasing blood circulation to the region of the tumor.
Dormant blood vessels are “awakened,” blood vessels expand (vasodilation), existing veins migrate to the tumor site, and new blood vessels are created (angiogenesis).
The faster the tumor metabolizes, the more additional blood flow is needed to support and cool it, and the more the body responds by amplifying the vascular capability of the breast. All of these changes are clearly visible and recordable with Thermography. Again, Thermography is the only method available to observe these changes.
Detection of breast cancer at very early stage is necessary to get proper treatments. It has been observed that ultrasound has better records than that of mammography for detecting breast cancer.
The best combination of tests for breast screening is Diagnostic Thermography and Ultrasound.
Breast Ultrasound is an anatomical non-invasive, painless screening test without ionized radiation. Ultrasound uses sound waves to outline a part of the body. For this test, a small instrument called a transducer is placed on the skin (which is often first lubricated with ultrasound gel) and emits sound waves off body tissues. The echoes are converted by a computer into an image that is displayed on a computer screen. Ultrasound imaging is “real-time,” meaning that it can show exactly what’s happening in the breast at that moment, help to distinguish between cysts (fluid-filled sacs) and solid masses, detect increased vascularity around or within the mass, see the shape, exact size and location of the mass, cyst, calcification or dilated mammary ducts.
Breast ultrasound is frequently used to evaluate breast abnormalities. Ultrasound allows significant freedom in obtaining images of the breast from almost any orientation. Ultrasound is excellent at imaging cysts: round, fluid-filled, pockets inside the breast. Additionally, ultrasound can often quickly determine if a suspicious area is in fact a cyst or an increased density of solid tissue (dense mass) which may require additional evaluation to determine if it is malignant (cancerous).
If breast ultrasound is a better test for detection of abnormalities, WHY do doctors still ask patients to get a yearly mammogram instead of an ultrasound?
Is mammography an effective tool for detecting tumors? In a Swedish study of 60,000 women, 70 percent of the mammographically detected tumors weren’t tumors at all. These “false positives” aren’t just financial and emotional strains, they may also lead to many unnecessary and invasive biopsies. In fact, 70 to 80 percent of all positive mammograms do not, upon biopsy, show any presence of cancer.
At the same time, mammograms also have a high rate of missed tumors, or “false negatives. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) puts the false negative rate even higher at 40 percent among women ages 40-49. National Institutes of Health spokespeople also admit that mammograms miss 10 percent of malignant tumors in women over 50.
Researchers have found that breast tissue is denser among younger women, making it difficult to detect tumors. For this reason, false negatives are twice as likely to occur in premenopausal mammograms.
Many critics of mammography cite the hazardous health effects of radiation. A mammogram is an X-ray picture of the breast that can reveal tumor growths otherwise undetectable in a physical exam. Like all x-rays, mammograms use doses of ionizing radiation to create the image.
Despite better technology and decreased doses of radiation, scientists still claim mammography is a substantial risk. About 75 percent of breast cancer could be prevented by avoiding or minimizing exposure to the ionizing radiation. This includes mammography, x-rays and other medical and dental sources.
Since mammographic screening was introduced, the incidence of a form of breast cancer called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has increased by 328 percent.
Two hundred percent of this increase is allegedly due to mammography. In addition to harmful radiation, mammography may also help spread existing cancer cells due to the considerable pressure placed on the woman’s breast during the procedure. According to some health practitioners, this compression could cause existing cancer cells to metastasize from the breast tissue.
Cancer research has also found a gene, called oncogene AC that is extremely sensitive to even small doses of radiation. A significant percentage of women in the United States have this gene, which could increase their risk of mammography-induced cancer. They estimate that 10,000 A-T carriers will die of breast cancer this year due to mammography.
An analysis conducted by the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) reveals that, overall, ultrasounds have a 95.7 percent sensitivity rate in detecting malignant tumor cells while mammograms are only 60.9 percent sensitive, by comparison. Among 1,208 cases evaluated, ultrasounds also successfully detected about 57 percent more harmful breast cancers compared to mammograms.
Earlier study finds ultrasounds far more effective than mammograms.
A New Zealand study published in the American Journal of Surgery back in 2004 clearly illustrates this point, having found that ultrasound is “significantly better than mammography for detecting invasive breast cancer,” having demonstrated a 92 percent success rate.
Combining both mammography and ultrasound, on the other hand, only increased breast cancer detection by nine percent, which may represent statistical insignificance.
Early Detection Saves Lives!
To learn more about pleomorphism or biological transformation and the real cause of ALL sickness and disease read Sick and Tired and Dr. Young’s technical essays, ‘A Finger on the Magic of Life’, Patholigical Blood Coagulation’, and ‘A Second Thought About Viruses, Vaccines and the HIV/AIDS Hypothesis’.
Dr. Young is also offering educational seminars at The Rancho Del Sol/pH Miracle Center in Valley Center, California as follows:
Curricula and Events at The pH Miracle Living Center/Rancho del Sol
16390 Dia Del Sol
Valley Center, California 92082
November 10th, 2014
Blood Analysis Mysteries and Facts
Taught by: Dr. Robert O Young
Location: 16390 Dia del Sol, Valley Center, California 92082
Time: 1pm to 5pm
What: $199 class.
Call 760-484-1075 for more details
November 11th, 12th and 13th, 2014
pH Miracle Mini Coaching Course
Taught by: Dr. Robert O Young
Location: 16390 Dia del Sol, Valley Center, CA
What: $795 class
Time: 10am to Noon and from 2pm to 5pm
Call for details: 760-484-1075
Dec 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th, 2014
Live and Dried Blood Microscopy Course
Taught by: Dr. Robert O Young
Location: Valley Center, CA
What: $9,995, includes morning exercise, breakfast, lunch and dinner.
Call 760-484-1075 for more details
April 12, 2012
Dr. Ben Kim states: Is it true that the foods and beverages you consume cause your blood to become more alkaline or acidic? Contrary to popular hype, the answer is: not to any significant degree.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: The pH of blood and interstitial fluids are constantly being challenged with environmental, dietary, respiratory, and metabolic acids. The body deals with blood acids by eliminating these acids through the four channels of elimination (urination, perspiration, defecation and respiration) and the buffering of acids through the alkaline buffering system in order to maintain the delicate pH balance of the blood plasma and interstitial fluids at 7.365.
Dr. Kim Ben states: The pH of your blood is tightly regulated by a complex system of buffers that are continuously at work to maintain a range of 7.35 to 7.45, which is slightly more alkaline than pure water.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: The pH of your extracellular fluids, which includes the blood plasma and the interstitial fluids are kept at a very narrow range at 7.365 to 7.385. Any pH measurement of blood plasma in excess of 7.385 indicates a condition of compensated acidosis and any pH measurement of blood plasma or interstitial fluids below 7.365 indicates a condition of decompensated acidosis.
When the pH of the blood plasma increases above the 7.385 this is the result of the blood pushing environmental, dietary, respiratory and metabolic acids out into the interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues of the schade as the blood is pulling alkaline mineral salts such as calcium ions from the bones or magnesium ions from the muscles to offset the increase of acids in the blood. It is always a sure sign that as the blood plasma is becoming more alkaline the interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues of the schade are becoming more acidic and this is the cause of ALL inflammatory and degenerative diseases.
When the body tissues, organs, cells, or the alkaline reserves (sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium) become deficient in alkaline minerals the blood plasma pH will drop below the ideal 7.365 causing decompensated acidosis leading to hemolysis at a pH below 7.365 or a coma and/or death at a pH below 7.2.
Dr. Kim Ben states: If the pH of your blood falls below 7.35, the result is a condition called acidosis, a state that leads to central nervous system depression. Severe acidosis – where blood pH falls below 7.00 – can lead to a coma and even death.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: If pH of the blood plasma drops below 7.365 the result is called decompenated acidosis. If the pH of the blood plasma stays at the ideal 7.365 this is called compensated acidosis. And if the pH of the blood plasma increases above the 7.365 this is called “latent tissue acidosis” in the interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues of the schade.
The blood plasma pH always goes alkaline when the blood pushes out environmental, dietary, respiratory or metabolic acids out into the interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues of the schade. These acids are always deposited into what I call the ‘acid catchers’ which are the connective tissues of the schade. This leads to what I call ‘latent tissue acidosis’.
As acids build-up in the colloidal connective tissues of the schade and if NOT eliminated by the lymphatic system and the out through the channels of elimination, including the skin, lungs, bowels or urine this will result in ALL the connective tissue diseases and degenerative diseases, including ALL cancerous conditions.
Dr. Kim Ben states: If the pH of your blood rises above 7.45, the result is alkalosis. Severe alkalosis can also lead to death, but through a different mechanism; alkalosis causes all of the nerves in your body to become hypersensitive and over-excitable, often resulting in muscle spasms, nervousness, and convulsions; it’s usually the convulsions that cause death in severe cases.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: If the blood plasma pH increases over 7.385 you are in a state of ‘latent tissue acidosis’ of the interstitial fluids on the colloidal connective tissue of the shade and a high risk for cancer. This is what I call the “tee-ter-totter effect”. The body is pulling alkaline minerals into the blood to compensate for an equal amount of acids being pushed out into the interstitial fluids of the connective tissues of the schade to keep the blood plasma in an alkaline state. The result is tissue acidosis which then leads to hypersensitivity and over-excitable nerves, muscle spasms, nervousness and convulsions that can lead to coma or even death. All of these symptoms are NOT a result of too much base or alkalinity but the result of too much acid from the blood being deposited into the interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues of the schade. The cause of ‘latent tissue acidosis’ is caused by an acidic lifestyle and dietary choices.
Dr. Kim Ben states: The bottom line is that if you’re breathing and going about your daily activities, your body is doing an adequate job of keeping your blood pH somewhere between 7.35 to 7.45, and the foods that you are eating are not causing any wild deviations of your blood pH.
Dr. Robert O. Young: The bottom line is when you understand that having an acidic lifestyle and diet does affect the blood plasma and interstitial fluid pH in a negative way.
The blood responds to increased acids from lifestyle and diet by pushing them out into the interstitial fluids of the connective tissues or the colloidal connective tissues of the schade. The foods you eat, the liquids you drink, the air you breath, even your thoughts will effect the pH of blood and then the interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues. The blood is constantly responding to the acidic wastes of lifestyle and diet choices!!!!!!!!!!!
Dr. Kim Ben stated: So what’s up with all the hype about the need to alkalize your body? And what’s to be made of the claim that being too acidic can cause osteoporosis, kidney stones, and a number of other undesirable health challenges?
Dr. Robert O. Young states: The hype about alkalizing your blood and then interstitial fluids of the connective tissues is important because the human body is alkaline by design and acidic by function. This is the foundation for understanding the true cause of ALL sickness and disease.
Dr. Kim Ben states: As usual, the answers to such questions about human health can be found in understanding basic principles of human physiology. So let’s take a look at the fundamentals of pH and how your body regulates the acid-alkaline balance of its fluids on a moment-to-moment basis.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: The problems with current understanding of the basic principals of human physiology is the basic principals do NOT understand that the human body is alkaline by design and acidic by function. Current medical savants DO NOT understand that there is only one health, one sickness, one disease and one treatment. The one health is to maintain the alkaline design of the blood and interstitial fluids of the connective tissues with an alkaline lifestyle and diet. The one sickness and one disease is the over-acidification of the blood and then tissues due to an inverted way of living, eating and thinking. The one treatment is to restore the alkaline design of the body fluids with an alkaline lifestyle and diet. Remember the fish bowl metaphor? It goes like this – When the fish is sick what would you do? Treat the fish or change the water? Remember the fish is only as healthy as the water it swims in.
Extracellular fluid, is the fluid found outside of your cells. Extracellular fluids are further classified as one of two types:
Interstitial fluid, which occupies all of the spaces that surround your tissues. Interstitial fluid includes the fluids found in your eyes, lymphatic system, joints, nervous system, and between the protective membranes that surround your cardiovascular, respiratory, and abdominal cavities.
Your blood (plasma) needs to maintain a pH of 7.35 to 7.45 for your cells to function properly. Why your cells require your blood to maintain a pH in this range to stay healthy is beyond the scope of this article, but the most important reason is that all of the proteins that work in your body have to maintain a specific geometric shape to function, and the three-dimensional shapes of the proteins in your body are affected by the tiniest changes in the pH of your body fluids.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: pH is a measurement of the concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in a aqueous solution. Any aqueous solutions, including your blood plasma interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues of the schade (the largest organ of the human body) and the intracellular fluids that are saturated in hydrogen ions is less or more acidic and any aqueous solution that is saturated in hydroxyl ions is less or more base or alkaline.
Once again, the human body is alkaline in its design and acidic in its function. Your blood plasma and interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissue of the schade needs to be maintained at a delicate pH of 7.365 for your cells to function properly.
I have found in my own blood research that when your pH is stable at 7.365 you find healthy blood which is even in color, even in size and even in shape. The red blood cell is the primary stem cell which becomes all other body cells. And the health of the blood and the interstitial fluid of the colloidal connective tissues of the shcade is directly connected to the health of all body cells. It is blood that becomes, liver, heart, brain and skin cells. All red blood cells and then body cells are made up of microzymas.
Microzymas are the foundational, indestructable matter and intelligent matter that makes up all living cells, including the DNA. The tiniest changes in the pH of the body fluids can cause the microzymas in the red blood cells or body cells to change into bacteria, yeast and/or mold. This is how germs are created – from within NOT from without.
Dr. Kim Ben states: The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. A liquid that has a pH of 7 is considered to be neutral (pure water is generally considered to have a neutral pH). Fluids that have a pH below 7 – like lemon juice and coffee – are considered to be acidic. And fluids that have a pH above 7 – like human blood and milk of magnesia – are considered to be alkaline.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 with the pH of 7 being the midpoint (pure water may have a pH of 7 but I have found that the pH of pure water has a range of 6.2 to 7.2 – a 10 times exponential swing. I have also found that pure water has an oxidative reduction potential in a range of +50mV to +150mV) which will drain energy from the body. Lemon is an alkaline fruit not an acidic fruit. This is because of its low sugar and high alkaline mineral content of potassium bicarbonate. Lemons do not draw down on the alkaline buffering system and contributes in excess of 10 times in hydroxyl ions (OH-) in relationship to its hydrogen ion content.
Dr. Kim Ben states: It’s important to note that on the pH scale, each number represents a tenfold difference from adjacent numbers; in other words, a liquid that has a pH of 6 is ten times more acidic than a liquid that has a pH of 7, and a liquid with a pH of 5 is one hundred times more acidic than pure water. Most carbonated soft drinks (pop) have a pH of about 3, making them about ten thousand times more acidic than pure water. Please remember this the next time you think about drinking a can of pop.
When you ingest foods and liquids, the end products of digestion and assimilation of nutrients often results in an acid or alkaline-forming effect – the end products are sometimes called acid ash or alkaline ash.
Dr. Robert O. Young states – All food and drink which has a pH of less than 8.4 will cause the production of sodium bicarbonate by the stomach and the release of this sodium bicarbonate via the salivary glands, the pylorus glands, the pancreas, gall bladder and intestinal glands to alkalize whatever ingested. The main purpose of stomach is to prepare the food in a liquid state at a pH of 8.4 for biological transformation into stem cells which takes place in the crypts of the small intestines.
Dr. Kim Ben states: Also, as your cells produce energy on a continual basis, a number of different acids are formed and released into your body fluids. These acids – generated by your everyday metabolic activities – are unavoidable; as long as your body has to generate energy to survive, it will produce a continuous supply of acids.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: Metabolism produces acidic waste products of lactic, uric, citric and glucose if not eliminated will cause dis-ease and then disease. You are only as healthy as the alkaline fluids of the body which includes the extracellular and intracellular fluids.
Dr. Kim Ben states: So there are two main forces at work on a daily basis that can disrupt the pH of your body fluids – these forces are the acid or alkaline-forming effects of foods and liquids that you ingest, and the acids that you generate through regular metabolic activities. Fortunately, your body has three major mechanisms at work at all times to prevent these forces from shifting the pH of your blood outside of the 7.35 to 7.45 range.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: There are seven main sources at work on a daily basis that can disrupt the pH of your body fluids – these forces include acids from the external environment, acids from the foods and liquids ingested, acids from the air you breath, acids from metabolism, acids from cells breaking down or catobolic acitivity, acids from endogenous bacteria, yeast and mold, and acids from respiration. Your body has an elaborate alkalizing buffering system at work at all times to help prevent through chelaton these forces from shifting the pH of the blood plasma pH as well as the interstitial fluid pH at a delicate pH of 7.365. It is important to note that when the alkaline buffering system (a new organ discovered by Dr. Robert O. Young) becomes depleted and acids are being deposited into the interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues and the fatty tissues this is when dis-ease and eventual disease manifests.
Dr. Kim Ben states:
These mechanisms are:
Dr. Kim Ben states: When people encourage you to “alkalize your blood,” most of them mean that you should eat plenty of foods that have an alkaline-forming effect on your system. The reason for making this suggestion is that the vast majority of highly processed foods – like white flour products and white sugar – have an acid-forming effect on your system, and if you spend years eating a poor diet that is mainly acid-forming, you will overwork some of the buffering systems mentioned above to a point where you could create undesirable changes in your health.
Dr. Robert O. Young states; Everything you eat, everything you drink, everything you breath, everything you think and everything you do affects the blood and interstitial fluids in an acidic way to a lesser or greater degree. That is why we age. We do not get old we mold from years of acidic lifestyle and dietary choices. The key to a healthy life or a life of sickness and disease and then eventual death is in the blood! Especially the blood plasma.
Dr. Kim Ben states: For example, your phosphate buffer system uses different phosphate ions in your body to neutralize strong acids and bases. About 85% of the phosphate ions that are used in your phosphate buffer system comes from calcium phosphate salts, which are structural components of your bones and teeth. If your body fluids are regularly exposed to large quantities of acid-forming foods and liquids, your body will draw upon its calcium phosphate reserves to supply your phosphate buffer system to neutralize the acid-forming effects of your diet. Over time, this may lead to structural weakness in your bones and teeth.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: Dr Kim Ben has described the cause of bone loss correctly. It is important to remember that the activation of the pHosphate buffering system does not happen when you are on an alkalizing lifestyle and diet and hyper-perfusing the blood and interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues with alkalinity. The alkaline lifestyle and diet is outlined in my book, The pH Miracle Revised and Updated.
Drawing on your calcium phosphate reserves at a high rate can also increase the amount of calcium that is eliminated via your genito-urinary system, which is why a predominantly acid-forming diet can increase your risk of developing calcium-rich kidney stones.
Dr. Ken Ben states: This is just one example of how your buffering systems can be overtaxed to a point where you experience negative health consequences. Since your buffering systems have to work all the time anyway to neutralize the acids that are formed from everyday metabolic activities, it’s in your best interest to follow a diet that doesn’t create unnecessary work for your buffering systems.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: The protocol that will NOT unnecessarily activate the alkaline buffering systems of the body is outlined in the pH Miracle Revised and Updated by Dr. Robert O. Young.
Dr. Kim Ben states: Generally speaking, most vegetables and fruit have an alkaline-forming effect on your body fluids.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: Generally, all green fruit and vegetables are the ONLY alkalizing foods for the blood and interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues and are critical in building healthy blood and then healthy body cells.
Dr. Kim Ben states: Most grains, animal foods, and highly processed foods have an acid-forming effect on your body fluids.
Dr. Robert O. Young states; All grains, animal foods, dairy products, fermented foods, algae, probiotics, enzymes, high sugar fruit, high sugar vegetables, vinegar, corn, nuts, mushrooms, alcohol, carbonate drinks, sport drinks and tobacco products are acidic to the blood and interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues of the schade (the largest organ of the body) and will activate the alkaline buffering systems.
Dr. Kim Ben states: Your health is best served by a good mix of nutrient-dense, alkaline andacid-forming foods; ideally, you want to eat more alkaline-forming foods than acid-forming foods to have the net acid and alkaline-forming effects of your diet match the slightly alkaline pH of your blood.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: The only way to achieve extraordinary health and fitness is with the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet as outlined in The pH Miracle Revised and Updated book.
Dr. Kim Ben states: The following lists indicate which common foods have an alkaline-forming effect on your body fluids, and which ones result in acid ash formation when they are digested and assimilated into your system.
Please note that these lists of acid and alkaline-forming foods are not comprehensive, nor are they meant to be.
If you’re eating mainly grains, flour products, animal foods, and washing these foods down with coffee, soda, and milk, you will almost certainly improve your health by replacing some of your food and beverage choices with fresh vegetables and fruits.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: The four alkalizing food groups are chlorophyll from green fruit and green vegetables, mono and polyunsaturated oils, alkalizing water and finally alkalizing mineral salts. I call this the COWS Plan as outlined in The pH Miracle Revised and Updated book.
Dr. Kim Ben states: The primary purpose of this article is to offer information that explains why I believe that you don’t need to take one or more nutritional supplements or “alkalized water” for the sole purpose of alkalizing your body. Your body is already designed to keep the pH of your body fluids in a tight, slightly alkaline range.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: Your body is alkaline by design but acidic by function and that is why you would be wise to follow an alkaline lifestyle and diet to prevent ALL sickness and disease and remain strong, healthy and fit. Drinking alkaline water is essential to maintaining the healthy alkaline state of ALL your body fluids!!!!!!
Dr. Kim Ben states: The ideal scenario is to make fresh vegetables and fruits the centerpieces of your diet, and to eat small amounts of any other nutrient-dense foods that your appetite calls for and that experience shows your body can tolerate.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: The ideal scenario is to make fresh organic electron-rich green alkalizing fruit and vegetables the centerpiece of your diet with liberal amounts of alkalizing polyunsaturated oils, alkalizing water at a pH of 9.5 and finally alkalizing mineral salts of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium.
Dr. Kim Ben states: I hope these thoughts bring some clarity to this often misunderstood health topic.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: I hope these scientific truths brings some clarity to Dr. Kim Ben and others that are confused about the biochemistry, bioenergetics and the importance of alkalizing the blood and interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues of the schade (the largest organ of the human body) with an alkaline lifestyle and diet as outlined in my book, The pH Miracle, revised and updated.
For additional information read The pH Miracle Revised and Updated by Dr. Robert O. Young .
Unfortunately, contemporary medical doctors and scientists as well as alternative health practitioners do not understand how acid/base are created in the body and the onset of latent tissue acidosis in the colloidal connective tissue or the “Schade”. Welcome to the 21st century and Dr. Young’s “New Biology.”
How is acid/base created in the body?
1) The parietal or cover cells of the stomach split the sodium chloride of the blood. The sodium is used to bind with water and carbon dioxide to form the alkaline salt, sodium bicarbonate or NaHCO3. The biochemistry is: H20 + CO2 + NaCl = NaHCO3 + HCL. This is why a call the stomach an alkalizing organ NOT an organ of digestion. The stomach DOES NOT digest the food or liquids you ingest it alkalizes the food and liquid you ingest.
2) For each molecule of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) made, a molecule of hydrochloric acid (HCL) is made and secreted into the so-called digestive system – specifically, the stomach (the gastric pits in the stomach) – to be eliminated. Therefore HCL is an acidic waste product of sodium bicarbonate created by the stomach to alkalize the food and liquids ingested.
3) The chloride ion from the sodium chloride (salt) binds to an acid or proton forming HCL as a waste product of sodium bicarbonate production. HCL has a pH of 1 and is highly toxic to the body and the cause of indigestion, acid reflux, ulcers and cancer.
4) When large amounts of acids, including HCL, enter the stomach from a rich animal protein or dairy product meal, such as meat and cheese, acid is withdrawn from the acid-base household. The organism would die if the resulting alkalosis – or NaHCO3 (base flood) or base surplus – created by the stomach was not taken up by the alkalophile glands that need these quick bases in order to build up their strong sodium bicarbonate secretions. These glands and organs are the stomach, pancreas, Brunner’s glands (between the pylorus and the junctions of the bile and pancreatic ducts), Lieberkuhn’s glands in the liver and its bile with its strong acid binding capabilities which it has to release on the highly acidic meat and cheese to buffer its strong acids of nitric, sulphuric, phosphoric, uric and lactic acids.
5) When a rich animal protein and dairy product meal is ingested, the stomach begins to manufacture and secrete sodium bicarbonate (NHCO3) to alkalize the acids from the food ingested. This causes a loss in the alkaline reserves and an increase in acid and/or HCL found in the gastric pits of the stomach. These acids and/or HCL are taken up by the blood which lowers blood plasma pH. The blood eliminates this increase in gastrointestinal acid by throwing it off into the Pishinger’s spaces.
6) The space enclosed by these finer and finer fibers is called the Pishinger’s space, or the extracellular space that contains the fluids that bath and feed each and every cell while carrying away the acidic waste from those same cells. There is no mention of this organ in American physiology text books. There is mention of the extracellular space but not of any organ that stores acids from metabolism and diet, like the kidney. I call this organ the “pre-kidney” because it stores metabolic and gastrointestinal acids until they can be buffered and eliminated via the skin, urinary tract, or bowels.
7) After a rich animal protein or dairy product meal, the urine pH becomes alkaline. The ingestion of meat and cheese causes a reaction in acidic fashion in the organism by the production of sulfuric, phosporhoric, nitric, uric, lactic, acetylaldehyde and ethanol acids, respectively, but also through the formation and excretion of base in the urine. Therefore eating meat and cheese causes a double loss of bases leading to tissue acidosis and eventual disease, especially inflammation and degenerative diseases.
8) During heavy exercise, if the the resulting lactic acid was not adsorbed by the collagen fibers, the specific acid catchers of the body, the organism would die. The total collection of these fibers is the largest organ of the body called SCHADE, the colloidal connective tissue organ. NO liquid exchange occurs between the blood and the parenchyma cells, or in reverse, unless it passes through this connective tissue organ. This organ connects and holds everything in our bodies in place. This organ is composed of ligaments, tendons, sinew, and the finer fibers that become the scaffolding that holds every single cell in our bodies in place. When acids are stored in this organ, which includes the muscles, inflammation and pain develop. The production of lactic acid is increased with the ingestion of milk, cheese, yogurt, butter and especially ice cream.
9) The more acidity created from eating meat, cheese, milk or ice cream the more gastrointestinal acids are adsorbed into the the collagen fibers to be neutralized and the less sodium bicarbonate or NaHCO3 that is taken up by the alkalophile glands. The larger the potential difference between the adsorbed acids and the amount of NaHCO3 generated with each meal, the more or less alkaline are the alkalophile glands like the pancreas, gallbladder, pylorus glands, blood, etc. The acid binding power of the connective tissue, the blood, and the alkalophile glands depends on its alkali reserve, which can be determined through blood, urine, and saliva pH, including live and dried blood analysis as taught by Dr. Robert O. Young. The saliva pH is an indication of alkali reserves in the alkalophile glands and the urine pH is an indication of the pH of the fluids that surround the cells or the Pishinger’s space.
10) The iso-structure of the blood maintains the pH of the blood by pushing off gastrointestinal or metabolic acids into the connective tissue or the Pishinger’s space. The blood gives to the urine the same amount of acid that it receives from the tissues and liver so it can retain its iso-form. A base deficiency is always related to the deterioration of the deposit ability of the connective tissues or the Pishinger’s space. As long as the iso-structure of the blood is maintained, the urine – which originates from the blood – remains a faithful reflected image of the acid-base regulation, not of the blood, but of the tissues. The urine therefore is an excretion product of the tissues, not the blood. So when you are testing the pH of the urine, you are testing the pH of the tissues.
11) A latent “acidosis” is the condition that exists when there are not enough bases in the alkalophile glands because they have been used up in the process of neutralizing the acids adsorbed to the collagen fibers. This leads to compensated “acidosis.” This means the blood pH has not changed but other body systems have changed. This can then lead to decompensated “acidosis” where the alkaline reserves of the blood are used up and the pH of the blood is altered. Decompensated “acidosis” can be determined by testing the blood pH, urine pH and the saliva pH. The decrease in the alkaline reserves in the body occurs because of hyper-proteinization, (eating Meat and Cheese!)or too much protein, and hyper-carbonization, or too much sugar. This is why 80 to 90 year old folks are all shrunk up and look like prunes. They have very little or no alkaline reserves in their alkalophile glands. When all the alkaline minerals are gone, so are you and your battery runs down. The charge of your cellular battery can be measured by testing the ORP or the oxidative reduction potential of the blood, urine or saliva using an ORP meter. As you become more acidic this energy potential or ORP increases.
12) If there is not enough base left over after meat and cheese or surgary meal, or enough base to neutralize and clear the acids stored in the connective tissues, a relative base deficiency develops which leads to latent tissue acidosis. When this happens the liver and pancreas are deficient of adequate alkaline juices to ensure proper alkalization of the food in your stomach and small intestine.
13) Digestion or alkalization cannot proceed without enough of these alkaline juices for the liver and pancreas, etc., and so the stomach has to produce more acid in order to make enough base, ad nauseam, and one can develop indigestion, nausea, acid reflux, GERD, ulcers, esophageal cancer and stomach cancer. All of these symptoms are not the result of too much acid or HCL in the stomach. On the contrary, it is the result of too little base in the form of sodium bicarbonate!
14) Therefore the stomach is NOT an organ of digestion as currently taught in ALL biology and medical texts, BUT an organ of contribution or deposit. It’s function is to deposit alkaline juices to the stomach to alkalize the food and to the blood to carry to the alklophile glands!!!!
15) There is a daily rhythm to this acid base ebb and flow of the fluids of the body. The stored acids are mobilized from the connective tissues and Pishinger’s spaces while we sleep.
These acids reach their maximum (base tide) concentration in this fluid, and thereby the urine (around 2 a.m. is the most acidic). The acid content of the urine directly reflects the acid content of the fluid in the Pishinger’s spaces, the extracellular fluid compartments of the body. On the other hand, the Pishinger’s spaces become most alkaline around 2 p.m. (the base flood) as then the most sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is being generated by the cover cells of the stomach to alkalize the food and drink we have ingested.
16) If your urine is not alkaline by 2 p.m. you are definitely in an ACIDIC condition and lacking in alkaline reserves. The pH of the urine should run between 6.8 and 8.4 but ideally 7.2 or greater.
17) After a high protein meal or meat or cheese, the free acids formed such as sulfuric, phosphoric, uric, and nitric acids stick to the collagen fibers to remove them from the blood and protect the delicate pH of the blood at 7.365. The H+ or proton ions from these acids are neutralized by the next base flood, the sodium bicarbonate produced after the meal. The H+ or proton ion combines with the carbonate or HCO3, converts to carbonic acid, H2CO3, which converts to CO2 and H2O. The sulfuric and other acids from proteins are neutralized as follows where the HR represents any acid with the R as its acid radical (SO4, PO4, or NO3) HR + NaHCO3 H2O + NaR (Ca, Mg, K)+ CO2.
18) Medical doctors and savants are not taught in medical school and therefore do not understand or recognize latent tissue acidosis. They understand and recognize compensated acidosis and decompensated acidosis. In compensated acidosis, breathing increases in order to blow off more carbonic acid which decreases PCO2 because of the lowered carbonate or HCO3. When the breathing rate can no longer get any faster and when the kidneys can no longer increase its’ function to keep up with the acid load, then the blood pH starts to change from a pH of 7.365 to 7.3 then to 7.2. At a blood pH of 6.95 the heart relaxes and the client goes into a coma or dies.
19) Metabolism of a normal adult diet results in the generation of 50 to 100 meq of H+ or proton per day, which must be excreted if the urine acid-base balance is to be maintained. A meq is a milliequivalent which is an expression of concentration of substance per liter of solution, calculated by dividing the concentration in milligrams per 100 milliliters by the molecular weight. This process involves two basis steps; 1) the reabsorption of the filtered sodium bicarbonate or NaHCO3 and, 2) excretion of the 50 to 100 meq of H+ or proton produced each day by the formation of titratable acidity and NH4+ or ammonium. Both steps involve H+ or proton secretion from the cells of the kidney into the urine.
20) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) must be reabsorbed into the blood stream, since the loss of NaHCO3 will increase the net acid load and lower the plasma NaHCO3 concentration. The loss of NaHCO3 in the urine is equivalent to the addition of H+ to the body since both are derived from the dissociation of H2CO3 or carbonic acid.
21) The biochemistry is: CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 = HCO3 + H+. The normal subject must reabsorb 4300 meq of NaHCO3 each day! The secreted H+ or proton ions are generated within the kidney cells from the dissociation of H2O or water. This process also results in the equimolar production OH- or hydroxyl ions. The OH- ions bind to the active zinc-containing site of the intracellular carbonic anhydrase; they then combine with CO2 to form HCO3- ions which are released back into the kidney cells and returned to the systemic circulation. Second, the dietary acid load is excreted by the secretion of H+ or proton ions from the kidney cells into the urine. These H+ or proton ions can do one of two things: the H+ or proton ions can be combined with the urinary buffers, particularly HPO4, in a process called titratable acidity (The biochemistry is: H+ + HPO4 = H2PO4), or the phosphate buffering system or the H+ or proton ions can combine with ammonia (NH3) to form ammonium as follows: NH3 + H+ = NH4.
22) This ammonia is trapped and concentrated in the kidney as ammonium which is then excreted in the urine.
23) In response to acid load, 36% of the H+ or proton goes intracellular in exchange for the release of Na+ (sodium) into the blood stream. 15% of the acid goes intracellular in exchange for K+ (potassium) – common in diabetics. 6% of the H+ or proton or acid goes directly into the cell to be buffered by intracellular processes. 43% is buffered extracellularly as NaHCO3- or sodium bicarbonate combining with H+ or proton to form H2CO3 or carbonic acid which breaks down to CO2 or carbon dioxide to be released by the lungs. 10% of CO2 or carbon dioxide is excreted through the lungs and 90% is used by the body to reabsorb alkaline minerals and make sodium bicarbonate for buffering gastrointestinal and metabolic acids.
25) With over 30 years of research and testing over 500,000 samples of blood and over 1,000,000 samples of urine and saliva I have come to the conclusion that the Human Body is an acid producing organism by function – yet, it is an alkaline organism by design. Eating animal protein, especially meat and cheese and sugar from any source are deadly acidic choices – unless you interested in becoming sick, tired and fat over time.
Bottom line – the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet is a program that focuses on the foundational principal that the body is alkaline by design and yet acidic by function. This make this program the ultimate program for preventing and reversing aging and the onset of sickness and dis-ease. I would say that the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet is the diet for a longer healthier life.
Please remember this very important truth, hydrochloric acid is not the cause of digestion but the result of digestion. Start alkalizing today and begin improving the quality and quantity of your life today.