Category Archives: Nutrition

How Long Do YOU Want to LIVE?

Life and Death is all about managing and maintaining the delicate alkaline pH environment of the blood plasma, the interstitial fluids of the Interstitium and the intracellular fluids of the body cells, at 7.365.
[The first micrograph shows a lactic acid crystal in the live blood..  The second mircrograph shows a citric acid crystal in the live blood]
You can manage and support all of the body fluids with what you eat, what you drink, what you breathe, what you think and what you believe.  Yes, even your thoughts and beliefs produce metabolic acidic waste products that can make you sick and tired.  Your thoughts and beliefs do become biology and do affect the pH of all body fluids.
Today, medical science teaches that the body regulates the pH of the body fluids automatically and factors such as what you eat, drink, breathe, think or believe have no bearing or influence on the biochemistry of the body fluids.  In other words, your lifestyle has NO influence on the chemistry, including the pH of the blood, interstitial fluids or the fluids inside the cells or intracellular fluids!
This thinking should and does not make common sense since we do know scientifically that uric acid from eating animal protein causes gout, lactic acid from metabolism and from dairy products causes inflammation and cancer, acetaldehyde and alcohol causes breast cancer, diabetes, and pancreatic and liver diseases, including cancer and the acidic pesticide DDT and glyphosate (the main chemical in the pesticide Round-up) causes birth defects, dementia, polio, measles, MS, Zika and YES cancer.
The good news is a medical research group in America just announced last year that they had discovered a new organ in the human body called the Interstitium. Researchers are claiming that this organ is not only the largest organ of the human body but it contains compartments that hold metabolic, dietary, respiratory and environment acidic waste.  This acidic waste in the interstitial fluids of the Interstitium is held in these compartments until they can be eliminated via urination, defecation, perspiration, menstruation and respiration.  This new anatomical, functional and physiological discovery changes the false belief by the current medical establishment.
With new medical technology we can now test the chemistry, including the pH of ALL the body fluids which proves that the Interstitium, I call the third kidney, is holding predominately the majority of all acidic waste in these holding compartments.  This is done by the body in order to maintain  and protect the delicate pH balance of the blood plasma  and keep you alive.
Just testing the chemistry or parameters of the blood plasma can and many times will give medical doctors a false positive or false negative.  Why?  Because all the the normal or negative factors happening in the body can only be revealed by testing the fluids of the Interstitium where all the acidic toxins are being stored, until eliminated through the channels of elimination.
When medical doctors make false statements that what you eat, drink, breathe or think does not effect the chemistry of the body fluids, they do not realize that the pH of the interstitial fluids of the Interstitium are being compromised every day by ALL of these factors.  Testing the chemistry of the interstitial fluids of the Interstitium and comparing this information to the chemistry of the blood plasma is critical in correctly determining a real or accurate medical diagnosis!  I have determined from my own research over the years that the testing of the Interstitial fluids of the Interstitium is the gold standard in medical diagnostics and the holy grail to prevention, diagnostic, and effective treatments for ALL sickness and disease!
Currently, we are the only research and diagnostic group, in the World, testing ALL of the body fluids for chemistry, including pH!

Medical Testing and Diagnostics Needs to Change!  

It is so critical that YOU share this new medical science with everyone you love and care about.  Testing the interstitial fluids of the Interstitium will save lives and prevent serious health challenges down the road.  It will provide YOU the certainty that your heath practitioner needs to advise YOU correctly on your current health and fitness condition.  Measuring and understanding the chemistry of the Interstitium will reveal whether or not your current health and fitness plan is effective and healthful.  This would include your nutritional protocol, exercise, or even the legend drugs you maybe taking!  No more guessing or diagnosing a health condition based upon symptoms or beliefs or even your doctors beliefs.

Quantifying the interstitial fluid chemistry is the KEY to understanding YOUR REAL current health and fitness condition!

The picture below is a diagram of the breakdown of body fluids (Figure 1) and a cross-section of the largest organ of the human body – The Interstitium (Figure 2). Keep in mind if you ask your doctor about the Interstitium his/her eyes will glaze over because most medical doctors know absolutely nothing about this organ! In fact, medical science just recognized this organ in 2018 – a organ I have been studying for over 30 years!
Figure 1

I Want To Know More!

To learn more about the Interstitium and the chemistry of the blood, interstitial fluids and the Intracellular fluids read my peer-reviewed research, “Alkalizing Nutritional Therapy in the Prevention and Treatment of Any Cancerous Condition.”
On February 9th, 2019, ACTA Scientific Cancer Biology, a peer-reviewed journal, will be publishing my article on the cause, treatment and reversal of Cystic Fibrosis and Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma Lung Cancer! The title of my article is: “Cystic Fibrosis and Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma Lung Cancer both Metabolic and Dietary Acidic Conditions.”

The following is the abstract for this article:

Cystic fibrosis (CF) [1,2] and Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma (PAC) [3] have similar symptomologies and are chronic, progressive, and frequently fatal acidic conditions of the respiratory system (lungs), lymphatic system (lymph nodes), intestines, pancreas, urinary tract system, reproductive organs and the skin as the alkaloid glands (the salivary glands, stomach, and small and large intestines) produce and secrete alkaline compounds, such as sodium bicarbonate to buffer and preserve the alkaline design of the body and the specific organs and glands affected. These metabolic and dietary acidic conditions resulting in the build-up of mucous [3] can affect any organ or organ system but primarily affects the respiratory, lymphatic system, digestive, and reproductive tracts in children and young adults with CF and the lungs and surrounding lymph nodes in PAC. I have suggested from my own clinical research that both of these conditions are the result of latent tissue acidosis (LTA) in the interstitial fluids of the Interstitium or the fluids that surround every cell, created from metabolism, diet, thoughts and environment and may be successfully treated and reversed with an alkaline lifestyle and diet (ALD) [4].

The Answer to My Question to YOU!

Now, in answer to my question to YOU, “How long do YOU want to LIVE,” I have included a picture of a 400 year old Bonsai Tree to give you a glimpse of the possibilities for increasing your longevity by actively managing and measuring the chemistry of YOUR body fluids, especially the interstitial fluids of the Interstitium.
Dr. Alexis Carrel received the Nobel prize in medicine many years after his death for discovering the longevity of the human cell. What did he find? That he could keep a body cell alive forever if he would simply change-out the acidic fluids that surround the cell every 24 to 48 hours. His experiment was with a chicken heart that he kept alive for over 20 years by changing-out the interstitial fluids each day. The chicken heart only died after he stopped managing the interstitial fluids of the heart.
You must protect, manage and maintain the alkaline design of the body fluids if YOU want to prevent sickness or disease and extend the quality and quantity of your life!
You must be protected just like Dr. Alex Carrel’s chicken heart or the 400 year old Bonsai tree above that was protected by a concrete walled nursery from the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan.
I am suggesting in my work, research and findings that the KEY to a healthy and long life, can be found in the interstitial fluids of the Interstiitum – the environment that bathes every cell of the human body determines how long a cell will live to even the DNA expression and ultimately determines how long YOU will live!  Genes DO NOT Determine YOUR Destiny!  The interstitial fluids of the Interstitium determines YOUR Destiny!
[The blue and dark blue areas represent the interstitial fluids of the Intersititium that determine the expression of the DNA]
Life is a choice just as death is a choice. You choose it every day with what you eat, what you drink, what you breathe, what you think and what you believe. So Choose Wisely!
Finally, remember that ALL cells of the human body are only as healthy as their environment or the interstitial fluids of the Interstitium, in which they reside and live!
To learn more about Dr. Young’s 35 plus years of published peer-reviewed research you can go to his personal website at: or you can email Dr. Young at:
To schedule a non-invasive blood plasma, interstitial fluids and intracellular fluids test for chemistry, including pH please contact us at:
Dr. Robert O. Young and Dr. Galina Migalko will be speaking at the Global Summit on Oncology and Cancer in London, England on March 18th and 19th.  If you would like to register for these events please make your request at:

TOM BRADY’S Version of the pH Miracle Lifestyle in His New Book – TB12!

Screen Shot 2019-01-11 at 7.51.09 PM.pngTom Brady and his wife Gisele – Both Follow the pH Alkaline Lifestyle

The New England quarterback’s alkaline diet has many rules to keep people on track as they attempt this new lifestyle.

Just in time for the Super Bowl!


1. Consume mainly alkaline foods – At least 80%!

2. Pay attention to portion sizes. The plate should include two palm sizes of vegetables and one-palm size of protein

3. Stop eating two to three hours before bed

4. You cannot combine protein and complex carbs for a meal

5. Cannot eat fruit alone

6. Little to no carbs for breakfast

7. Eat foods based on seasons

8. Consume 20oz of alkaline water at a pH of 9.5 right when you wake up


9. If you cannot give up coffee then limit caffeine intake to 200mg (two cups of coffee)

10. No soda, carbonation, milk, dairy, fruit juices, sweetened drinks, and alcohol!

Giving it a try! Toronto-based fitness trainer Keltie O’Connor shared with her followers how she attempted the alkaline diet!

Before the pH Alkaline diet Keltie admitted she was bloated!

After 30 days on the pH Alkaline Diet no more digestive problems and bloating!

To learn more about the pH Miracle lifestyle read The pH Miracle, revised and updated.

To order the pH Miracle Alkaline Lifestyle and Diet book go to:

The Worlds Top 5 Lifestyles & Diets for Health, Fitness, Vitality and Beauty in 2018

The Worlds Top 5 Lifestyles & Diets for Health, Fitness, Vitality and Beauty in 2018

Which Lifestyle and Diet Did YOU Follow in 2018!

Number 1

Dr. Young’s pH Miracle Alkaline Lifestyle and Diet


Victoria Beckham keeps her slender physique in shape by following the pH Alkaline Lifestyle and Diet, recommended by Robert O. Young PhD. This plan means you ingest ONLY alkaline foods and liquids to keep your acidic levels in your blood, interstitial fluids, intracellular fluids at an alkaline pH between 7.35 and 7.45. All of these fluids can be tested with the Full-Body 3-D Bio-Electro Scan and the non-invasive blood testing of the chemistry, including pH of the blood, stomach, intestines and interstitial fluids.

To learn more about these non-invasive medical tests click here: (

The following chart lists some of the acidic foods on the pH Miracle Alkaline Diet to eliminate completely or eat sparingly:

The following chart lists some of the foods you can eat freely on the pH Miracle alkaline diet:

The supermodel Elle Macpherson stated that following a plant-based pH Miracle alkaline lifestyle and diet and taking supplements have helped her look younger than her 54 years. ( and http://www.phoreveryoung,com)


“When I turned 50 I realized things I did in my 20s weren’t working anymore,” Macpherson said. “I follow a plant-based alkaline diet, focusing on healthy, whole food. I take green powder and protein powder every day, and I drink three liters of water a day.” (,

So where does a 6’7″ man who weighs over 270 pounds get his protein from? Tony Robbins eats broccoli! Over 50 percent of the calories from steamed organic broccoli comes from protein. It is important to note that the body does not build muscle from protein – it builds it from red blood cells. Muscle, bone, and all organs and glands are made from red blood cells NOT protein! Tony is a strong advocate and walking testimony of Dr. Young’s alkaline lifestyle and diet which he teaches from the stage at ALL his events.


Prince Harry and Meghan follow the pH Miracle Alkaline Lifestyle and Diet. In fact it was Meghan who introduced Harry to the alkaline lifestyle.


So what keeps Tom Brady so healthy, fit and strong at the age of 41 and still playing NFL Football? The answer is the pH Miracle alkaline lifestyle and diet!

Number 2

The Vegan Diet


Beyonce is a big fan of Marcos Borges 22 days of Vegan program which is a vegan meal service. Although not a full vegan, the singer ordered in the service to get in shape for Coachella. “The benefits of a plant-based diet need to be known,” Beyoncé said. “We should spend more time loving ourselves, which means taking better care of ourselves with good nutrition and making healthier food choices.”

The following are just a few of the foods I recommend that you can eat freely when following an Vegan Diet as outlined in The pH Miracle revised and updated book and The pH Miracle for Weight Loss –

Number 3

The Ancient Grains Diet


To keep her energy levels at an all-time high, Angelina Jolie snacks on ancient grains such as quinoa, chia seeds, millet, buckwheat and spelt. “She’s into eating products made from ancient grains and raves about their health benefits,” a source told Marie Claire. “She claims they provide her with nutrients she can’t find anywhere else, plus shinier skin.”

The wonderful benefits of ancients grains like quinoa, millet, buckwheat and spelt, they are low in carbohydrate (sugar) and higher in protein. Keep in mind though I only recommend these grains sparingly and no more than 10 grams of protein daily.

Remember, all body cells, including bone and muscle are made from blood NOT protein. And blood is made from chlorophyll (green foods), unsaturated oil, alkaline water and mineral salts or sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium.

Number 4

The Paleo Diet


Jessica Biel credits her super svelte physique down to the Paleo diet. Heavily endorsed by Pete Evans, the diet works on the ethos you go back to eating like a caveman and eradicate dairy, grains and legumes from your diet. “Eating Paleo just leans you down and slims you up and takes that little layer of fat and water-weight right off your body,” says Jessica. “I do a lot of cooking at home using fresh fish or lean meat like chicken and vegetables,” she adds.

The Paleo diet will provide short term benefits but long term damage from ALL the acidic foods from dairy, legumes and grains such as wheat. You are better off with both short and long term benefits by sticking with a diet that does not cause eventual gland, organ and tissue damage. That diet would be low carbohydrate, low protein and liberal amounts of healthy unsaturated oil, like hemp seed, flax seed, broccoli seed, carrot seed, cabbage seed, just to name a few.

Number 5

The Atkins Diet


Kim Kardashian lost 25 kilos in 11 months on the Atkins diet, which is a high acidic protein, low carb diet. “ Anyone who has had kids knows your body changes, and it’s hard to get your body back in shape,” she said. “It takes so much determination, and mental and physical power and energy.”

Unfortunately this diet also has short term benefits with long term damage, especially to the intestinal villi if you are ingesting animal protein which does not digest (unless you juice the animal flesh). Maybe that is why Kim looks bloated in the lower abdominal area. It is important to stay away from this diet unless your protein sources are from green plants such as avocado, broccoli and buckwheat.

Check out the above list of foods to avoid and especially avoid animal sources for safe and healthy weight loss.

The World’s Number 1 Lifestyle and Diet for Health, Energy, Vitality, Fitness & Beauty!

For safe and effective weight loss or weight gain read The pH Miracle for Weight Loss by Robert O Young PhD – or on at:

Maryanne lost over 150 pounds in less than a year following The pH Miracle for Weight Loss.

Scott Jacobs lost over 100 pounds in 12 weeks following The pH Miracle for Weight Loss lifestyle and diet plan.

Ryan Marcotte lost 31 pounds of fat and gained 11 pounds of muscle in 12 weeks following Dr. Robert O. Young’s pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet!

Donna lost over 100 pounds following Dr. Robert O. Young’s pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet! See Donna’s before and after pictures below as she shows her new found energy doing the splits on the Jump Sport Rebounder.

To learn more about the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet and Dr. Robert O. Young go to:

CDC confirms 62 cases of Post-Polio illness or Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP)!

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has confirmed 62 cases of a post polio neurological condition called acute flaccid myelitis, also known as AFM.  So far this year in the U.S. more than 90 percent of the cases involved children 18 or younger, with an average age of just 4 years old.

AFM is an illness that affects the nervous system, specifically the area of spinal cord called gray matter. It causes the muscles and reflexes in the body to become weak or even paralyzed. Cases of AFM are characterized by a sudden onset of arm or leg weakness and loss of muscle tone and reflexes.

Its symptoms are identical to those of poliomyelitis or polio which is associated with a so-called virus.  Years of research have shown that these cases of polio and post-polio are associated with chemical poisoning or organochlorines used as a pesticide in farming found in all of our food sources (except for organically grown food).

Table 1: This graph shows polio in the United States in a context rarely (if ever) portrayed since Dr. Morton Biskind, the environmental context. [1] “DDT” and “DDT-like chemicals” are selected for this graph as the least complex way to represent a broad overview of the evolution of the technology of, and potential for, mass acidic chemical poisoning. (US Vital Statistics, US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.) [2][6]

Additional symptoms can include facial drooping or weakness, difficulty swallowing and slurred speech.

This condition, which may be caused by acidic poisoning from DDT like chemicals found in all non-organic fruit, vegetables, poultry and meat can lead to paralysis and even death, but no deaths have been reported so far this year.

Some prominent organochlorines are chlorobenzene, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane). [3] Chlorobenzene is a precursor, a foundational compound used in the production of many industrial organochlorines as a chemical pesticide. [4] In the U.S., high production of chlorobenzene began in 1915, soon after the beginning of World War I. [5]

The above graph is a compilation of new cases per year (not incidence, as portrayed elsewhere herein). The data for the last half of the 20th century was gathered from U.S. Vital Statistics. [6] The very earliest numbers, from 1887 to about 1904, and the post polio numbers, are interpolated from the general historical commentary regarding those periods. [7] (see bibliography on Homepage and NYC Health Commissioner Haden Emerson’s compilations). While the graph is not perfectly accurate, due to changing methods of diagnoses and record-keeping within the medical system, it does give a reliable overall picture of Polio cases in terms of known literature and records.

The source for the U.S. and Swiss discoveries of paralysis in calves is from Van Nostrand’s Encyclopedia of Science and Engineering (1995), vol. 5, p1725. The phrase “Pesticides as a Panacea: 1942-1962” is a subtitle found in Encyclopedia Britannica, Macropaedia (1986). [8] Refer to other graphs (Overview) for specific pesticide comparisons with Polio incidence.

In 1915 Hooker Electrochemical began massive, unprecedented production of chlorobenzene (8,200 metric tons per year) and Dow Chemical began large-scale production soon thereafter. [9]

Chlorobenzenes are the basis for picric acid explosive used in World War I. [10] They have also been used in the manufacture of wood treatments, war gas, herbicides, insecticides, bactericide, moth control, and polymer resins. [11] (Mono) chlorobenzene is the base compound for DDT production. [12] Currently in the U.S., 15 million pounds of p- dichlorobenzene production goes into room deodorants. [13] According to Peter Duesberg, CDC’s investigation into Legionnaires disease ignored toxic chemical causes and created a new false field of study regarding the Legionella bacterium. [[4]

The sudden surge of chlorobenzene production coincides in time and place (1915, Niagara Falls) to be considered as probable cause for the epidemic of central nervous system diseases that followed the next year in the New York City region. [15] This epidemic lasted only six months, June to November, with 82% of the cases occurring in just 8 weeks. [16] While Polio literature terms this a world-wide Polio epidemic, it was peculiarly a phenomena of the U.S. and was especially prominent in the New York City region. [17] This is strange behavior for a supposedly so-called predatory Poliovirus, in an era, a continent, wholly unprotected by so-called miracle vaccines!

The number of new cases for 1916 (40,485) were calculated by multiplying the U.S. incidence rate by the U.S. population. [18] The number seems too high because of Naomi Rogers’ statements that worldwide new cases in 1916 were 27,000, that two-thirds of world Polio new cases were in the U.S. and that New York City new cases were 9,000. [19] While this discrepancy exists, the data is still useful for showing relative case numbers and/or incidence for the early 20th century. [See Tables 1,3,4,5,8,9,10 and 11]

Both Polio epidemics occurred two years after the beginning of World War I and World War II, if we use the dates of the epidemics, 1916 and 1942. [20]

DDT and “DDT-like chemicals” are used to represent the major organochlorine pesticides and organochlorines of similar neurotoxic character. [21] Most of the industrial organochlorines can produce CNS disease symptoms similar to Polio. [22] [Refer to Tables 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10 and 11] below to see the relationship between DDT and DDT-like chemical production and the incidence of Polio.

Other Poisonous DDT-Like Pesticide Composite

Just over three billion pounds of persistent pesticides are represented in the Table 2 above and 3 below. Virtually all peaks and valleys correlate with a direct one-to-one relationship with each pesticide as it enters and leaves the US market. Generally, pesticide production precedes polio incidence by 1 to 2 years. The variation may be to variations in reporting methods and the time it takes to move pesticides from factory to warehouse, through distribution channels, onto the food crops and to the dinner table. A composite of these graphs, of the persistent pesticides–lead, arsenic, and the dominant organochlorines (DDT and BHC) is presented in Table 10.

The four chemicals were not selected arbitrarily. These are representative of the major pesticides in use during the last major polio epidemic. They persist in the environment as neurotoxins that cause polio-like symptoms, polio-like physiology, and were dumped onto and into human food at dosage levels far above that approved by the FDA. They directly correlate with the incidence of various neurological diseases called “polio” before 1965. They were utilized, according to Dr. Biskind, in the “most intensive campaign of mass poisoning in known human history.” [23]

Critique of Pesticides and Polio Vaccination

It certainly appears, from the above graphs, that the vaccination programs arrived a few years too late to be credited for declining polio case numbers. The programs were close enough, however, for media to shoehorn them into their historical position. This quote from Time Magazine (March 28, 1994) is a typical example:

“The great postwar epidemic peaked in the U.S. in 1952, when more than 20,000 children were paralyzed by polio and it tapered off in the early ’60s, after the Salk vaccine and then the Sabin oral version were introduced.” [23]

This smooth, loaded phrase, framed with glossy photos and clever captions, goes down like several shots of Vodka and with the same physiological effects. However, if we contain our admiration, and review the actual data, we realize that the great Polio epidemic actually occurred from 1942 (or gradually, beginning decades earlier) to 1962, that is, it was not a “postwar epidemic”. (Refer to Table 1) The epidemic declined not “in the early ’60s”, but a full decade earlier, in the early 1950s. Polio cases per year did not “taper off… after the Salk vaccine” as Time would have us believe — new cases per year dove resolutely downward two years before the Salk vaccine field trials and four years before the vaccination programs were firmly underway. The decline of Polio actually occurred after heated discussions regarding the dangers of DDT that began with in-house government/industry reviews of DDT in 1951, following Dr. Morton Biskind and other’s criticism of pesticides which began in 1945. [23 to 85] These discussions were followed by a phase-out through industry compliance, a huge shift of sales to third-world countries, a phase-in of less-persistent pesticides, which was facilitated by legislation in 1954 and 1956, (86) a renewed public image regarding the proper use and dangers of pesticides, [87] the cancellation of DDT registration by 1968, [88] and eventually the official ban of many of the persistent organochlorine pesticides by 1972 (in U.S. and developed countries). [89]

Notice that while pesticide production directly correlates with new polio cases per year through every peak and valley, the Salk vaccine enters only after Polio’s decline. (Refer to Tables 1 and 4) Salk’s point of entry is not sufficient evidence to be routinely offered as proof for the victory of vaccines over the Poliovirus, as Time implies, [90] and as implied by Hayes and Laws, [91] and virtually all other presentations of polio history in whatever media or educational forum.

The molecular biologist, Peter Duesberg, in his attempt to give Modern Medicine some credence with regard to virus causality (before refuting HIV causality with AIDS), [92] apparently felt he could assume, in Inventing the AIDS Virus, that, …the sudden, frightening polio epidemic that exploded in the Western nations, brought home by troops returning from the Pacific theater in 1945. [93]

Yet a glance at the graphs in Tables 1 and 4 shows his statement to be inaccurate. Polio was entrenched in the U.S. long before returning troops, and the increased Polio cases per year correlate much more consistently with pesticide production than returning troops. A rise in new cases per year that peaked in 1945 can be clearly attributed to the government’s release of war surplus DDT to the public market in 1945, not vague data about “troops returning from the Pacific theater in 1945”. The troops were heavily treated with DDT years before the U.S. civilian population and as can be expected, in light of the acidic chemical poison-theory, the troops suffered unusually high Polio incidence rates when compared to the non-treated populations where they were stationed, and soldiers based in the U.S.. [94] The unusual drama and rash assumption that fills this excerpt of Peter Duesberg’s writings gives a sense that he has taken the whole package of ingrained Polio images for granted. [95]

Pesticide Phase-Out and Vaccinations Phase-In

DDT and BHC were phased out from the developed nations and at the same time vaccination programs were dramatically credited with saving these countries from the ravages of the Poliovirus. (96) However, the banned pesticides continued with higher than ever total distribution in the under-developed countries thanks to W.H.O.’s anti-mosquito campaigns, where to this day acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), Polio, and DDT/BHC still prevail. (97) DDT application, DDT phase-out programs, and Polio vaccination programs are all being directed in these countries concurrently by the World Health Organization with little or no success. (98)

Registration for DDT was canceled in 1968, and DDT was banned by the EPA in 1972 — after the major organochlorines (DDT, BHC) had been gradually phased out of the U.S. market by the chemical industry and replaced with the less environmentally persistent pesticides, the organophosphates. (99)

Post-Polio Pesticides

In 1983, via new legislation, DDT was allowed back into the U.S. marketplace, but only in pesticide blends. (100) Within only a few months of this re-entry, a new kind of polio epidemic suddenly occurred. (101) It was labeled “Post-Polio”, the re-emergence of Polio symptoms in former victims. (102) This has involved approximately 600,000 victims and is shown in Table I above. Like most of the data, this correlation is not even a whisper in the mainstream media.

Central nervous system diseases other than Polio continues in the U.S. and throughout the world: acute flaccid paralysis, chronic fatigue syndrome, encephalitis, meningitis, muscular sclerosis, and rarely in humans, rabies. (103)

The harsh realities of government policy are stated in Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology (1996): “Although government agencies and industry have been slow in their re-evaluation of a vast array of pesticides in use, reassessment often comes in the wake of or concomitant with some recently disclosed adverse environmental or health effect.” (104) This after-the-fact approach to pesticide poisoning is puzzling enough without questioning Casarett and Doull’s careful usage of the words: “often”, “some”, “recently”, and “disclosed”. The acidic chemical environmental correlations of “Post-Polio are overlooked.

Searching PubMed has not been successful. However, an online a paper entitled “The Environmental Aspects of The “Post-Polio” Syndrome”, was found. This article establishes a strong correlation between environmental acidic chemical factors and “Post-Polio”. (105)

No other similar articles are to be found, and no abstracts were available, although it can be ordered from PubMed. Poliovirus presence in “Post-Polio” according to immunity and vaccination theories, if anyone should be immune to Polio, it should be former Polio victims, however, numerous studies of “Post-Polio” victims have found evidence of active Poliovirus. (106) (107) (108)

Polio images are projected as if this data doesn’t exist. It does not appear that money is being directed into these kinds of research studies.

Farr’s Law

Farr’s Law requires, for an epidemic to be a valid example of contagion, that the epidemic increase its incidence rates exponentially. (109) Since Polio has been ubiquitous since the beginning of human history, its incidence rate should have peaked long ago and universal immunity conferred, if immunity was ever required, and if the Poliovirus was actually a predator or even existed! Polio’s non-compliance with Farr’s Law is explained by viro pathologists with a unique argument, the inverse of the argument usually given to support so-called germ theory. (110) The argument is that the Poliovirus, which has been intimate with mankind since the beginning of history, suddenly became estranged from humans because of modern hygiene, and thus humans lost their natural immunity to the virus. (111) So it is modern hygiene and the resulting lack of exposure to the virus that is said to have caused the Polio epidemics to rage as never before. (112) It is interesting that for only one brief moment, viro-pathologists are willing to become eco-nutritional types who appreciate the value of natural breast feeding and the importance of the internal microbiological ecology conferred positively upon humans as I have suggested in my pH Miracle books and other published articles. (113)

Three different promotions of their inverse or perverse argument follows:

1)   The prominent book on polio history by Naomi Rogers, where the inverse argument resides in the title, Dirt and Disease: Polio Before FDR. (114) The language style here is popular. (115)

2)   In Textbook of Child Neurology (1995), John H. Menkes promotes the inverse argument with scientific language style: “Poliomyelitis… is less likely to be symptomatic in areas with inadequate sanitation, because poor sanitation is conducive to exposure at an age when lingering

transferred maternal immunity can attenuate the clinical picture.” (116)

3)   In the propaganda film, A Paralyzing Fear: The Story of Polio in America. This was funded by the government and pharmaceutical firms and released in 1998. (117)

The New York Times (March 4, 1998) reviews the film. It reinforces the fundamental tenets of the Polio culture, beginning with a quotation from a section that portrays a “vintage film clip”: “My name is virus Poliomyelitis,” intones a cultivated, sinister male voice, as a camera pans over fair-weather clouds from which a hollow shadow emerges carrying the silhouette of a crutch. “I consider myself quite an artist, a sort of sculptor,” the voice continues. “I specialize in grotesques, twisting and deforming human bodies. That’s why I’m called The Crippler.”

Having dramatically demonized the Poliovirus, the medical cavalry rides to the rescue: …the epidemics grew steadily worse each year, with the number of new cases climbing from 5,000 in 1933 to 59,000 in 1952. (Refer to Tables 1 and 4)

Salvation came in 1954 with the Salk vaccine…And the inverse argument is now fit to print:

“The irony of the rise of polio in the 20th century, the movie reports, is that its prevalence was a result of improved sanitation. In grubbier times, babies and very young children developed antibodies to the disease, which had been around forever. A cleaner environment left increasing numbers of children with no natural immunity. (118)

So The New York Times review concisely presents the standard Polio images:

“the predatory virus, paralytic horror, epidemics, salvation via the Salk vaccine, and a unique exception from Farr’s Law.” (119)

I have my own personal concerns that anyone at NYT actually wrote this article, rather that it was probably supplied to the journalist as a suggested article, to be adjusted to the author’s style, thus essentially a customized press release.

The Epidemic Intelligence, Inventing The AIDS Virus (1996): The CDC’s disease-control mission was increasingly being regarded as obsolete, prompting serious discussions about abolishing the CDC altogether. (120) The situation changed in 1949 when the CDC brought on board Alexander Langmuir, an associate professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. (121) Langmuir was the CDC’s first VIP, bringing with him both his expertise in epidemiology (the statistical study of epidemics) and his high-level connections — including his security clearance as one of the few scientists privy to the Defense Department’s biological warfare program……Langmuir and talked public officials and Congress into giving the CDC contingent powers to deal with potential emergencies… (122)

In July of 1951 he assembled the first class of the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS), composed of twenty-three young medical or public health graduates. After six weeks of intensive epidemiological training, these EIS officers were assigned for two years to hospitals or state and local health departments around the country. Upon completing their field experience, EIS alumni were free to pursue any career they desired, on the assumption that their loyalties would remain with the CDC and that they would permanently act as its eyes and ears. (123) The focus of this elite unit was on activism rather than research and was expressed in its symbol — a shoe sole worn through with a hole. According to British epidemiologist Gordon Stewart, a former CDC consultant, the EIS was nicknamed the “medical CIA.” (124)

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Do YOU Believe the Polio Viral Theory?

The first isolation of a virus was achieved in 1892 by Russian bacteria hunter Dimitri Iwanowski, who gathered fluid from diseased tobacco plants. He passed this liquid through a filter fine enough to retain bacteria; yet to Iwanowski’s surprise, the bacteria-free filtrate easily made healthy plants sick. In 1898 a Dutch botanist, Martinus Willem Beijerinck, repeating the experiment, also recognized that there was an invisible cause and named the infectious agent “tobacco mosaic virus.” In the same year as Beijerinck’s report, two German scientists purified a liquid containing filterable viruses that caused foot-and-mouth disease in cattle (viruses were at one time called “filterable viruses,” but eventually the term “filterable” came to apply only to viruses, and was dropped). Walter Reed followed in 1901 with a filtrate responsible for yellow fever, and soon dozens of other disease-causing viruses were found.

In 1935 another American, Wendell M. Stanley, went back to the beginning and created pure crystals of tobacco mosaic virus from a filtered liquid solution. He affirmed that these crystals could easily infect plants, and concluded that a virus was not a living organism, since it could be crystallized like salt and yet remained infectious. Subsequently, bacteriologists all over the world began filtering for viruses, and a new area of biology was born-virology.

Historically, medical science has vacillated on the question of whether a virus is alive. Originally it was described as nonliving, but is currently said to be an extremely complex molecule or an extremely simple microorganism, and is usually referred to as a parasite having a cycle of life. (The term “killed” is applied to certain viral vaccines, thus implying an official conviction that viruses live.) Commonly composed of either DNA or RNA cores with protein coverings, and having no inherent reproductive ability, viruses depend upon the host for replication. They must utilize the nucleic acids of living cells they infect to reproduce their proteins (i.e., trick the host into producing them), which are then assembled into new viruses like cars on an assembly line. Theoretically, this is their only means of surviving and infecting new cells or hosts.

The Replicating Virus Theory

Then it was discovered that, when bacteria slowly begin to die, bacteria create tiny, apparently lifeless forms of survival, the so-called spores. It was then suspected that these spores were toxic and that they were the so-called pathogenic poisons. This was then refuted, since the spores are rapidly developing into bacteria when their vital resources are being restored. When scientists in the laboratory observed that the weak, highly inbred bacteria perished very quickly while turning into much smaller structures than the spores, it was first believed that the bacteria were being killed by the alleged pathogenic poisons, called viruses, and that the viruses were thereby replicating.

The Replicating Virus Theory

Then it was discovered that, when bacteria slowly begin to die, bacteria create tiny, apparently lifeless forms of survival, the so-called spores. It was then suspected that these spores were toxic and that they were the so-called pathogenic poisons. This was then refuted, since the spores are rapidly developing into bacteria when their vital resources are being restored. When scientists in the laboratory observed that the weak, highly inbred bacteria perished very quickly while turning into much smaller structures than the spores, it was first believed that the bacteria were being killed by the alleged pathogenic poisons, called viruses, and that the viruses were thereby replicating.

The Invention of Bacterial Viruses

Due to the belief that these – at the time of their discovery still invisible- structures were killing the bacteria, they were called phages/bacteriophages, “eaters of bacteria”. Only later it was determined that merely highly inbred and therefore almost non-viable bacteria can be made to turn into phages, or bacteria which are being destroyed so fast that they do not have time to form spores.

The introduction of the electron microscopy led to the discovery of the structures resulting from the biological transformation or pleomorphism of bacteria when these were suddenly dying or when the metabolism of the highly inbred germs was overwhelmed by processes triggered by the adding of “phages”. It was also discovered that there are hundreds of types of different-looking “phages”. The discovery of phages, the so-called bacterial “viruses”, reinforced the wrong assumption and the belief that there were human and animal viruses that looked the same and had the same structure. This is not and cannot be the case, for several different reasons.

After introducing chemical examination techniques in biology, it was discovered that there are thousands of types of phages and that phages of one type always have the same structure. They consist of a particular molecule, made of nucleic acid, which is covered in a shell of proteins of a given number and composition. It was only later discovered that merely the bacteria which had been highly inbred in the test tube could turn into phages themselves, by contact with phages, but this never applied to natural bacteria or bacteria which had just been isolated from their natural environment. In this process, it was discovered that these “bacterial viruses” actually serve to provide other bacteria with important molecules and proteins, and that the bacteria themselves emerged from such structures.

Before it could be established that the “bacterial viruses” cannot kill natural bacteria, but they are instead helping them to live and that bacteria themselves emerge from such structures, these “phages” were already used as models for the alleged human and animal viruses. It was assumed that the human and animal viruses looked like the “phages”, were allegedly killing cells and thereby causing diseases, while at the same time producing new disease poisons and in this way transmitting the diseases. To date, many new or apparently new diseases have been attributed to viruses if their origin is unknown or not acknowledged. This reflex found an apparent confirmation in the discovery of the “bacterial viruses”.

It is important to note that the theories of fight and infection were accepted and highly praised by a majority of the specialists only if and when the countries or regions where they lived were also suffering from war and adversity. In times of peace, other concepts dominated the world of science.[272]

It is very important to note that the theory of infection – starting from Germany – has only been globalized through the third Reich, when the Jewish researchers, most of which had opposed and refuted the politically exploited theories of infection, were removed from their positions.[273]

The Detection of Phages and Biological Transformation

The existence of phages can be proved rapidly

First step: their presence is confirmed through an effect, namely the transformation of bacteria into phages, and also through an electron micrograph of those phages. The control experiments show that phages do not appear if bacteria do not change or if bacteria randomly start decomposing due to extrinsic sudden annihilation, without forming phages.

Second step: the liquid containing the phages is concentrated and applied on another liquid, which has a high concentration at the bottom of the test tube and a low concentration at the top of the test tube. The test tube with the phages is then powerfully spun (centrifuged) and all the particles gather according to their mass and weight to the place of their own density. The density is the ratio of weight (mass) per unit of volume, expressed as Kg/l or g/mg, respectively. That is why this concentration and purification step for particles with the same density is called density gradient centrifugation.

The layer where many particles of the same density gather becomes “cloudy”, which is called a “band.” This step is being documented, then the particles concentrated, purified and sedimented in a “band” are removed with a syringe needle. The extracted concentrated amount of particles is called an isolate. A fast and simple electron micrograph will confirm the presence of phages in the isolate, which at the same time is an indication for the purity of the isolate, if the micrograph shows no other particles but the phages. The appearance and the diameter of the phages will also be established with the help of this micrograph.

The control experiment performed for this step consists in treating and centrifuging the liquid from bacteria which did not form any phages, where no phages appear at the end of the procedure.

After the step of successfully isolating the phages, the decisive biochemical characterization of the phages follows. The biochemical characterization of their composition is essential for identifying the specific type of phage, since different types of phages often appear to be similar. The isolate obtained through the density gradient centrifugation is now divided in two parts. One part is used to determine the size, type and composition of the nucleic acid; in a separate procedure, the other part is used to determine the amount, size and morphology of the proteins of the phages. Since the 1970s, these tests have been simple standard techniques that are learned by every biology student in their first semesters.

These tests represent the biochemical characterization of the phages. In almost every case, these results have been and are being published in only one publication, since a phage has a very simple structure which is very easy to analyze. The control experiments for these tests use liquid from bacteria which do not form phages and thus cannot present any biochemical proof. The existence of approximately two thousand different types of phages have been scientifically demonstrated this way

The So-Called Pathogenic Viruses

The “bacteriophages,” correctly defined as incomplete mini spores and building blocks of the bacteria, have been scientifically isolated, while the so-called pathogenic viruses have never been observed in humans or animals or in their body fluids and have never been isolated and subsequently biochemically analyzed. To date, none of the researchers involved in virology research seems to have realized this very important point.

The use of electron microscopy and the biochemistry were very slowly returning to normal after 1945 and no one had realized that not one pathogenic virus had ever been isolated in humans or animals; thus, as of 1949 researchers started applying the same idea used for the (bacterio) phages, in order to replicate the human and animal “viruses.” John Franklin Enders, born in 1897 in the family of a rich financier, was active in various fraternities after having finished his studies, then he worked as a real estate agent and studied foreign languages for four years before turning to bacterial virology, which fascinated him. He then simply transferred the ideas and concepts that he learned in this area of research to the supposed pathogenic viruses in humans.

UnScientific Experiments and Interpretations Gave Birth to Virology

With his unscientific experiments and interpretations that he had never confirmed through negative controls, Enders brought the entire “viral” infectious medicine to a dead end. It is important to note at this point that Enders, like many infectious diseases specialists, worked for the U.S. military, which had always been and remains to date a huge victim of the fear of contagions. It was mainly the U.S. military which spread its erroneous belief that besides chemical weapons there were also biological weapons in the form of bacteria and viruses.

In 1949, Enders announced that he had managed to cultivate and grow the alleged polio virus in vitro on various tissues. The American expert opinion believed everything immediately. What Enders did was to add fluids from patients with poliomyelitis to tissue cultures which he claimed to have had sterilized, then he alleged that the cells were dying because of the virus, that the virus was replicating in this way and that a vaccine could be harvested from the respective culture. At that time, summer polio epidemics (polio = flaccid paralysis) were very frequent during summer and they were believed to be caused by the polio virus. A vaccine was to help eradicate the alleged virus. After the polio vaccine was introduced, the symptoms were then re-diagnosed among other things as multiple sclerosis, flaccid acute paralysis, aseptic meningitis etc. and later polio was claimed to have been eradicated. During his experiments, Enders et al. sterilized the tissue cultures in order to exclude the possibility of bacteria killing the cells. What he didn’t take into consideration was that the sterilization and the treatment of the cell culture when preparing it for the alleged infection was exactly what was destroying and killing the cells. Instead, he interpreted the cytopathic effects as the existence and the action of a so-called polio virus, without ever having isolated a single virus and describing its biochemistry. The necessary negative control experiments, which would have shown that the sterilization and the treatment of the cells prior to the “infection” in the test tube was killing the cells, have never been performed. However, for this “performance” Enders received the Nobel prize in 1954.

The Invention of the Polio Virus and ‘YES” the Measles Virus Too!

1954 is also the year in which Enders applied and introduced the same technique in order to allegedly replicate the measles virus. As he had been awarded the Nobel prize for the alleged polio virus the same year, all researchers believed his technique to be scientifically valid. Thus, to date, the entire concept of polio and measles has been based upon this unscientific technique and fraud.

Thus, the polio and measles vaccines do not contain viruses, but particles of dead monkey kidney tissue or human cancerous body cells. To date, no negative control experiments have been done with respect to the so-called polio and measles viruses either, which would have shown that it was the laboratory procedures that lead to the cytopathic effects on the cells.

Additionally, all claims and experiments made by Enders et al. and subsequent researchers lead to the only objective conclusion, that in fact they were observing and analyzing the cellular particles or fragments and the activity thereof in the test tube, misinterpreting these as particles and characteristics of the alleged polio and/or measles viruses.

ALL Viruses from HIV, EBV, CMV, Hepatitis C, West Nile Virus, Ebola, Zika Virus, etc. are ALL Phantom Viruses

Their Existence Has NEVER Been Scientifically Demonstrated!

The following explanations applies to all the so-called (human or animal) “pathogenic viruses”. The six papers provided by Dr. Bardens in the course of the “measles trial” as proof for the existence of the measles virus described in a didactically ideal way the various steps of the chain of misinterpretations up to the belief in the existence of a measles virus.

The first paper was published in 1954 by Enders et al.: “Propagation in tissue cultures of cytopathogenic agents from patients with measles” (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1954 Jun; 86 (2): 277–286).

This publication can be found on the internet, like all the other publications presented at the measles trial. In that experiment, Enders et al. cut down dramatically on the nutrient solution and added cell-destroying antibiotics to the cell culture before introducing the allegedly infected fluid. The subsequent dying of the cells was then misinterpreted as presence and also isolation of the measles virus. No control experiments were performed to exclude the possibility that it was the deprivation of nutrients as well as the antibiotics which led to the cytopathic effects.

Enders’ and his colleagues’ blindness can be explained by the fact that he truly wanted to help people, while the ‘virus hysteria’ was intensifying after the war and during the cold war. It can also be explained by the fact that Enders and many of his colleagues had no idea about medicine or biochemistry and they were competing with the Soviet Union for the development of the first measles vaccine. Such a pressure for success can also explain why Enders and his colleagues ignored their own reservations and cautions expressed in 1954, when they had observed and noted that many cells also died after being treated normally (i.e. without being “infected”), which they thought to have been caused by unknown viruses and other factors.  All these facts and cautions were subsequently disregarded.

The second paper presented by the claimant in the ‘measles trial’ was published in 1959[274] and, for the reasons presented above, the authors concluded that the technique introduced by Enders was not appropriate for the isolation of ANY virus. This rebuttal is not only NOT being discussed by ALL the other researchers, but it is being ignored completely!

The ‘Viral Dogma’ of Pathogenic Viruses is Still Being Promoted Today!

In a third paper[275], the authors photographed typical cellular particles inside the cells and misinterpreted these as measles virus. They did not isolate any virus. For unexplained reasons, they failed to determine and describe the biochemical structure of what they were presenting as a virus in a separate experiment. In the short description of the methods used, one can read that the authors did not apply the standard isolation technique for viruses, i.e. the density gradient centrifugation. They simply centrifuged fragments of dead cells at the bottom of a test tube and then, without describing their biochemical structure, they misinterpreted the cellular debris as viruses.

From the way the experiments were performed, one can only conclude that cellular particles were misinterpreted as viruses. We find the same situation in the fourth[276] and the sixth[277] publication put forward by the claimant as proof of the existence of a measles virus. The fifth publication[278] is a review describing the consensus process as to which nucleic acid molecules from the dead cells would represent the so-called genome of the polio or measles virus. The result is that dozens of research teams work with short pieces of cell-specific molecules, after which -following a given model – they put all the pieces together on paper. However, this jigsaw puzzle made of so many pieces was never scientifically proven to exist as a whole and was never isolated from a virus, for a polio, measles, HIV or Hepatitis C, Ebola or Zika viruses have never been seen, neither in humans nor in a test tube. Referring to this publication, the court-appointed expert stated that it described the gold standard, i.e. the entire virus genome. It is obvious that the expert did not read this paper, whose authors stated that the exact molecular composition and functions of the measles virus genome will have to be the object of further research, which is why they had to rely on other virus models in order to achieve a consensus on the structure and functions of ANY virus genome. The easiest thing for anyone to notice is that in all of these publications, as well as in all other publications on the “measles virus” and other pathogenic viruses, including HIV, EBV, CMV, Ebola and Zika, no control experiments have ever been performed. No researchers used the density gradient centrifugation technique; instead, they only centrifuged cellular debris at the bottom of a test tube. This technique, used to collect all the particles from a fluid, is called pelletizing. From a logical and scientific perspective, it can be said that in all publications on the so-called “pathogenic viruses”, the researchers demonstrated in fact only particles and characteristics of cells. I would also like to point out that the so-called giant viruses[279] , i.e. an enwrapped nucleic acid can be found everywhere in the sea and in basic organisms. Like all bacterial phages, not only are they harmless, but they have beneficial functions. They can be also isolated by using the density gradient centrifugation, which proves their existence (see the graphic above).

I also recommend Prof. Lüdtke’s relevant review (1999).[280] He noted that at the early beginnings of virology, the majority of virologists always concluded that the structures they had mistaken for viruses turned out to be components of the cells and thus, they were only the result of the experiment and not the cause of the changes observed.

After the discovery and characterization of the phages and after introducing the dogma that the nucleic acid was the genome of all cells and viruses, the consensus was born, according to which such viruses must exist in humans and animals as well. In 1992, the dogma stating that the nucleic acid is the genotype of all cells was retracted in the scientific community. The ‘viral dogma’ of pathogenic viruses, however, is still being promoted today to the harm of billions of people. – for what?

The Bottom Line Concerning Phantom Viruses and the Polio Virus

My bottom line still holds the truth that the terrain or internal environment is everything and the germ or so-called virus is NOTHING! The germ or so-called virus can only be a symptom of cellular breakdown due to an imbalance of the delicate alkaline pH balance of the body fluids and NOT the cause of that breakdown. That is why years ago I offered any scientist in the World a finders fee of 5 million US dollars if they could prove the existence of the HIV virus using Koch’s postulates. It has now been over 20 years and I am still waiting even though currently I no longer have the funds to pay the prize due to political assassination! It is unfortunate that a former 5 million US dollar prize offered 20 years ago was not enough money to change the current medical viral dogma that is currently paying out trillions of dollars to guess who?

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Lecture in Dubai – The Annual Conference on Bacterial, Viral and Infectious Diseases

Join Robert O Young PhD and Galina Migalko MD in Dubai on December 5th and 6th, 2018 for the Annual Conference on Bacterial, Viral and Infectious Diseases. They will be Key Note Speakers and doing a workshop on the New Biology.

For more information and to register go to:…

The following is the abstract for Dr. Young’s lecture:

The Dismantling of the Viral Theory

Robert O Young CPT, MSc, DSc, PhD, Naturopathic Practitioner


There is now over 100 years of documented history and research on the Polio virus and whether or not its treatment by inoculation has been successful in eradicating Polio. I am suggesting in this article and in my lecture that there are significant findings based on historical and past and current research, including my own that the viral theory of Polio and possibly other modern-day diseases, such as Post-Polio Syndrome, Polio Vaccine-Induced Paralysis, Legionnaires, CNS disease, Cancer, HIV/AIDS and now Zika may be caused by acidic chemical poisoning from DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and other related DDT pesticides, acidic vaccinations, and other factors including lifestyle and dietary factors rather than from a lone infectious virus. I will present ten historical graphs outlining the history of Polio, the production of DDT, BHC, Lead, Arsenic, Polio vaccinations and the author’s theory that chemical poisoning, vaccination, and lifestyle and dietary choices are a more likely causes for the symptoms of Polio, neurological diseases, Cancer, HIV/AIDS and now Zika.…/lecture-dubai-annual-conference…/…


[1] Morton S. Biskind, MD. “Public Health Aspects of the New Insecticides”. American Journal of Digestive Diseases, New York, 1953, v 20, p331.

[2] Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, edited by Wayland J. Hayes, Jr. and Edward R. Laws, Academic Press Inc., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, San Diego, 1991, p769

[3] Toxicological Profile: for DDT, DDE, and DDE. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, September 2002.

[4] U. Beck, E. Löser “Chlorinated Benzenes and other Nucleus-Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons” Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2012, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.

[5] Chlorobenzene”. Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

[6] U.S. Vital Statistics, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

[7] Historical Statistics of the U.S., The U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

[8] Van Nostrand’s Encyclopedia of Science and Engineering (1995), vol. 5, p1725. The phrase “Pesticides As A Panacea: 1942-1962” is a subtitle found in Encyclopedia Britannica, Macropaedia (1986).

[9] Thomas, Robert E. (1955), Salt & Water, Power & People: A Short History of Hooker Electrochemical Co. Niagara Falls, NY: Hooker Chemical Co.

[10] Booth, Gerald (2000), “Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry – Nitro Compounds, Aromatic”. doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_411. ISBN 3527306730

[11] Weber, Manfred; Weber, Markus; Kleine-Boymann, Michael (2004). “Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry – Phenol”. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_299.pub2. ISBN 3527306730.

[12] Haller, H. L., Bartlett, P. D., Drake, N. L., and others: The Chemical Composition of Technical DDT, American Chemical Society, Journal, volume 67, pages 1591- 1602, 1945.

[13] Jo-Yu Chin, Christopher Godwin, Chunrong Jia, Thomas Robins, Toby Lewis, Edith Parker, Paul Max, and Stuart Batterman, “Concentrations and Risks of p-Dichlorobenzene in Indoor and Outdoor Air,” Indoor Air, 2013 Feb; 23(1): 40–49, Published online 2012 Jul 18. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2012.00796.x.

[14] Duesberg, PH, “Inventing the AIDS Virus,” Regnery, (1996). ISBN 0-89526-399-8. [15] Icon Group International (Author), Chlorobenzene: Webster’s Timeline History, 1851 – 2007 May 17, 2010

[16] Ibid [17] Ibid

[18] Risse, GB (1988). Fee E, Fox DM, eds. Epidemics and History: Ecological Perspectives. in AIDS: The Burden of History. University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0-520-06396-1.

[19] A Disease of Cleanliness: Polio in New York City, 1900-1990, in David Rosner, ed., Hives of Sickness: Public Health and Epidemics in New York City Rutgers University Press, 1995, pp. 115-130.

[20] McDonough, F., The Origins of the First and Second World Wars (Cambridge Perspectives in History), Cambridge University Press, August 28, 1997.

[21] Goel, A, Aggarwal, P, “Pesticide Poisoning,” Natl Med J India. 2007 Jul-Aug; 20(4):182-91.

[22] Ibid.

[23] Biskind, MS (1953) “Public Health Aspects of the New Insecticides,” American Journal of Digestive Diseases 20: 331-341.

[24] TIME Magazine, U.S. Edition, March 14, 1994 Vol. 143 No. 11. [25] Baily, J. W.: J. Am. Vet. M. A. 113: 251, Sept. 1948.

[26] Biden-Steele, K. and Stuckey, R. E.: “Poisoning by DDT Emulsion: Report of a Fatal Case”, Lancet, 2: 235-236, Aug. 17, 1946.

[27] Biskind, M. S.: “DDT Poisoning and X Disease in Cattle”, J. Am. Vet. M. A. 114: 20, Jan. 1949.

[28] Biskind, M. S.: “DDT Poisoning a Serious Public Health Hazard”, Am. J. Dig. Dis. 16: 73, Feb. 1949.

[29] Biskind, M. S.: “DDT Poisoning and the Elusive ‘Virus X’: A New Cause for Gastro- Enteritis”, Am. J. Dig. Dis. 16: 79, March 1949.

[30] Boyd, C. L.: “A Report on “XX Disease in Texas”, J. Am. Vet. M. A. 113: 463, Nov. 1948.

[31] Cameron, C. R., and Burgess, F.: “The Toxicity of DDT”, Brit. M. J. 1: 865-871, June 23, 1945.

[32] Carte; R. H., Hubanks, P. E., et al: “Effect of Cooking on the DDT Content of Beef”, Science, 107: 347, April 2, 1948.

[33] Case, R. A. M.: Toxic Effects of DDT in Man”, Brit. M. J., 2: 842-845, Dec. 15, 1945.

[34] Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry, A. M. A.: “Health Hazards of Pesticides”, J. A. M. A. 137: 1603, Aug. 28, 1948.

[35] Crescitelli, F., and Gillman, A.: “Electrical Manifestations of Cerebellum and Cerebral Cortex Following DDT Administration to Cats and Monkeys”, Am. J. Physiol., 147: 127- 137, Sept. 1946.

[36] Deederer, C.: “DDT Toxicity”, M.Rec. 161: 216-220, April 1948

[37] Domenici, T. J.: “Hepatitis without Jaundice and without Hepatomegaly”, N. Eng. J. Med. 240: 88, Jan. 20, 1949

[38] Dunn, J. E., Dunn, J. C., and Smith, R. S.: “Skin Sensitising Properties of DDT for 31

Guinea Pig”, Pub. Health Rep. 61: 1614-1620, 1949.

[39] Editorial: Pesticides: “Chemical Contaminants of Foods”, J.A.M.A. 137: 1604, Aug. 28, 1948.

[40] Fitzhugh, O. G., and Nelson, A. A.: “The Chronic Oral Toxicity of DDT”, J. Pharm.acol. and Exper. Therap. 89: 18-30, Jan. 1947.

[41] Gamier, G.: “Treatment of Scabies with DDT”, .Presse Med. 56: 458, June 23, 1948. [42] Garett, ii. M., “Toxicity of DDT for Man”, Alabama St. M. A. J., 17: 74, Aug. 1947.

[43] Globus, J. H.: “DDT Poisoning; Histopathologic Observations on the Central Nervous System in So-Treated Monkeys, Dogs, Cats and Rats”, J. Neuropath. 7: 418-431, Oct. 1948.

[44] Haymaker, W., Ginzler, A. M., and Ferguson, J. L.: “Toxic Effects of Prolonged Ingestion of DDT on Dogs, with Special Reference to Lesions in Brain”, Am. J. M. Sc. 212: 423, Oct. 1946.

[45] Hill, K. R., and Daniiani, C. R.: “Death Following Exposure to DDT, Report of a Case”, New Eng. J. Med., 235: 897-899, Dec. 19, 1946.

[46] Hill, K. 3. and Robinson, G.: “A Fatal Case of DDT Poisoning in a Child, with an Account of Two Accidental Deaths in Dogs”. Brit. M. J. 2: 845-847, Dee. 15, 1945.

[47] Ingle, L.: “Toxicity of Chlordane to White Rats”, J. Econ. Entomol. 40: 264-268, 1947.

[48] Jandorf, B. J;. Sanett, H. P., and Bodansky, Oscar: “Effect of Oral Administration of DDT on Metabolism of Glucose and Pyruvie Acid in Rat Tissues”, J. Pharmaeol. and Exper. Therap. 88: 333-337, Dec. 1946.

[49] Jenkins, D. W.: “A Review of the Insecticide Hexachloro-cyclohexane (‘666’)”, Office of Technical Services, U. S. Dept of Commerce, Washington, D • C., No. PB 4034, Med. Div. Rept. No. 56, Sept. 26, 1945.

[50] Kempe, H. E.: “Progress Report on Benzene Hexachloride for the Destruction of Sheep Scab Mites”, Vet. Med., Feb. 1948, pp. 76-79.

[51] Kirk, H.: Vet. Red. 58: 43, 1946.

[52] Kirk, H.: “DDT in Canine Practice”, Vet. Med. Feb. 1947, PP. 76-78.

[53] Lawhon, G. J., Jr.: “X Disease in South Carolina”, N. Am. Vet. 29: 643, Oct. 1948.

[54] Leider, M.: “Allergenic Eczematous Contact-Type Dermatitis Caused by DDT”, J. Invest. Dermatol. 8: 125-126., March 1947.

[55] Lillie, R. D., Smith, M. I., and Stohlman, E. F.: Pathologic Action of DDT and Certain of its Analogs and Derivatives”, Arch. Path. 43: 127-142, Feb. 1947.

[56] Mackerras, I. M., and West, R. F. K.: “DDT Poisoning in Man”, M. J. Australia, 1: 400-401, March 23, 1946.

[57] Mobbs, J. F.:” Toxicity of Hexaehloroeyclohexane in Scabies, J.A.M.A. 138: 1253, Dec. 25, 1948. Personal Communication.

[58] Morrill, C. C.: “Hyperkeratosi.s or X Disease”, N. Am. Vet. 29: 642, Oct. 1948.

[59] Neal, P. A., Sweeney, T. B., Spicer, S. S., and von Oettingen, W. F.: “The Excretion of DDT in Man, Together with Clinical Observations”, Pub. Health Rep., 61: 403, March 22, 1946.

[60] Neal, P. A., von Oettingen, W. F., Smith, W. W., et al: Toxicology and Potential Dangers of Aerosols, Mists and Dusting Powders Containing DDT”, Pub. Health Rep. Suppl. 177, 1944.

[61] Neal, P. A., von Oettingeu, W. F., Dunn, R. C., and Sharpless, N. E.: “Toxicology and Potential Dangers of Aerosols and Residues from Aerosols Containing 3 Percent of DDT. Second Report, ibid., Suppl. 183, 1945.

[62] Nelson, A. A., Draize, 3. H., Woodard, G., et al: “Histopathological Changes Following Administration of DDT to Several Species of Animals”, U. S. Pub. Health Rep. 59: 1009, Aug. 4, 1944.

[63] Neve, Helen: “Toxic Effects of DDT on a Cat”, Vet. Rec. 58: 43, 1946. Vet. Med., Feb. 1947, p. 78.

[64] Niedelman, M. L.: “Contact Dermatitis Due to DDT”, Occup. Med. 1: 391-395, April 1946.

[65] Radeleff, R. D.: “DDT Spray Outmodes Dipping Vat”, Vet. Med. Oct. 1947, pp. 372- 373.

[66] Radeleff, R. D.: “Chlordane Poisoning: Symptomatology and Pathology, Vet. Med. Aug. 1948, pp. 342-347.

[67] Robinson, J. H.: “Harvest Analysis of DDT Residues”, Food Packer, 29: 50-53, 1948.

[68] Riker, W. F., Jr., Huebner, Virginia, R., Raska, S. B., and Cattell, McKeen: “Studies on DDT, Effects on Oxidative Metabolism”, J. Pharmacol. and, Exper. Therap., 88: 327- 332, Dec. 1946.

[69] Sarrett, H. P., and Jandorf, B. J.: “Effects of Chronic DDT Intoxication in Rats on Lipids and Other Constituents of Liver”, ibid., 91: 340-344, Dec. 1947.

[70] Smith, M. I.: “Accidental Ingestion of DDT, with a Note on its Metabolism in Man”, J.A.M.A., 131: 519-520, Juno 8, 1946.

[71] Smith, M. I., and Stohlnian, E. F.: “Pharmacologic Action of 2, 2 his (p-Chlorophenyl) 1,1,1-Trichloroethane and its Estimation in the Tissues and Body Fluid”, Pub. Health Rep., 59: 984, July 28, 1944.

[72] SmIth, M. I., and Stohlman, E. F.: “Further Studies on the Pharmacologic Action of DDT”, ibid., 60: 289, March 16, 1945.

[73] Smith, N. 3.: “Death Following Accidental Ingestion of DDT”, J.A.M.A., 136: 469- 471, Feb. 14, 1948.

[74] Smith, R. F., Fullmes, O. H., and Messenger, P. S.: “DDT Residues on Alfalfa Hay and Seed Chaff”, J. Econ. Entomol. 41: 755-8, 1948.

[75] Strycker, G. V., and Godfroy, B.: “Dermatitis Resulting from Exposure to DDT”, J. Missouri St. M. A., 43: 384-386, June 1948.

[76] Taylor, E. L.: “Danger of Ununction with DDT”, Lancet, 2: 320, Sept. 8, 1945.

[77] Telford, H. S., and Guthrie, J. E.: “Transmission of the Toxicity of DDT Through the Milk of White Rats and Goats”, Science, 102: 647, Dec. 21, 1945.

[78] Thoungh, TI. C.: “Poisonous Effects of DDT on Humans”, Indian M. Ga:. 81: 432, Oct. 1946.

[79] U. S. Dept. Agriculture, “Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine: Now Insecticides in Grasshopper Control”, Bull. E-722, May 1947. Bull. EC.1, March 1948.

[80] U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine: “New Insecticides for Controlling External Parasites of Livestock”, Bull. E. 762, Dec. 1948.

[81] Westerfteld, C.: “The Use of DDT in Medicine-A Review”, Vet. Med., Oct. 1946, pp. 355-360.

[82] Wigglesworth, V. D.: “A Case of DDT Poisoning in Man”, Brit M. J. 1: 517, April 14, 1945.

[83] Wilson, J. B.: Are Pesticides Making Your Food Unsafer? Hygiea, Jan. 1949. p. 44.

[84] Woodard, G., Ofner, Ruth B., and Montgomery, C. M.: “Accumulation of DDT in the Body Fat and its Appearance in the Milk of Dogs”, Science, 102: 177-178, Aug. 17, 1945.

[85] Wright, C. S., Doan, C. A., and Haynie, H. C.: “Agranulocytosis Occurring after Exposure to DDT Pyrethrum Aerosol Bomb”, Am. J. Med., 1: 562-567, Nov. 1946.

[86] The Pesticide Residues Amendment of 1954, Pub. L. No. 83-518, ch. 559, 68 Stat. 511 [codified at 21 USC § 346a (1981)]; and the Food Additives Amendments of 1958, Pub. L. No. 85-529, Ch. 4.72 Stat. 1785 [codified at 21 USC § 348 (1981)], respectively.

[87] 20 Fed. Reg. 750 (1955) [codified until repealed at 21 CFR § 120. 1(f) (1956). [88] DDT Regulatory History: A Brief Survey (to 1975). United States Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA).

[89] Ibid.

[90] TIME Magazine, U.S. Edition, March 14, 1994 Vol. 143 No. 11.

(91] Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, edited by Wayland J. Hayes, Jr. and Edward R. Laws, Academic Press Inc., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, San Diego, 1991.

[92] Peter Duesberg and Brian J. Ellison, Inventing the AIDS Virus, Regnery Pub.,1996. [93] Ibid.

[94] Biskind, MS (1953) “Public Health Aspects of the New Insecticides,” American Journal of Digestive Diseases 20: 331-341.

[95] Peter Duesberg and Brian J. Ellison, Inventing the AIDS Virus, Regnery Pub.,1996. [96] DDT Regulatory History: A Brief Survey (to 1975). United States Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA).

[97] Poliomyelitis: Fact sheet N°114″. World Health Organization. Sep 2016. Retrieved 14 Sep 2016.

[98] Ibid.

[99] DDT Regulatory History: A Brief Survey (to 1975). United States Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA).

[100] Ibid.

[101] Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, edited by Wayland J. Hayes, Jr. and Edward R.

Laws, Academic Press Inc., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, San Diego, 1991.

[102] Rea WJ, Johnson AR, Fenyves E, Butler J. Related Articles: The environmental aspects of the post-polio syndrome. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1987;23(4):173-81. No abstract available. Pub Med ID: 3620615; UI: 87299998.

[103] Ibid.

[104] Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology (1996).

[105) Rea WJ, Johnson AR, Fenyves E, Butler J. Related Articles: The environmental aspects of the post-polio syndrome. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1987;23(4):173-81. No abstract available. Pub Med ID: 3620615; UI: 87299998.

[106] PubMed ID: 7611631, UI: 95336052 (London, May, 1995)

[107] Pub Med ID: 7611630, UI: 95336051 (Bethesda, MA, May, 1995)

[108] Pub Med ID: 8818905, UI: 96415998 (Lyon, France, Aug., 1996)

[109] Alfredo Morabia (1 January 2004). A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts. Springer. pp. 133–4. ISBN 978-3-7643-6818-0. Retrieved 22 June 2013.

[110] Ibid.

[111] Morton S. Biskind, MD. “Public Health Aspects of the New Insecticides”. American

Journal of Digestive Diseases, New York, 1953, v 20, p331. [112] Ibid.

[113] Young RO (2016) Second Thoughts Concerning Viruses, Vaccines and the HIV/AIDS Hypothesis – Part 2. Int J Vaccines Vaccin 2(3): 00034. DOI: 10.15406/ijvv.2016.02.00034

[114] Dirt and Disease: Polio before FDR Rutgers University Press, 1992. [115] Ibid.

[116] Menkes, John H., Child Neurology, pg. 420, (1995).

[117] A Paralyzing Fear: The Story of Polio in America. Produced by Paul Wagner, Nina Gilden Seavey. Directed, written by Nina Gilden Seavey. Narration written by Stephen Chodorov. With: Narrator: Olympia Dukakis. Camera (Colorlab color), Allen Moore, Reuben Aaronson; editor, Catherine Shields; music, Paul Christianson; associate producers, Tom Wentworth, Malvina Anderson Martin. Reviewed on videocassette, N.Y., March 3, 1998. Running time: 90 min.

[118] FILM REVIEW; Once a Fear Beyond Fear Itself, by STEPHEN HOLDEN, Published: March 4, 1998, New York Times.

[119] Ibid.

[120] Duesberg, Peter and Ellison, Brian J., Inventing the AIDS Virus, Regnery Pub.,1996.

[121] Ibid.

[122] Ibid.

[123] Ibid.

[124] Ibid.

[125] Rose DR (2004). “Fact Sheet—Polio Vaccine Field Trial of 1954.” March of Dimes Archives. (2004).

[126] Ibid.

[127] American Journal of Digestive Diseases, 1953 20:330 [128] Ibid.

[129] Ibid.

[130] Jenkins, D. W.: “A Review of the Insecticide Hexachloro-cyclohexane (‘666’)”, Office of Technical Services, U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., No. PB 4034, Med. Div. Rept. No. 56, Sept. 26, 1945.

[131] Biskind, M., “DDT Poisoning and the Elusive ‘Virus X’.” A New Cause for Gastroenteritis.” Am. J. Dig., Vol. 16, Num 3, pg. 79-84, (1949).

[132] Biskind, MS, Bieber, I, “DDT Poisoning A New Syndrome With Neuropsychiatric Manifestations,” American Journal of Psychotherapy, p261, (1949).

[133] Presented before the Select Committee to Investigate the Use of Chemicals in Food Products, United States House of Representatives, U.S. December 12, 1950 Westport, Conn.

[134] “Salk and Sabin: poliomyelitis immunisation”. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 75 (11): 1552. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2003.028530. PMC 1738787. PMID 15489385.

[135] H. Rept. No. 2356, 82d Cong., 2d sess. 1 (1952), reprinted in A Legislative History of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and Its Amendments 499 (hereinafter Legislative History)

[136] Scobey, RR, “Is The Public Health Law Responsible For The Poliomyelitis Mystery?” Syracuse, N.Y., Archive of Pediatrics (May, 1951).

[137] White, Mark; Sharon M. McDonnell; Denise H.Werker; Victor M. Cardenas; Stephen B. Thacker (2001). “Partnerships in International Applied Epidemiology Training and Service,”. American Journal of Epidemiology 154 (11): 993–999. doi:10.1093/aje/154.11.993.

[138] Van Nostrand’s Encyclopedia of Science and Engineering, Van Nostrand Reinhold 1995, v 5, p1775

[139] “Salk and Sabin: poliomyelitis immunisation”. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 75 (11): 1552. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2003.028530. PMC 1738787. PMID 15489385.

[140] Ralph R. Scobey, MD. “The Poison Cause of Poliomyelitis and Obstructions to Its Investigation.” Archive of Pediatrics, April 1952.

[141] The National Adipose Tissue Survey, reported in Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, edited by Wayland J. Hayes, Jr. and Edward R. Laws, Academic Press Inc., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, San Diego, 1991, pg. 303.

[142] The National Adipose Tissue Survey, reported in Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, edited by Wayland J. Hayes, Jr. and Edward R. Laws, Academic Press Inc., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, San Diego, 1991, pg. 303.

[143] Van Nostrand’s Encyclopedia of Science and Engineering (1995), vol. 5, pg.1725. [144] Offit, Paul A. (2007). The Cutter Incident: How America’s First Polio Vaccine Led to

the Growing Vaccine Crisis. Yale University Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-300-12605-0. [145] Albert Sabin to Henry Kumm, Sabin Papers, UC, Pittsburgh Press, 1954. [146] American Journal of Digestive Diseases, 1953 20:330.

[147] Trevelyan, B., Smallman-Raynor, M. and Cliff, A.D., The Spatial Dynamics of Poliomyelitis in the United States: From Epidemic Emergence to Vaccine-Induced Retreat, 1910–1971, Ann Assoc Am Geogr. 2005 Jun; 95(2): 269–293.

[148] Baicus, A., History of Polio Vaccination, World J Virol. 2012 Aug 12; 1(4): 108–114. Published online 2012 Aug 12. doi: 10.5501/wjv.v1.i4.108.

[149] Ibid.

[150] Women’s History Month: “Oveta Culp Hobby” by Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison

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[151] Harry M. Marks, “The 1954 Salk Poliomyelitis Vaccine Field Trial,” Institute of the History of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD: 2008.

152[ National Museum of American History, “Whatever Happened to Polio?” Time line, (accessed March 28,, 2012).

[153] Abid.

[154] Norrby E., Prusiner S.B., Polio and Nobel Prizes: looking vack 50 years. Ann Neurol.

2007 May;61(5):385-95.

[155] Eloise Batic, You Are There 1955: Ending Polio exhibit text (2012).

[156] Boston Herald newspaper, April 18, 1955, “Drug Companies Expecting Big Profit on

Salk Vaccine”,

[157] Washington Bureau of the Detroit Free Press reports, June 3, 1955.

[158] Michigan University. Poliomyelitis Evaluation Center (1955), An evaluation mof the 1954 poliomyelitis vaccine trials; summary report. Ann Arbor: n.p. , pp. 17-18 as quoted in Marks, Harry M. “The 1954 Salk Poliomyelitis Vaccine Field Trial.” Institute of the History of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University. Baltimore: 2008, p. 20.

[160] McBean E. The Poisoned Needle. Mokelumne Hill, California: Health Research,1957:1

[161] McBean E. The Poisoned Needle. Mokelumne Hill, California: Health Research, 1957:119.

[162] McBean E. The Poisoned Needle. Mokelumne Hill, California: Health Research,1957:1

[163] Offit, Paul A. The Cutter Incident: How America’s First Polio Vaccine Led to the Growing Vaccine Crisis, Yale University Press, 2005, pp. 100, 116–19, 133. ISBN 0-300- 10864-8

[164] Ibid.

[165] Smith, JS, “Patenting the Sun: Polio and the Salk Vaccine,” 1st Edition, William

Morrow & Co; 1st edition (April 1990).

[166] Offit PA (2005), “The Cutter incident, 50 years later” (PDF). N. Engl. J. Med. 352 (14): 1411–1412. doi:10.1056/NEJMp048180. PMID 15814877

[167] McBean E., The Poisoned Needle. Mokelumne Hill, California: Health Research,1957:1.

[168] Harris RJ et al Contaminant viruses in two live vaccines produced in chick cells. J Hyg (London) 1966 Mar:64(1) : 1-7

[169] McBean E. The Poisoned Needle. Mokelumne Hill, California: Health Research,1957:1

[170] Ibid.

[171] Ibid.

[172] Ibid.

[173] Ii. Results. American journal of public health and the nation’s health. 1955;45:15–48. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

[174] Harper’s Magazine. “’Who is responsible, and why, for the chaotic confusion over the polio inoculations?’ A noted medical journalist disentangles the essential facts.” August, 1955.

[175] Ibid.

[176] Ibid.

[177] American Cancer Society, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1–218, (1955).

[178] Paul JR. A history of poliomyelitis. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; 1971.

[179] Ibid.

[180] Ibid.

[181] Ibid.

[182] Rogers N. Dirt and disease: Polio before fdr. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press; 1992.

[183] Ibid.

[184] Smith, Derek R; Leggat Peter A (2005). “Pioneering figures in medicine: Albert Bruce Sabin–inventor of the oral polio vaccine”. The Kurume medical journal. 52 (3): 111–6. doi:10.2739/kurumemedj.52.111. PMID 16422178

[185] Rose, David, March of Dimes Archives, August 26, 2010.

[186] American Journal of Public Health and the Nations Health: May 1956, Vol. 46, No. 5: 547–562. Citation | PDF (2177 KB) | PDF Plus (744 KB)


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[252] Myers G, et al. The emergence of simian/human immunodeficiency viruses. AIDS Res Human Retro 1992:8:373–86.

[253] Curtis T. The origin of AIDS: A startling new theory attempts to answer the question “Was it an act of God or an act of man”, Rolling Stone, March 19,1992:57.

[254] O’Hern M. Profiles: Pioneer Women Scientists. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.

[255] Curtis T. Expert says test vaccine: backs check of polio stocks for AIDS virus. The Houston Post, March 22, 1992:A-21.

[256] Curtis T. Expert says test vaccine: backs check of polio stocks for AIDS virus. The Houston Post, March 22, 1992:A-21.

[257] Essex M, et al. The origin of the AIDS virus. Scientific American, 1988; 259:64–71. [258] Karpas A. Origin and Spread of AIDS. Nature, 1990; 348:578.

[259] Kyle WS. Simian retroviruses, poliovaccine, and origin of AIDS. Lancet, 1992; 339:600–1.

[260] Elswood BF, Stricker RB. Polio vaccines and the origin of AIDS. Medical Hypothesis, 1994:42:347–54.

[261] Workshop on Simian Virus-40 (SV-40): A Possible Human Polyomavirus. National Vaccine Information Center, January 27-28, 1997. (Includes a summary of evidence presented at the Eighth Annual Houston Conference on AIDS.)

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[267] Elswood BF, Stricker RB. Polio vaccines and the origin of AIDS. Medical

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[271] Sabin AB. Properties and behavior of orally administered attenuated poliovirus vaccine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1957; 164:1216–23.

[272] Siehe Ausführungen zu Virchows Leben und Wirkung in WissenschafftPlus Nr. 5/2015 und Nr. 6/2015. 2 Anticontagionism between 1821 and 1867.

[273] Aufsatz von Erwin H. Ackerknecht in der Zeitschrift Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Volume XXII, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1948.

[274] Bech V, Magnus Pv. Studies on measles virus in monkey kidney tissue cultures. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand. 1959; 42 (1): 75–85.

[275] Nakai M, Imagawa DT. Electron microscopy of measels virus replication. J. Virol. 1969 Feb; 3v (2): 187–97.

[276] Lund GA, Tyrell, DL, Bradley RD, Scraba DG. The molecular length of measles virus RNA and the structural organization of measles nucleocapsids. J. Gen. Virol. 1984 Sep;65 (Pt 9): 1535–42.

[277] Daikoku E, Morita C, Kohno T, Sano K. Analysis of Morphology and Infectivity of Measles Virus Particles. Bulletin of the Osaka Medical College. 2007; 53 (2): 107–14.

[278] Horikami SM, Moyer SA. Structure, Transcription, and Replication of Measles Virus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1995; 191: 35–50.

[279] Siehe WissenschafftPlus Nr. 1/2014.

[280] Zur Geschichte der frühen Virusforschung. Übersichtsarbeit von Prof. Karlheinz Lüdtke. Reprint 125 des MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT FÜR WISSENSCHAFTSGESCHICHTE, 89 Seiten, 1999.

Tom Brady’s pH Alkaline Lifestyle and Diet

New England Patriots quarterback Tom Brady — a five-time Super Bowl Champion and three-time NFL MVP — is widely considered to be one of the greatest athletes of all time. Lately, however, Brady has been following an alkaline lifestyle and diet.

In September 2017, Brady released his book, The TB12 Method: How to Achieve a Lifetime of Sustained Peak Performance. In this book, Brady detailed exactly what he eats every day. One main feature of his diet is liberal amounts of alkaline foods and liquids.


In the mornings, Brady doesn’t eat a full meal. When he wakes up at 6:00 am, he drinks 20 ounces of alkaline water infused with electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. He then drinks a smoothie and/or juices containing alkalizing grasses, vegetables, fruit, nuts and seeds. Two hours later, he has another glass of alkaline electrolyte-infused water, and a post-workout protein shake. Brady claims to drink somewhere between 12 and 25 glasses of alkaline water per day.


He also heavily encourages snacking. He usually snacks at around 11:00 am, just before lunch. For lunch, Brady will usually have a piece of fatty fish like salmon and a lot of green vegetables. In the afternoon, he may have another protein shake or protein bar, and around 6:00 pm, Brady eats dinner, which, again, consists of mostly green vegetables.

His book provides recipes for green juices, green soups, green salads, and a few carbohydrate recipes such as his pasta dish — which is odd, considering that he supposedly rarely eats carbs. But even Brady treats himself sometimes. He doesn’t often eat dessert, but he does give a recipe for his famous alkaline avocado ice cream.


His book also contains several alkalizing rules for eating. Brady won’t eat carbohydrates and protein together. He recommends eating carbs or protein with green vegetables instead, as he knows that this is better for assimilation and elimination.

Brady’s chef Allen Campbell says that 80 per cent of his diet is green vegetables and the rest of his diet is grass-fed organic steak and wild salmon.

Brady follows what he refers to as an alkaline lifestyle and diet created by Robert O. Young PhD, in order to minimize muscle inflammation caused by the buildup of lactic acid in the interstitial fluids of the Interstitium (see illustration below). This entails limiting ‘acidifying foods,’ which mostly includes starchy foods like potato, pasta, bread and ALL dairy products.

What is even more interesting is the list of acidic foods that Brady doesn’t eat. For Brady, caffeine, white sugar, white flour, dairy, and some nightshade vegetables —  eggplant and mushrooms — are completely off the table. He also won’t consume olive oil if it’s used in cooking — but he’ll have it raw. And he won’t eat high sugar fruit, unless it’s in a smoothie.

Since there are profound benefits with Brady’s pH alkaline diet, and it is clearly sustaining his play on the field, there a 100’s of specific health and fitness benefits of the pH alkaline lifestyle and diet which are backed by published scientific evidence.


He claims that limiting acidic foods helps control the body’s pH balance. What one eats, drinks, breaths and thinks has a huge effect on the body fluids, including the blood plasma, interstitial and intracellular fluid pH which is ideal at 7.365.

Brady also knows that the alkaline lifestyle and diet can decrease the lactic acids that causes inflammation in the body, leading to ALL sickness and disease, including connective tissue disorders that can end an athlete’s career.


At 41 years young, which is considered ancient in football years, Brady says he wants to play at least another five years. While he is certainly capable, his pH Miracle lifestyle and diet will be a major reason he WILL achieve HIS goal.

To learn more about the pH alkaline lifestyle and diet read The pH Miracle revised and updated –

To learn more about the lifestyle and attend a pH Miracle Retreat in Marbella, Spain or Sardenia, Italy, go to:

The Power of Love

Love = energy = mc2

Love = energy = mc2

Can positive or negative thoughts and emotions affect your body’s delicate biochemistry or the acid/alkaline pH balance?

Love, fear, joy, anger, sadness, happiness, resentment. Can positive or negative emotions affect your body’s physical, mental and spiritual health?

Is a woman more likely to become pregnant if she eats a lot of vegetables or if she were to go on a long, relaxing vacation?

Are you more likely to do cancer if you have a hot temper?

Do people who laugh a lot live longer?

Does your anxiety or fear of crowds, elevators, blood, heights, spiders, hospitals, or airplanes somehow affect your health?

My theory of one sickness, one disease and one health, set forth in what I call “The New Biology,” not only considers how our diet affects our physiology, but also how our psychology affects our physiology and how our psychology affects our spirituality.

Not only does the health of your body affect the emotions of your mind, but your thoughts and feelings can affect the health of your entire body.

Bottom line, your mental state is ever so critical. In so many ways, your mental state, if it’s negative, can create more metabolic acids than the acidic food that you’re eating

In fact, you can create two or three times more metabolic acids from your thoughts or your mental and emotional state than from ingesting highly acidic dairy, animal protein, sugar and alcohol.

So your thoughts are critical. Your thoughts or words do become matter, and can affect your physiology in a negative or positive way. Your thoughts do become biology. And the way that thoughts become biology is as follows:

When you have a thought or say a word, it requires electrical or electron energy for the brain cell(s) to produce those actions. And as you carry on with that thought, you are burning or consuming energy. And when you are consuming electrical energy in your thoughts, you are producing a biological waste product called acid which is an energetic waste product which can be measured in pH, oxidative reduction potential, rH2 or redox, hertz and decibels.

Next, if the metabolic acids from your thoughts are not properly eliminated through the four channels of elimination which are urination, perspiration, respiration or defecation (form women menstruation), then the acids from your thoughts are moved out into your connective and fatty tissues ­because it must not be allowed to affect the pH of the blood and the interstitial fluids of the interstitium or the fluids that surround the cells. The delicate pH balance of the blood and the interstitium must remain quite constant 7.365 to remain healthy.

What happens next is this. As the excess and overload of acid are thrown out into the body tissues or intestitium, this can easily lead to all sorts of symptomologies: lupus, fibromyalgia, Lyme’s, arthritis, muscle pain, fatigue, tiredness, obesity, cancerous breasts, cancerous prostate, cancerous stomach and/or bowels, indigestion, acid reflux, heart burn, heart attacks, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s, dementia, autism, and the list goes on and on.


For example let’s say you’ve been doing sadness or depression. This downer feeling is coming from a negative experience that you keep looping and re-looping in your head. It’s like a mind movie. It’s a mini-drama that you keep playing over and over. And because you are constantly thinking about it, eventually you even start to be concerned or worried about the fact that you are so preoccupied with the whole affair. So now in addition to the sad drama, you are experiencing upset about the fact that you’re having the drama itself. All of this thinking requires electrical energy and when you’re consuming electrical energy in the form of electrons you are also producing metabolic acids.

Do you know any angry people? You may not know it, but many people who become angry easily not only get angry at various people, events, and situations, but eventually they are irritated with themselves for being so angry at everything else. Anger, for instance, requires a tremendous amount of energy and emits a great deal of electrical energy. You have undoubtedly felt the vibrational energy of someone who is angry. Or maybe you have felt your own anger and how it can upset your physiology, i.e., especially upset your stomach and bowels with excess acid leading to indigestion, stomach pain, acid reflux or ulcers.

Even worse, many of these negative emotions are chronic and can be traced all the way back to early childhood experiences. So, at one level or another, it’s been going on for a long time­ and creating excessive acid all along.

For many people, early childhood represents some of the most fearful and vulnerable years. Have you ever wondered why you can’t remember much before age five or six? Many of those years are filled with fears and tears, mads and sads ­and how about the “bads”? Do you remember what happened when you were “bad?” Imagine the acid from those experiences. In addition to the punitive experience itself, imagine the acidity a child deals with by simply a) remembering such a “bad” experience or b) anticipating the possibility of another such “bad” experience…or c) both! Some “children” remember these events forever!

Some chronic emotions begin early:


“O dear white children casual as birds, Playing among the ruined languages,

So small beside their large confusing words,

So gay against the greater silences, Of dreadful things you did…”

It is during these vulnerable and unprotected years that we often plant eternal seeds of emotion that will yield an unwelcome harvest of acidic internal results, perhaps throughout one’s entire life.

The turmoil between parents and children, not to mention the conflicts between children and children, have been documented by many thousands of social science books and articles.

“Children begin by loving their parents; after a time they judge them;

Rarely, if ever, do they forgive them.”

So, let’s take a look at all of that emotion. Perhaps you are feeling a strong emotion. It could be any emotion.

Emotions Are Energy in Motion


First of all, emotions are energy in motion. When you are (e)motional, you are energetic, either in a positive or negative way. And if you are energetic, you are literally energy in (e)motion. You are now producing metabolic acids at a very high rate which is a waste product of such (e)motions.

The rate of acid production in an (e)motional state can be even greater than that of someone who is jogging or working out. So, your thoughts do become biological or metabolic acids that can make you sick, tired, depressed, angry and even too fat or underweight.

When you start producing acids with your thoughts, words and actions, what happens inside? First, you activate the alkaline-buffering systems of the body in order to neutralize these (e)motional acids. The body begins making a primary alkaline buffer known as sodium bicarbonate. It’s actually made from the blood in corporation with the cover cells of the stomach and during its production, it creates a waste product known as hydrochloric acid.

Hydrochloric acid is a poisonous acidic toxin and cannot remain in the blood. So it is dropped down into the gastric pits of the stomach. This is why people get upset stomachs or become constipated when they are (e)motional. This increase of sodium bicarbonate is critical in maintaining the alkaline design of the body, the pH of 7.365 for the blood, and for maintaining alkalinity of the interstitial fluids. If these acids, including hydrochloric acid, are not buffered and/or eliminated through the four channels of elimination, they can create serious health challenges in your body, mind, and spirit.

On the other hand, positive (e)motions, such as love, peace, hope, faith, joy, forgiveness and charity can be alkalizing to the blood and tissues. These (e)motions require far less energy and can cause you to be relaxed in your mind and stop the playing of some acidic toxic movie in your head. Students of higher consciousness know that you can even enter into a state of bliss wherein you have no thoughts and wherein you are producing no metabolic acid.

I Want Young Love


For myself, I have decided to call this wonderful place “Young Love.” That’s because I exercise and meditate every day. And I Love it! And it raises my level of consciousness and positive connection with the world. The connections between “Young” and “Love” are numerous. My name is Young, of course, but more importantly, being young is a term we normally associate with being youthful, energetic, open, optimistic, and filled with excitement. And the ultimate purpose of life is Love. And Love is the sweetest expression of life. So Young and Love go together.

To be sure, I Love my exercising and it Loves me back in terms of its gifts to me. I find myself Loving this state of bliss daily which I know is helping to alkalize my body. That is why I am addicted to­ why I Love­ this type of alkalizing exercise that I do every day. It’s called a “Positive Addiction”. I Love to have my friends and guests work out with me as I lead them through the steps. I teach them the Young version of Yoga. I tell them that it is known as “Younga Yoga”. They Love that. (Well, at least they laugh.) It incorporates proper breathing, stretching, toning, mediation, relaxation, and of course some sweating to remove yesterday’s dietary and metabolic acid and to help bring me into a state of happiness and bliss.

Through my personal and clinical research, I have found that maintaining the alkaline design of my body with an alkaline lifestyle and diet is the most important thing anyone can do to live a happier and more blissful life. Having an alkaline day is a way of life that I call “Young Living”. I guarantee you that what I call “Young Love” will go hand-in-hand with the goal of “Young Living”.

Are YOU Angry?


Now this next thought is very important! The negative (e)motions of anger, resentment, and fear­ being the most powerful and acidifying of all (e)motions­ are all highly acidic to the blood and tissues and in many ways are paralyzing to all bodily functions. Over time, the fear of the unknown is probably the most powerful and acidic of them all. Fear is so devastating to the body that even if you’re on an alkaline diet, overcoming a serious health challenge is practically impossible.

In such a dire case, with what may seem to be little or no improvement, you might be wondering if the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet may not be working. You may be asking, “What else am I not doing that I should be? How come I feel the way that I’m feeling? I’m eating the right way, I’m drinking the right alkaline electron rich water, but I can’t seem to achieve the type of extraordinary health and energy that I’m seeking.”

In most cases like this, when you are eating and drinking correctly, it will come down to your negative acidic (e)motions or thoughts that are holding you back from achieving extraordinary health, fitness, mental clarity, happiness, and bliss. However, keep this in mind:

When you’re eating an alkaline diet and you are doing everything you know how to do, and yet you are overwhelmed with worry, doubt and negative (e)motions, thank God you’re eating an alkaline diet! If your body were not seriously in the alkaline direction, you might very well be experiencing a struggle for your life. Your acidic (e)motions can literally kill you. So the alkaline diet is the saving grace. Knowing that should give you the positive hope that you can hang on, get through the emotional stress, and still come out physically and mentally able.

Hope and positive expectations are always the key, and knowing that you are on an alkaline diet should aid significantly in boosting your hope and confidence. You can live without food for forty days. You can live without water for about four days. You can live without air for maybe four minutes. But you cannot live without hope and love at all. Hope, love, positive expectations, confidence in what you are doing, and trust in your own good intentions ­this is the key, and that’s what the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet will do for you. It will give you hope!

The Leading Cause of Death in the World?


The leading cause of death in the world today is said to be heart attacks. But people are really having “thought attacks,” NOT “heart attacks.” There are studies showing that over 80% of all heart attacks are (e)motionally triggered. I have said that people don’t die of a heart attack. They die of a thought attack that medical science simply refers to as a heart attack because that’s the end result.

And if you have wondered if you can die from a broken heart, the answer is absolutely! And the cause? Acids from energy in motion or (e)motion. The loss of a cherished love one can increase your metabolic acids from the (e)motion to the point that it can stop your heart from beating and pumping life-giving blood throughout your blood vessels. And we all know or should know that life and death is in the blood, the most important “organ” of the body.

So let’s take a moment to talk about what I do when I have a client who’s in a highly negative acid-forming (e)motional situation and all the body fluids, including the blood, will show a decline in the pH even when this person has been eating an alkaline diet.

In order to buffer the acid forming (e)motions, the client will have to hyper-alkalize the blood and then the tissues in order to bring the body back into alkaline balance. When the client is hyper-alkalizing, the pH of the urine will increase into the high 8’s and even into the 9’s. Hyper-alkalization is necessary in order to overcompensate for the negative acidic producing (e)motions and to bring the body back to health, energy, vitality, hope, peace, harmony and love.

So, does a person have a fair chance of healing themselves from a degenerative disease or dis-ease like heart disease or cancer? Can you ever achieve a state of blissful happiness? Can you recover from the devastating shock of a loss or from having been diagnosed with a scary-sounding health challenge? I say “absolutely, YES!” And I just told you how.

Given the importance of (e)motions in cancer or acidic causation, etc., I have been particularly interested in the unique biochemistry of the “reptilian brain” which includes the Amygdala, a part of the brain associated with the senses and emotions and their storage or memory. Acid or sugar specifically activates the areas of the Amygdala. I have often wished that our traditional medical industry would spend some of their billions of research dollars checking out and verifying for the world what I have demonstrated for years that the pH Miracle electron-rich alkaline Lifestyle and Diet would be much more calming to the lower (e)motions of grief, shame, guilt, anger, fear, etc­., responses of the reptilian brain­ as compared to a toxic acidic chemical drug.

A chemical acidic drug may temporarily calm a person down, but it will also inhibit the entire spectrum of normal and healthy functioning of the Amygdala. I am assuming here that most of us still value and are interested in the healthy functions of socialization, sexual attraction, and the enjoyment of the myriad of feelings associated with home and hearth. All of these wonderful human experiences and memories are also functions of the Amygdala every bit as much as the feisty adrenal functions responding to “fight and flight.”

In our attempts to find a chemical drug to treat almost everything, we (more often than not) create more problems than we eliminate­ one step forward and two steps backward. I know that attention deficit problems (ADHD) respond to an alkaline regimen….and hyperactivity is an Amygdala function. So it follows that an alkaline lifestyle and diet would produce less overall adrenal and most important Amygdala “stress” as well (really just the fight or flight mechanism by another name).

The pH Miracle electron-rich alkaline lifestyle and diet is calming to the mind and thus calms the negative (e)motions or energy in motion. This appropriate calming of the Amygdala function produces less “stress.” And, with less “stress” you have less “acid.” And, with less “acid” you have less sickness, dis-ease, so-called disease, depression and unhappiness. Understand NOW?

Can our (e)motions cause cancer?


I have said that cancer is a four letter word­ ACID. When you are doing negative acidic (e)motions, such as anger, revenge, hate, sadness or depression, you are creating metabolic acids that can cause ANY and ALL cancerous conditions across all body tissues. If metabolic acids are not removed via urination, perspiration, defecation or respiration (menstruation -why women live longer), then they are delivered to body tissues. When constant excess acid from negative (e)motions are poured into the body tissues, the body tissues will degenerate causing a cancerous condition. Pharmaceutical companies are creating drugs addressing symptoms that may give you the illusion of feeling better, but they DO NOT deal with the causative metabolic acids from eating, drinking and negative acidic (e)motions. This can only lead to more physical and (e)motional pain and unnecessary suffering.

Young Life, Young Energy and Young Love


When you are in a negative (e)motional state, it can become impossible for you to heal your serious degenerative or acidic challenge. But, I will say this: if you are willing to commit to change and begin the alkalizing process, even if you are not completely out of your state of fear, anger, depression or anger, you will begin to put more “Young Life,” “Young Energy,” and “Young Love” into your mind, body and spirit.

I have found over the years that when you start feeling better, you start thinking better. And when you start thinking better, you start doing better. So, you don’t have to have your (e)motions completely under control in order to start losing weight, feeling better, reversing a serious illness, having more sustainable energy and to start being happy and more spiritually connected.

When you start the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet program, you are then making a conscious decision to try to do a little better. And, when you get on this healing path that leads to Young Living, Young Energy, and Young Love­ this gradual alkalizing process­ you start having those little and then those big pH miracles. You start feeling better and you start thinking better. And, when you start feeling and thinking better, you realize at some point that you have forgotten your depression and your sadness. Feelings of anger have disappeared ­and even what you were upset about. You soon forget what you were fearful about in the first place.

Why? These changes come about because you feel so good. You are rewriting your genetic expressions with your positive (e)motions. You are taking your alkalizing eraser and erasing all your past life’s negative emotions. On the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet your (e)motions or energy in motion will finally be under your control. You will become the master of your mind, body and spirit. You will be living an alkaline lifestyle and diet full of energy, happiness, bliss and love. You will be living and breathing “Young Love.”

To learn more about the affect of negative and positive (e)motions on the brain and body and to learn more about “Young Living” “Young Energy” and “Young Love” read, The pH Miracle, The pH Miracle revised and update, The pH Miracle for Diabetes, The pH Miracle for Weight Loss and The pH Miracle for Cancer –

SuperGreens – The World’s First Organic Vegetable, Fruit and Grass Powder!

InnerLight SuperGreens – by Dr Robert O. Young – The Original Super Greens Powder – 49 Grasses, Leaves, Vegetables, Sprouts & Herbs – Organic & Wild Crafted Ingredients – Great Tasting – No Cameron Fillers

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About the product

ORIGINALLY CREATED IN 1988 by Dr. Robert Young (author of the best-selling pH Miracle books), this product was one of the 1st greens powders on the market and has stood the test of time, helping thousands of people maintain their health.
ALL THE GREENS YOUR BODY NEEDS – InnerLight SuperGreens is a super-concentrated organic combination of 49 different grasses, leaves, vegetables, sprouts, and herbs
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DOES NOT CONTAIN any fillers, artificial sweeteners, colorings, flavorings, additives, preservatives, spirulina, algae, mushrooms or probiotics.
MICRO FINE POWDER that makes it easy to mix with water and consume.
CHILDREN LOVE THE TASTE of the InnerLight SuperGreens powder which gets them started on the road to Optimal Health.

Product description

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 InnerLight SuperGreens is a super-concentrated organic combination of 49 different grasses, leaves, vegetables, sprouts & herbs; all the “greens” your body needs. Originally created in 1988 by Dr. Robert Young (author of the best-selling pH Miracle books), this product was one of the 1st greens powders on the market and has stood the test of time, helping thousands of people maintain their health.
Tony Robbins, internationally known motivational speaker, talked about InnerLight SuperGreens in a 1 1/2 hour “Power Talk” interview he did with Dr Robert Young in the early 2000’s. This helped get the word out about our excellent product.
InnerLight SuperGreens powder is a micro fine powder which makes it easy to mix with water and digest. The greens powder smells great and has a mild taste.
InnerLight SuperGreens DOES NOT CONTAIN any fillers, artificial sweeteners, colorings, flavorings, additives, preservatives, spirulina, algae, mushrooms or probiotics. Our product is also formulated with Non GMO ingredients.
SuperGreens powder has four times the power of ordinary green powders. Drinking InnerLight SuperGreens is the quickest way to get a high concentration of chlorophyll which can assist with building healthy cells.
As Dr Young says, “When the Fish is Sick, Change the Water”. SuperGreens is an organic, colloidal, concentrated, charged high frequency food. There is nothing else like it. We invite you to commit to a 120-day program and take your health to the next level.
If you’re worried that you’re not getting enough greens in, InnerLight SuperGreens is the answer for you.
Try some InnerLight SuperGreens today!
p.s.- We have a “no-quibble guarantee” so you have nothing to lose!
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Lectures From Around The World

Galina MIgalko MSc, MD, NMD and Robert O Young CPT, MSc, DSc, PhD, Naturopathic Practitioner
Galina MIgalko MSc, MD, NMD and Robert O Young CPT, MSc, DSc, PhD, Naturopathic Practitioner 

Come listen and learn from Key Note Speakers, Robert O Young CPT, MSc, DSc, PhD, Naturopathic Practitioner and Galina Migalko MSc, MD, NMD, in four different countries around the World as they lecture on non-invasive medical diagnostics, the interstitium, pH, nutrition and their break-through research on prevention and non-invasive treatments for cancer, diabetes, heart disease, arthritis, osteoporosis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, infections, and many more acidic-caused diseases.

To pre-register for one or more World Conferences please email and receive an additional 10 to 20 percent discount on the listed early-bird pricing. You can also register by phone by calling 760 484 1075.

When you enroll in one of our Conferences you will receive a credit for a live and dried blood cell analysis, valued at 1200 euros.

Please check out the Countries, Cities, Dates and Pricing below!

Using Sodium and Potassium Bicarbonates in the Prevention and Treatment of ALL Sickness and Disease

Using Sodium and Potassium Bicarbonates in the Prevention and Treatment of ALL Sickness and Disease
Robert Young PhD

Naturopathic Practitioner – The pH Miracle Ti Sana Detox Medical Spa

Using Sodium and Potassium Bicarbonates in the Prevention and Treatment of ALL Sickness and Disease


This article suggests that the use sodium and potassium bicarbonates are non-toxic primary alkalizing agents in the prevention and  treatment of all cancers, kidney disease, liver disease, Type I & Type II diabetes, Lupus, heart disease, Pharmacological toxicosis, vascular surgery operation, tonsillar herniation due to cerebral edema, lactic acid toxicosis, and hyponatremia or low salt or loss of salts due to excessive or over-exercise!

[Key words: cancer, diabetes, lupus, heart disease, vascular surgery, herniation, cerebral edema, lactic acid toxicosis, liver disease, kidney disease, hyponatremia, Pharmacological toxicosis]


Sodium and potassium bicarbonate are excellent agents for a natural alkaline approach in the treatment for all sickness and disease, including cancer. Sodium bicarbonate is the universal mainstream treatment of acidosis. It is used every day by oncologists to neutralize the heavy acidic nature of their chemical and chemotherapeutic agents which are often quite toxic. Sodium bicarbonate is also used routinely in many clinical situations as herein noted including many peer–reviewed journals:

1) Severe diabetic ketoacidosis (1)

2) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (2)

3) Pregnancy (3)

4) Hemodialysis (4)

5) Peritoneal dialysis (5)6) Pharmacological toxicosis (6)

7) Hepatopathy (7)

8) Vascular surgery operations (8)

Medics and emergency room medical doctors are accustomed to participating in a flurry of activity when trying to save a persons live after a cardiac arrest–inserting IVs and breathing tubes, performing defibrillation to restart the heart, etc. Sodium bicarbonate is a constant performer under such conditions and is more commonly used than magnesium injections, which is traditionally at the top of every doctor’s protocol for cardiac arrest.

Mainstream oncologists recognize the routine involvement of late stage infections which I refer to as outfections in all cancerous conditions. Medical savants also recognize that bacteria, yeast and mold is present in over forty percent of all cancerous conditions. (9) The most recent research in this area demonstrates how even viruses, which I describe as crystallized acid, is present in fifty percent of certain types of cancerous conditions. (10)

Sodium and potassium bicarbonate increases the hydroxyl ions or electron levels through increased alkalinity to the cells buffering the metabolic acids that can cause cancer.(20)  It is also one of the most basic medicines in allopathic and alternative medicine we have for the treatment of kidney disease.  Research by British scientists at the Royal London Hospital shows that sodium bicarbonate can dramatically slow the progress of chronic kidney disease.(11) We don’t need a thousand years of scientific tests to understand something as simple and essential as alkaline water and it is quite the same with sodium and potassium bicarbonate. Sodium and potassium bicarbonate are always present in the best alkaline drinking waters and organic raw green foods and is constantly being produced by the cover cells of the stomach to alkalize the acidic foods and liquids we ingest, including buffering metabolic and respiratory acids in order to maintain the alkaline design of the blood and tissues at a delicate pH of 7.365.(20)

What is Latent Tissue Acidosis?
Medical doctors are not taught in medical school and therefore do not understand or recognize latent tissue acidosis. They understand and recognize compensated acidosis and decompensated acidosis. In compensated acidosis, breathing increases in order to blow off more carbonic acid which decreases PCO2 because of the lowered carbonate or HCO3. When the breathing rate can no longer get any faster and when the kidneys can no longer increase its’ function to keep up with the acid load, then the blood pH starts to change from a pH of 7.365 to 7.3 then to 7.2. At a blood pH of 6.95 the heart relaxes and the client goes into a coma or dies.

Latent “acidosis” is a condition that exists when there are not enough bases in the alkalophile glands because they have been used up in the process of neutralizing the acids adsorbed to the collagen fibers. This leads to compensated “acidosis.” This means the blood pH has not changed but other body systems have changed. This can then lead to decompensated “acidosis” where the alkaline reserves of the blood are used up and the pH of the blood is altered. Decompensated “acidosis” can be determined by testing the blood pH, urine pH and the saliva pH. The decrease in the alkaline reserves in the body  can occur because of hyper-proteinization, (eating meat and cheese!) or too much protein, and hyper-carbonization, or too much sugar or from excessive or over-excercise. This is why young athletes fall over dead or why 80 to 90 year old folks are all shrunk up and look like prunes. They have very little or no alkaline reserves in their alkalophile glands. When all the alkaline minerals are gone, so are you and your battery runs out of charge. The charge of your cellular battery can be measured by testing the ORP or the oxidative reduction potential of the blood, urine or saliva using an ORP meter. As you become more acidic this energy potential or ORP increases.

How Is Sodium Bicarbonate Created In The Body?

The parietal or cover cells of the stomach split the sodium chloride of the blood. The sodium ion is used to bind with water and carbon dioxide to form the alkaline salt, sodium bicarbonate or NaHCO3. The biochemistry is: H20 + CO2 + NaCl = NaHCO3 + HCL. This is why I call the stomach an alkalizing organ NOT an organ of digestion. The stomach DOES NOT digest the food or liquids we ingest but it alkalizes the foods and liquids we ingest.  We have one instrument in the human body to digest food and it is NOT the stomach it is your teeth.  Once we swallow our food or drink the stomach begins to prepare the food by alkalizing it in a bath of sodium bicarbonate.

For each molecule of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) made, a molecule of hydrochloric acid (HCL) is made and secreted into the so-called digestive system – specifically, the stomach (the gastric pits in the stomach) – to be eliminated via the blood. Therefore HCL is an acidic waste product of sodium bicarbonate created by the stomach to alkalize the food and liquids ingested.

Exercise Creates Metabolic Acidic Waste Products Which Are Harmful To The Blood and Tissues

When one exercises or over-exercises the body needs additional alkaline bicarbonate salts to buffer lactic acids.  The additional bicarbonate is created in the stomach lining to buffer the increased amounts of lactic acids produced as a waste product of metabolism.  The production of sodium bicarbonate will always leave an acidic waste product of hydrochloric acid in the gastric pits of the stomach leading to nausea, light headedness, dizziness, muddle thingking, and poor circulation.  If the excessive exercise continues this can then lead to a dificiency of mineral and bicarbonate salts (electrolytes lost through perspiration or urination) which may lead to latent tissue acidosis, pain, edema, hyponatrenia and death.

But how does something like sodium and/or potassium bicarbonate, so seemingly innocuous have such a dramatic effect? During prolonged or intense exercise muscles produce large amounts of acidic waste products, such as lactic acid, that lead to soreness, stiffness, fatigue and possible edema if these acids are not buffered and eliminated through urination or perspiration. Because sodium and potassium bicarbonate naturally reduces metabolic acids, it acts as a buffer against these performance-limiting by-products.

Current research suggests that supplemental sodium bicarbonate, like the pH Miracle pHour Salts (contains sodium and potassium bicarbonate) is particularly helpful in speed-based events, including sprints, football and other fast-moving games, and middle-distance (up to 10km) running, swimming and cycling. “Essentially, sodium bicarbonate is an alkaline substance that increases the pH of the blood,” Dr Folland says. “This seems to reduce and offset the acidity produced in the muscles during intense, anaerobic exercise that produces lactic acid most quickly, such as fast running or swimming.”

In Dr Folland’s study, swimmers who took the sodium bicarbonate knocked 1.5 seconds off their time for 200m, a difference that may seem insignificant to recreational swimmers but which is substantial at elite level.

“At the last Olympics, the top four swimmers in the men’s 200m freestyle were separated by just 1.4 seconds,” Dr Folland says. “So, in theory, it could be the difference between winning a medal and not.”

Anyone can try it, he says, but only those who are serious enough to monitor their times and progress in sports such as running, swimming or cycling may notice the few seconds advantage it might provide. “The increments of improvement are relatively small to the average person, although significant to someone who competes,” Dr Folland says.

Athletes for years have sworn that taking a spoonful of bicarbonate of soda (baking soda) helps them to keep going for longer. For years, experts doubted that there was anything other than a placebo effect to these claims until they subjected the substance to rigorous examination. Most exercise scientists investigating the trend for “soda-doping” among athletes and gym-goers have shown that it offers significant benefits for endurance and speed.”

At Loughborough University, for instance, physiologists reporting in the June issue of the International Journal of Sports Medicine showed that swimmers who took baking soda about one hour before a 200m event were able to shave a significant time off their usual performances. Dr Jonathan Folland, who led the study, says that it is not uncommon for top swimmers to take sodium bicarbonate (another name for the substance) before a competition to give them an edge. Indeed, he showed that of nine swimmers tested, eight recorded their fastest times after ingesting a supplement of the common baking ingredient – sodium bicarbonate.

Where are Bicarbonates Created In The Human Body and Why?

The chloride ion from the sodium chloride (salt) binds to an acid or proton forming HCL as a waste product of sodium bicarbonate production. HCL has a pH of 1 and is highly toxic to the blood and tissues and the cause of indigestion, acid reflux, ulcers, diabetes, cancer, hyponatremia, edema, tonsilar herniation and death.  When large amounts of acids, including HCL, enter the stomach from a rich animal protein or dairy product meal, such as meat and cheese, or from starchy foods from root vegetables like potatoes or during extreme exercise, acid is withdrawn from the acid-base household. The organism would die if the resulting alkalosis – or NaHCO3 (base flood) or base surplus – created by the stomach was not taken up by the alkalophile glands (salivary glands, pancreas, kidney, pylorus glands, Brunner’s glands, Lieberkuhn glands and liver) that need these quick bases in order to build up their strong sodium bicarbonate secretions. These alkalizing glands and organs are the stomach, pancreas, Brunner’s glands (between the pylorus and the junctions of the bile and pancreatic ducts), Lieberkuhn’s glands in the liver and its bile with its strong acid binding capabilities which it has to release on the highly acidic meat, cheese, potato, acid water or metabolic and/or respiratory acids from over-exercise to buffer its strong acids of nitric, sulphuric, phosphoric, uric and lactic acids in daily metabolism, respiration and excessive or over-exercise.

Bicarbonate acts to stimulate the ATPase by acting directly on it.(12)

The simple household product used for baking, cleaning, bee stings, treating asthma, cancer and acid indigestion is so effective in treating disease that it prevents patients from having to be put on kidney dialysis. The findings have been published in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. Bicarbonate is a truly strong universal concentrated nutritional medicine that works effectively in many clinical situations that we would not normally think of. Bicarbonates of sodium and potassium are a prime emergency room and intensive care medicine that can save a person’s life in a heartbeat and it is also a supermarket item that you can take right off the shelf and use for more things than one can imagine – including diaper rash.

Dr. SK Hariachar, a nephrologist who oversees the Renal Hypertension Unit in Tampa, Florida stated, upon seeing the research on sodium bicarbonate and kidney disease, “I am glad to see confirmation of what we have known for so long.  I have been treating my patients with bicarbonate for many years in attempts to delay the need for dialysis, and now we finally have a legitimate study to back us up. Not only that, we have the added information that some people already on dialysis can reverse their condition with the use of sodium bicarbonate”.

A dialysis technician at the same center as Dr. Hariachar, who used to be on dialysis himself for 2 years as a result of kidney failure, had his kidneys miraculously start functioning to the point where dialysis was no longer needed. He states that he was prescribed oral doses of sodium bicarbonate throughout his treatment, and still takes it daily to prevent recurrences of kidney failure. Dr. Hariachar maintains though, that not everyone will be helped by taking bicarbonate. He says that those patients who have difficulty excreting acids, even with dialysis using a bicarbonate dialysate bath, that, “oral bicarbonate makes all the difference.”

The Stomach, Pancreas and Kidneys Naturally Produce Sodium Bicarbonate Every Day

The exocrine section of sodium bicarbonate from the stomach and the pancreas have been greatly ignored in the treatment of diabetes and cancer even though its impairment is a well documented condition. The stomach and the pancreas is primarily responsible for the production of sodium bicarbonate necessary for normal alkalization of food and liquids ingested. Sodium bicarbonate is so important for protecting the kidney’s that even the kidneys get into the act of producing sodium bicarbonate.  We now know the common denominator between hyponatremia, inflammation, edema, diabetes, kidney disease, and cancer is the lack of sodium and potassium bicarbonate or the body’s inability to produce sodium and potassium bicarbonate because of a lack of mineral salts in the diet. When the body is hit with reductions in sodium bicarbonate output by these three organs,’ acid conditions build up and then the entire body physiology begins to change from a state of oxygenation to fermentation. Likewise when acid build-up outstrips these organs normal sodium bicarbonate capacity, cellular, tissue, glandular and organ deterioration begins.

The stomach, pancreas and the kidneys alone produce about five hundred
grams (about one pound) of sodium and/or potassium bicarbonate per day in an attempt to neutralize dietary and/or metabolic acid in the blood and interstitial fluids that surround the body cells.

The stomach, pancreas and the kidneys monitor and control the acidity or “acid-base” (pH) balance of the blood and tissues. If the blood and tissues are too acidic, the stomach and/or the kidney’s make sodium bicarbonate to restore the blood and tissue pH back to a delicate pH balance of 7.365. If the blood or tissues are too alkaline, then the kidney excretes sodium bicarbonate into the urine to restore the 7.365 alkaline balance. Acid-base balance is the net result of two processes, first, the removal of sodium bicarbonate subsequent to hydrogen ion production from the metabolism or dietary constituents; second, the synthesis of “new” sodium bicarbonate by the stomach and/or the  kidney’s.(13)  The stomach and kidneys pull salt, water and carbon dioxide from the blood to make sodium bicarbonate to maintain the alkaline design of the body during all functions of the body from the ingestion of food or drink to exercise.  The chemical formula is as follows:  NaCl + H2O + CO2 = NaHCO3 + HCL.  The waste product of sodium bicarbonate is hydrochloric acid which is eliminated by kidneys as an acidic excretion of the urine.
It is considered that normal adults eating ordinary Western diets have chronic, low-grade acidosis which increases with age. This excess acid, or acidosis, is considered to contribute to many diseases and to contribute to the aging or rotting process. Acidosis occurs often when the body cannot produce enough sodium bicarbonate ions (or other alkaline compounds) to neutralize the acids in the body formed from metabolism and eating and drinking highly acid foods and drinks like chicken, pork, beef, dairy products, coffee, tea, alcohol, chocolate, soft drinks, just to name a few.  We are also testing bottled mineral water and finding that these waters are acidic and may contribute to overall tissue acidosis.
Acid-buffering by means of base supplementation (The pH Miracle pHour Salts) of sodium bicarbonate is one of the major roles of dialysis. Sodium bicarbonate concentration in the dialysate (solution containing water and chemicals (electrolytes) that passes through the artificial kidney to remove excess fluids and wastes from the blood, also called “bath.”) should be personalized in order to reach a midweek pre-dialysis serum sodium bicarbonate concentration of 22 mmol/l.(14)  Use of sodium bicarbonate in dialysate has been shown in studies to better control some metabolic aspects and to improve both treatment tolerance and patients’ life quality.  Sodium bicarbonate dialysis, unlike acetate-free biofiltration, triggers mediators of inflammation and apoptosis.(15)

One of the main reasons we become over-acid is from over-consumption of animal protein, dairy products, high sugar fruit, grains, alcohol, coffee, tea, chocolate, soft drinks and over-exercise or under-exercise. Eating meat and dairy products may increase the risk of prostate cancer, research suggests.(16) We would find the same for breast and other cancers as well metastatic cancers.(17) Conversely mineral deficiencies are another reason and when you combine high protein intake with decreasing intake of alkaline minerals you have a dis-ease in the making through lowering of pH into highly acidic conditions. When protein breaks down in our bodies they break into strong acids, such as, nitric, uric, sulphuric and phosphoric acid.

Unless a treatment actually removes acidic toxins  from the body and increases oxygen, water, and nutrients most medical interventions come to naught.

These metabolic and dietary acids must be excreted by the kidney’s because they contain sulfur, phosphorus, and/or nitrogen which cannot break down into water and carbon dioxide to be eliminated as weak acids. In their passage through the kidney’s these strong acids of ntric, sulphuric, phosphoric and uric acid must take a basic mineral with them because in this way they are converted into their neutral salts and don’t burn or destroy the kidney’s on their way out. This would happen if these strong acids were excreted in their free acidic form.

Substituting a sodium bicarbonate solution for saline
infusion prior to administration of radiocontrast
material seems to 
reduce the incidence of nephropathy.(18)
Dr. Thomas P. Kennedy
American Medical Association

Sodium and potassoum bicarbonate ions neutralize the acids that cause chronic inflammatory reactions. Hence, sodium and potassium bicarbonate are of benefit in the treatment of a range of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Sodium and potassium bicarbonate are well-studied and used salts with known effects. Sodium and potassium bicarbonate are effective in treating poisonings or overdoses from many chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs by negating their cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects.(19)  It is the main reason it is used by orthodox oncology – to mitigate the highly toxic effects of chemotherapy.

Sodium and potassium bicarbonates possess the property of absorbing heavy metals, dioxins and furans. Comparison of cancer tissue with
healthy tissue from the same person shows that the cancer tissue
has a much higher concentration of toxic chemicals, pesticides, etc.

Sodium and potassium bicarbonate intravenous infusions are indicated in the treatment of metabolic acidosis, which may occur in severe renal disease, uncontrolled diabetes, and circulatory insufficiency due to shock or severe dehydration, extracorporeal circulation of blood, cardiac arrest, tonsillar herniation due to cerebral edema, severe primary lactic acidosis and hyponatremia due to excessive or over-exercise.  During heavy exercise, if the the resulting lactic acid is not adsorbed by the collagen fibers, the specific acid catchers of the body, the blood pH will drop and the body will go into a coma and the person will die.

The total collection of these fibers is the largest organ of the body called SCHADE, the colloidal connective tissue organ. NO liquid exchange occurs between the blood and the parenchyma cells, or in reverse, unless it passes through this connective tissue organ. This organ connects and holds everything in our bodies in place. This organ is composed of ligaments, tendons, sinew, and the finer fibers that become the scaffolding that holds every single cell in our bodies in place. When acids are stored in this organ, which includes the muscles, inflammation or edema and pain develop. The production of lactic acid is increased with excessive exercise and the ingestion of milk, cheese, yogurt, butter, ice cream, high sugar fruit and starchy root vegetables like potatoes.

That is why I have stated, “acid is pain and pain is acid or acid is edema and edema is pain”.  You cannot have one without the other. This is the beginning of latent tissue acidosis leading to irritation, inflammation, edema and degeneration of the cells, tissues and organs and eventual or sudden death.  It is why we are seeing so many amateur and professional atheletes pass out and die on the playing fields.  Metabolic, respiratory and gastrointestinal acids can and do kill and death can be overted by simply maintaining the alkaline design of the body fluids with protective hydration of alkaine sodium bicarbonate fluids.

The acid/alkaline balance is one of the most overlooked aspects of diagnostic medicine. In general, the world population is heavily acidic, excepting alkalarian vegans (those who ingest raw, organic green fruit, vegetables, mineral salts, alkaline water and unsaturated seed and nut oils), and even their bodies have to face increasing levels of environmental toxic exposure, which may contribute to an acidic pH condition of the blood and then tissues.

With over 30 years of research and testing over 100,000 individual samples of blood and over 100,000 samples of urine and saliva, I have come to the conclusion that the human body is an acidic producing organism by function – yet, it is an alkaline organism by design. Eating animal protein, especially meat and cheese, sugar, fermented foods, starchy foods like potatoes, acidic water, alcohol, coffee, tea, chocolate,  and excessive exercise or under-exercise, obsessive behaviors, lack of rest, lack of sunshine, and emotional stress are deadly acidic lifestyle choices.

All enervation, under-performance, sensitivity, irritation, inflammation, edema, catarrh, induration, ulcerations, degeneration, aging and cancerous conditions are caused by a four letter word – ACID, which is an acronym which stands for:

A = acidic food and drink, attitudes and activities,
C = compromised internal acidic environment,
I = illness and dis-ease, and,
D = desire for more acidic foods, drinks, attitudes and activities, and the cycle repeats itself.[20]

We ingest acidic medicines to lessen the symptoms of our illness. We stimulate the body with unhealthy forms of energy providing quick, often temporary relief from our symptoms which begins the cycle all over again creating a very powerful pattern of poor health and dis-ease.


The pH Alkalizing Lifestyle and Diet is a low acid producing diet and lifestyle that focuses on the foundational principal that the body is alkaline by design and yet acidic by function. This makes this program the ultimate program for preventing and reversing aging and the onset of sickness and disease. I would say that the pH Alkalizing Lifestyle and Diet is the perfect diet and lifestyle for a longer healthier life.(20)


1. Gamba, G., “Bicarbonate therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial.” (Rev Invest Clin 1991 Jul-Sep;43(3):234-8). Miyares Gom ez A. in “Diabetic ketoacidosis in childhood: the first day of treatment.” (An Esp Pediatr 1989 Apr;30(4):279-83)

2. Levy, M.M., “An evidence-based evaluation of the use of sodium bicarbonate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.” (Crit Care Clin 1998 Jul;14(3):457-83). Vukmir, R.B., Sodium bicarbonate in cardiac arrest: a reappraisal (Am J Emerg Med 1996 Mar;14(2):192-206). Bar-Joseph, G., “Clinical use of sodium bicarbonate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation–is it used sensibly?” (Resuscitation 2002 Jul;54(1):47-55).

3. Zhang. L., “Perhydrit and bicarbonate improve maternal gases and acid-base status during the second stage of labor.” Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Xiangya Hospital, Hunan Medical University, Changsha 410008. Maeda, Y., “Perioperative administration of bicarbonated solution to a patient with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy.” (Masui 2001 Mar;50(3):299-303).

4. Avdic. E., “Bicarbonate versus acetate hemodialysis: effects on the acid-base status.” (Med Arh 2001;55(4):231-3).

5. Feriani, M., “Randomized long-term evaluation of bicarbonate-buffered CAPD solution.” (Kidney Int 1998 Nov;54(5):1731-8).

6. Vrijlandt, P.J., odium bicarbonate infusion for intoxication with tricyclic antidepressives: recommended inspite of lack of scientific evidence. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2001 Sep 1;145(35):1686-9). Knudsen, K., “Epinephrine and sodium bicarbonate independently and additively increase survival in experimental amitriptyline poisoning.” (Crit Car e Med 1997 Apr;25(4):669-74).

7. Silomon, M., “Effect of sodium bicarbonate infusion on hepatocyte Ca2+ overload during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock.” (Resuscitation 1998 Apr;37(1):27-32). Mariano, F., “Insufficient correction of blood bicarbonate levels in biguanide lactic acidosis treated with CVVH and bicarbonate replacement fluids.” (Minerva Urol Nefrol 1997 Sep;49(3):133-6).

8. Dement’eva, I.I., “Calculation of the dose of sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of metabolic acidosis in surgery with and deep hypothermic circulatory arresta.” (Anesteziol Reanimatol 1997 Sep-Oct;(5):42-4).

9. “I believe that, conservatively, 15 to 20 percent of all cancer is caused by infections; however, the number could be larger — maybe double,” (Dr. Andrew Dannenberg, Director of the Cancer Center at New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center.”) Dr. Dannennberg made the remarks in a speech in December 2007 at the annual international conference of the American Association for Cancer Research.

10. A sexually transmitted virus that causes cervical cancer is also to blame for half of all cases of cancer of the penis.


12. Origin of the Bicarbonate Stimulation of Torpedo Electric Organ Synaptic Vesicle ATPase. Joan E. Rothlein  1 Stanley M. Parsons. Department of Chemistry and the Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.

13. Levine DZ, Jacobson HR: The regulation of renal acid secretion: New observations from studies of distal nephron segments. Kidney Int 29:1099–1109, 1986




17.  Cancer Res. 2009 Mar 15;69(6):2260-8. Epub 2009 Mar 10.
Bicarbonate increases tumor pH and inhibits spontaneous metastases.
Robey IFBaggett BKKirkpatrick NDRoe DJDosescu JSloane BFHashim AIMorse DLRaghunand NGatenby RAGillies RJ. Source: Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

18.  JAMA 2004;291:2328-2334,

19. These include, Benzotropines (valium) cyclic antidepressants (amytriptayine), organophosphates, methanol (Methyl alcohol is a cheap and potent adulterant of illicit liquors) Diphenhydramine (Benedryl), Beta blockers (propanalol) Barbiturates, and Salicylates (Aspirin).   Poisoning by drugs that block voltage-gated sodium channels produces intraventricular conduction defects, myocardial depression, bradycardia, and ventricular arrhythmias. Human and animal reports suggest that hypertonic sodium bicarbonate may be effective therapy for numerous agents possessing sodium channel blocking properties, including cocaine, quinidine, procainamide, flecainide, mexiletine, bupivacaine, and others.

20. Young.R.O., Young, S.R., The pH Miracle Revised and Updated, Hachett, 2010.

Pathological Blood Coagulation and the Mycotoxic Oxidative Stress Test

 Robert Young PhD

Naturopathic Practitioner – The pH Miracle Ti Sana Detox Medical Spa and Universal Medical Imaging Group


Historical analysis suggests that conventional understandings of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) may be misguided; further examination may be necessary.  Here, a theoretical analysis provides an alternative explanation for DIC pathology; it is suggested that the cause and mechanics of DIC are largely due to the proliferation of several intravascular microforms and their associated metabolic toxic acidic waste products — Mycrozymian Acidic Toxins (MAT) and Exotoxic-Mycotoxic-Producing Microorganisms (EMPO).  The Mycotoxic Oxidative Stress Test (MOST) is presented here as an easy, inexpensive and non-invasive alternative to conventional measurements for the detection of intravascular  acidic toxins, DIC  and oxidative stress.

Introduction and Historical Perspective

More than 150 years ago, British physician T. W. Jones asked the question, “Why does the blood circulating in the vessels not coagulate?”[1]  though a general answer to this question is now obvious, the biochemical mechanisms involved in how the blood coagulates (clots) are complex and varied, and all the intricacies have not yet been explained. A. Trousseau, recognized that the blood of cancer patients is in a hyper-coagulable state in the process of coagulation, even while confined in the blood vessels.[2]  The name given to this discovery is still in use today, as “Trousseau’s Syndrome.”[2]  Early in his career, Rudolph Virchow, the Father of Pathology, was interested in thrombosis and embolism.  He speculated that intravascular blood could be altered so it would clot as a result of a stimulus too weak to clot normal blood.[3]  In 1856 Virchow delivered a lecture setting forth this concept.

Although the concept of partial clotting within vessels reaches back to the beginnings of modern medicine, much of the discovery of its biochemical mechanisms – the activation of clotting factors – has been left to chance.  The admission of a patient to the hospital with an unceplained bleeding disorder challenged researchers to discover the cause of hemorrhaging.  Analysis of blood from normal persons helped in the study of the patient with the blood disorder. A new clotting factor was hereby discovered which was missing from the  patient’s blood.  For this reason, several clotting factors have been named after the individuals in which they were missing: e.g., Christmas factor (factor IX)[4], Hageman factor (factor XII)[4].

In this article, the causes of pathological (intravascular) clotting will be described, as will various methods of detecting this condition, especially a blood test I call the Mycotoxin Oxidative Stress Test (MOST).

The Mechanics of Blood Coagulation

Blood clotting is a highly detailed chemical-mechanism involving many distinct components.  The problem for the hematologist hs been to understand it at the biochemical level.  Undoubtedly, efforts to fully understand blood clotting will continue for many more years.

Recalling Antione Bechamp’s[8] and Gunther Enderlein’s[9] research into the sub cellular living elements and combining this with what is known of colloidal flocculation[6], it is suggested that the clotting of blood begins with the end-linking (polymerizing) of the fundamental protein unit called by Bechamp the microzyma[8].  A chain of these living units constitutes fibrinogen, which is still dispersed 9micro-hetergenous0 in the blood, and it may or may not be further processed.  If processing continues, it will be either by continued end-linking or by cross-linking.  End-linked fibrinogen is referred to here as fibrin monomer, which I have suggested is a repair protein also dispersed in the blood. Due to a number of blood clotting factors, the process may continue until the excess fibrin monomer and/or until fibrin becomes excessively end-linked.

Cross-linking the polymerized strands to form a three-dimensional network results in what is called the hard clot (fibrin – the major protein of clotting blood).  Factor XIII, which instigates the forming of these blood networks. is always present but latent in the blood, and must be activated before the formation can occur.  Persons who are producing fibrin monomer or excessively linked fibrinogen are said to be in a hyper-coagulable state, while those having diminished  ability to form clots are in a hypo-coagulated state.  It is the activation of the colloidal clotting factors which is so complex.  Blood clotting may occur through many pathways and be initiated by many different stimuli.  Regardless of initiation factors, the process is a sequence of events in which the activation of one factor triggers another, until, after a series of discrete steps, fibrin is formed.

When blood is clotted prematurely, and the factors involved are consumed (incorporated into) the body recognizes a deficiency of clotting agents and generates more.  Thus, people with a tendency to clot excessively will alternate between a hyper coagulable state and a hypo-coagulatable state.  When in the hypo coagulated state, such people hemorrhage until the deficient clotting factors are replaced.[4]  When only fibrin monomer or excessively linked fibrinogen is formed (no cross-linking), it is quite subtle and may go undetected.  It may be detected by a change in blood viscosity (sedimentation rate), by the Mycotoxic Oxidative Stress Test (described later), or by other more subtle means.  If strands of fibrinogen are cross-linked, however, a suggicient amount of insoluble precipitate of fires may result, and these can be detected microscopically using a phase contrast and dark-field microscopy in prepared slides of fresh tissue or blood.  An excessive formation of fibrin leads to  an impairment in circulation, and eventual organ failure usually results.[5]

With this background, we are in a position to consider a standard medical term: disseminated intravascular coagultion (DIC).[6]  This term encompasses the hyper coagulable state, i refer to as pathological blood coagulation which consists of both insoluble and excess dispersed polymers of colloidal proteins.

Key Ingredients of Pathological Blood Coagulation

Before discussing DIC in more detail, it si necessary to introduce its fur important ingredients according to this view – mycotoxins, endotoxins, exotoxins, and tissue factor.  Any of these elements, or any combination of them, can play a major role in initiating unwanted DIC.[6]  However, mycotoxins or the acids from yeast have been found to be the underlying element which instigates and intensifies the participation of the other three.[6]  Each will now be described in turn and brought into the clotting picture.

(Micrograph 1: left, shows normal hyper-coagulated blood in a healthy blood clot sample and right, hypo coagulated blood in an unhealthy blood clot sample)

Mycotoxins and Metabolism by Fermentation

As discussed in the main text of my published book, Sick and Tired book[7 ]. acidification of blood and body tissues and organs and the accompanying lack of oxygen lead to pathological metabolic fermentation, which is carried out primarily by yeast and mold.  Such pathological microorganisms, or their precursors, ar inherent to the human body and to all higher organisms.  Their precursors according to Bechamp, the microzymas, carry on a nominal and homeostatic fermentation themselves. under healthy conditions.[8]  The primary function of yeast and mold is to decompose the body upon the death of the animal or human organism.  Their premature overgrowth indicates a biochemical environment akin to death.  During pathological metabolic fermentation, high concentrations of several acidic substances called mycotoxins are created.  They are highly damaging, always acidic, metabolic products.  If not immediately buffered by specific antioxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide and the hydroxyl free-radical, mycotoxins can seriously disrupt the physiology by disrupting normal metabolism and by penetrating blood and body cells and poisoning them.  As will be seen, they interact with many of the mechanisms for DIC in various pathological symptomologies.

In my published article called The Finger on the Magic of Life: Antoine Bechamp, 19th Century Genius (1816-1908),  I discuss pleomorphism in some detail.[7] Understanding this phenomenon – the rapid evolution of microorganisms across traditional taxonomic  lines is helpful in getting a complete picture of DIC.  Briefly stated, collodial living microzymas evolve intracellularly into more complex forms (microorganisms), beginning with a healthy primitive stage comprising of repair proteins.  As the disease condition worsens, morbid intermediate forms (filterable bacteria or viruses, cell-wall deficient forms and full bacteria) develop from repair proteins, or directly from microzymas.  A third macrostage comprises the commonly recognized culminate microorganisms which are yeast, fungus to mold.  In terms of pleomorphism, all of these microorganisms represent a single family of variously functioning forms.[8]  The culminate forms produce the lions share of acids, which are mycotoxins and the primary focus of my research.[7][8][9]  For convenience, bacteria, yeast, fungus and mold that produce acidic metabolic wastes and protein cellular fragments called exotoins, endotoxins and mycotoxins will here be referred to collectively ash EMPO, or exotoxic, mycotoxic-producing microorganisms.

What follows is a shortened description or the description and origin of several exotoxins and mycotoxins, referred to collectively microzymian acidic toxins of MAT, which are involved in the processes leading to DIC.  The bio-effects, or the pathology of cellular fermentation, of these toxic metabolites are know as mycotic illness, mycotoxicosis, or mycotoxic stress as seen in the MOST and described and published by Dr. Bolin in the 1940’s.[10]

One such metabolic product is acetyl aldehyde, which is formed by  cellular breakdown of food, especially carbohydrate and the birth of  EMPO.  Acetyl aldehyde can also break down into a secondary substance know as ethyl alcohol.  Although acetyl aldehyde presents an immediate hazard to health and well-being, nature has provided a means of buffering of neutralizing this acidic by-product of cellular digestion and fermentation almost as soon as it is created.[11] The controls of acetyl aldehyde (and ethyl alcohol) are the sulfur amino acids, cysteine, taurine, methionine and the peptide glutathione which is found in red blood cells and almost all cells utilizing oxygen.[12]  In an attempt to buffer or neutralize MAT, the body will also bind or chelate both fats and minerals to them.[12]

Another member of the MAT family is uric acid, which is formed by the digestion of protein and the creation of EMPO.[13]  Uric acid can also break down into secondary substance, on of which is alloxan.[14] This has been shown to damage the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells leading to diabetes [Refer to Tables 1 and 2]

A shortage of alkalizing nutrients or an excess of MAT initi­ates an immune response in which a special class of free radicals which I call microzymian oxidative buffering species (MOBS) are released.[15] These oxygen metabolites carry unpaired electrons and are intended to disrupt bacteria, yeast, fungus and mold, and buffer exotoxins, endotoxins, and mycotoxins. Current medical savants believe that they can disrupt just about any­thing they contact, including healthy cells and tissue: this is not accurate. The fact is that MOBS carriers a nega­tive surface-charge and repel healthy cells, which also have a negative surface-charge. [16] It is the positively surface-charged bacteria, yeast/fungus, mold, exotoxins, endotoxins, and myco­toxins that MOBS bind too.[17]  This aspect gives some insight into autoimmune phenomena, which are not, as is often maintained, the result of an overburdened immune system. They result either as a side-effect of the immune system’s attempt to remove foreign or toxic ele­ments, or as a direct attempt by the immune system to remove cells or tissue rendered useless or disturb­ing to the body by MAT.

In every degenerative symptomatology I have studied, I have found excessive MAT and MOBS (see Tables 1-3). Some of these degenerative symptoms and their underlying disease conditions, including cancer are described in my recently published paper on a deficiency on alkaline nutrition and cancer. [15] But the fact that myco­toxins cause harm to humans and other animals is purely a secondary effect, since, as noted, the prima­ry function of the microorganism is not to cause illness. We know from the fossil record that pleomorphic microforms existed long before animals.[19] In fact, humans and animals developed in terms of micro­organisms.[20] The reverse, however, is not true. Since micro­organisms appeared first in the developmental sequence, they are not physiologically aware of humans and animals. There is much evidence that human and animal physiologies are highly aware of, and respond to MAT – these acidic compounds signaling the presence of bacteria, yeast, fungi and/or mold or  EMPO.[21].


Also involved in the process leading to DIC are endotoxins, substances endogenous to symptogenic (i.e., “pathogenic” in orthodox terms) bacteria. Endotoxins are a family of related substances having certain common characteristics, but differing from one bacterial form (or strain) to another. Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS form a widely diversified group because of (1) the number of long- chain fatty acids composing lipids; (2) the number of individual sugars as well as their modes of linkage to one another; (3) the branching of sugar chains; and (4) the number of possible arrangements of these units. Endotoxins also contain proteins, further com­pounding the structural diversity.[22]

One theory on endotoxin states that its purpose is to act as a semi-permeable membrane for the bac­terium, limiting and regulating substances entering the organism.[22] Endotoxin resides solely on or near the interior surface of the cell membrane and is shed into the surrounding medium only upon the death of the bacterium. Thus, as these microforms die off, or are lysed by bodily activity, endotoxin is released. (This fact may well be an explanation for the Herxheimer reaction, in which a patient becomes worse following the administration of toxic drugs or other forms of treatment that drastically alter the associated organ­ism.[23]) Another endotoxin theory states that LPS are a constituent of the membrane, and as the organism grows, endotoxin fragments are repeatedly sloughed off into the medium. This phenomenon has been observed in the digestive tract.[24] Since bacterial translocation into the blood is not only possible but common where epithelial hyperpermeability exists, one can assume that the process will continue there. Both theories may be correct if we think of the first one as true of “adult” forms, and the second as true of newly developed and expanding ones.

Basic to the structure of an endotoxin is the lipid common to all forms, designated lipid A, to which is attached a “core” polysaccharide, identical for large groups of bacteria. To the core polysaccharide is attached the O-antigen, consisting of various lengths of polysaccharide chains which are chemically unique for each type of organism and LPS. These chains pro­vide endotoxin specificity.[25] Experiments conducted over many years indicate that most, if not all, of the toxic effects of an endotoxin may be attributed to the lipid portion, and it is sometimes used per se in experiments rather than the entire molecule.[26] An important additional feature of lipid A is its phos­phate content. Each phosphate group carries a nega­tive charge, and since lipid A is a rather large mole­cule, it provides, essentially, a negatively charged sur­face. The importance of this will be seen shortly.


These are the metabolic excretions of bacteria. While endotoxin’s ongoing effect is, in a manner of speaking, in the background, exotoxins, like myco­toxins, present a double-edged sword. Not only do they initiate DIC, but they produce, or influence the body to produce, the various and numerous infec­tious symptomatologies, such as typhoid fever, diph­theria, etc. (See “Vaccination Reconsidered” in Section 4 of the Appendix of Sick and Tired for details on the action of diphtheria toxin.)[7] By comparison, mycotoxins not only initiate DIC, but there is much evidence to sug­gest that they produce, or influence the body to pro­duce, degenerative symptomatologies, such as arthri­tis, diabetes, etc., and cancer and AIDS as well.

Tissue Factor

Crucial to the understanding of DIC is recogni­tion of the role of tissue factor (TF), formerly known as thromboplastin. This transmembrane lipoprotein exists on the surface of platelets, vas­cular endothelial cells, leukocytes, monocytes, and most cells producing EMPO.[27] It plays a major role in several biochemical mechanisms leading to DIC.

TF is the primary cell-bound initiator of the blood coagulation cascade. Its gene is activated in wound healing and other conditions. By itself it is capable of initiating clotting, but also becomes active when complexed with factor VII or activated factor VII (Vila).[28] TF has been described as the receptor for factor VII because of the close association between the two proteins and because it causes a shape change (conformational) in factor VII, allowing it to attain activity. Both factor Vila and the TF/VII com­plex activate factors IX and X, which initiate the clotting cascade and the formation of thrombin.[29]

Development of Disseminated
Intravascular Coagulation

DIC Induced by MAT and Tissue Factor

An infusion of toxins into the blood has a direct effect on TF gene expression in leukocytes. Contact of MAT, endotoxins (lipid A), or exotoxins with leukocytes, activates proteins that bind to DNA nucleotide sequences, thereby activating the TF gene.[30] (See Tables 4-6.)

Endothelial cells damaged in culture by exotoxins, endotoxins, or mycotoxins attract polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), which adhere to the damaged cells. Once the leukocytes are bound, they can still have their TF gene activated if it hasn’t yet occurred, and they may release MOBS in response to toxins and to organisms of disease, possibly creating further dis­turbances. (Cellular disorganization then releases acti­vating proteins into the blood, which is discussed in more detail later.) Research shows that exotoxic and mycotoxic stress resulting in bound PMNs can be blocked by “antioxidants.”[31] These might better be called anti-exotoxins or antimycotoxins. Both observa­tion and study have led the author to conclude that cellular disorganization is initiated and primarily caused by fermentation pathology, not, as is the cur­rent belief, by the MOBS, or free radicals, generated to destroy toxins and microorganisms. MOBS or free radicals, because of their negative charge, are released to chelate or bind EMPO and MAT. It is suggested by current savants that free radical tissue damage is the secondary, “shotgun” effect of intense immune response to EMPO toxification and MAT-damaged cells. This could not be the case since healthy cells or their membranes carry a negative charge and would resist any electromagnetic attraction because of simi­lar charge. The concentration and instability of MAT generated in a compromised terrain, as opposed to the fleeting existence of free radicals, especially exoge­nous ones, also lead to this conclusion.

Endothelial cells grown in culture can be induced to express tissue factor. In one experiment, no procoagulant activity could be detected in the absence of toxins. However, the addition of mycotoxins from Aspergillus niger or Micrococcus neoformas (Mucor racemosus Fresen) resulted in procoagulant activity which reached a maximum in four to six hours and was dose-dependent. The same experiment was applied using E. coli and Salmonella enteritidis endo­toxin with a similar result.[32] A single intravenous injection of a mycotoxin from Aspergillus niger into experimental animals resulted in circulating endothelial cells within five minutes. In other exper­iments with the mycotoxin, detachment of endothe­lial cells from the basement membrane was noted.[33] (See Table 8.)

Removal of endothelial cells has dire conse­quences from two standpoints: First, the surface of these cells is covered with a specific prostaglandin (PGI2) known as prostacyclin. If blood contacts a surface not covered with PGI2, it will clot. For example, surfaces devoid of this prostaglandin are formed whenever a vessel is cut or punctured. An abrasion or other injury may also expose a surface on which PGI2 is lacking. The removal of endothelial cells by exotoxins or mycotoxins creates a surface devoid of PGI2, leading to blood clotting (see Table 7). Secondly, disorganization of endothelial cells cre­ates increased levels of EMPO and MAT which are attracted to an exposed surface (basement mem­brane) which expresses a negative charge. This also leads to clotting.

DIC Induced by Electrostatic Attraction

It was discovered in 1964 that blood will clot sim­ply from contacting a negatively charged surface.[34] Previously it was believed that the clotting process comprised a cascade of enzyme activity in which one activated the next, etc. The discovery that blood could be clotted simply by contacting a negatively charged surface ruled out the purely enzyme hypoth­esis. Only some of the known clotting factors have been shown to be enzymes.[35] As a result of this sur­prising discovery, detailed research was conducted in an attempt to describe the process. In some experi­ments, the negatively charged surfaces of selected, finely divided, inorganic crystals, including alu­minum oxide, barium sulfate, jeweler’s rouge, quartz, and titanium oxide, were considered.[36]

The clotting factor eventually shown to be activat­ed when whole blood contacted negatively charged surfaces was factor XII, also known as the Hageman factor. This is a positively charged protein migrating in an electric field (electrophoresis) toward the anode.[37] It is believed that factor XII is normally in the shape of a hairpin which binds to the negatively charged sur­face at the bend. Electrostatic attraction forces the two arms to lie flat on the surface, thereby exposing the inner faces and activating the molecule.

It was discovered that if the negatively charged particles were smaller than the clotting factor itself, activation was minimal. Or, if the concentration of clotting factor was too great, there was little or no activation.[38] Both of these observations indicated that the process was one of electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged surface and the clot­ting factor, which is a “basic” protein, that is, posi­tively charged.[39]

Activation of factor XII allows the activation of factor XI, which then activates factor IX. Thus, the blood clotting cascade continues to the formation of fibrin in the normal manner.[40] However, due to a series of activations begun by contact of factor XII with a negatively charged surface, trace amounts of factor Xa also show up in the blood. Factor VII is activated to Vila by factor Xa. Factor Vila then acti­vates factors IX and X, leading to the formation of thrombin. Factor Xa, with co-factor Va, continues the clotting cascade until fibrinogen is activated, leading to fibrin formation.[41] (See Table 5.)

As discussed earlier in terms of prostacyclin, beneath endothelial cells is another surface—the basement membrane. Called the extracellular matrix, it is a thin, continuous net of specialized tis­sue between endothelial cells and the underlying connective tissue. It has four or more main con­stituents, including proteoglycans (protein/polysac- charide).[42] The removal of endothelial cells by’MAT exposes this membrane, which is negatively charged by virtue of its sulfonated polysaccharides in the pro­teoglycans. This brings a reduced negatively charged surface into direct contact with the blood, which activates factor XII and the clotting cascade.[43]The positively charged toxic components of MAT also activate factor XII, as do disturbed disorganized cells, yeast/fungus cells, moldy cells, and the phos­phate groups in the lipid A component of endotoxin. (See Tables 2-5.)

To summarize this section, exotoxic, mycotoxic, and oxidative stress resulting from the overgrowth of bacteria, yeast/fungus, and then mold, has multiple actions, all leading to disseminated intravascular coagulation:

MAT activation of tissue factor gene in leukocytes; subsequent activation of factors VII, IX, and X, resulting in the blood clotting cascade.

MAT activation of tissue factor gene in endothelial cells, again leading to the clotting cascade.

MAT damage to endothelial cells, resulting in neu­trophil attraction, with TF gene activation and generation of MOBS, which, in turn, neutralize MAT, protecting healthy endothelial cells or the basement membrane and supporting the janitorial services of the leukocytes.

Removal of negatively charged endothelial cells by positively charged exotoxins, endotoxins, and mycotoxins, creating a surface devoid of PGI2, also exposes the negatively charged basement membrane, leading to the activation of factor XII and initiation of the clotting cascade. Positively charged components of EMPO, exotoxins and mycotoxins, and several other elements, including the lipid A component of bacterial endotoxin, also activate factor XII and the clotting cascade.

Endothelial Cells as Antithrombotics or Procoagulants

Normal, resting (unstimulated) endothelial cells show antithrombotic activity in several ways: (1) by the inhibition of prostacyclin (platelet adhesion and aggregation); (2) the inhibition of thrombin genera­tion; and (3) the activation of the fibrinolytic system, leading to clot lysis.[45] We will take a brief look at the thrombin aspect.

On the surface of endothelial cells is a protein called thrombomodulin, which acts as a receptor for thrombin. When bound to thrombomodulin, throm­bin can activate protein C. Activated protein C then catalyzes the proteolytic cleavage of factors Va and Vila, thereby destroying their participation in blood clotting. Thus thrombin, which normally activates fib­rinogen, plays an opposite role in this case and inhibits the clotting process.[46,47] (See Table 7.)

On the other side of the coin, the endothelial cell becomes a procoagulant agent when acted on by cer­tain lymphokines, such as interleukin-1. Not only can interleukin-1 induce TF gene expression, but it also suppresses transcription of the thrombomodulin gene in endothelial cells. As in other situations, the lymphokine-activated endothelial cell expresses TF on its surface as a result of TF gene activation. This leads to the production of thrombin and the trigger­ing of the blood clotting cascade.[48] (See Table 5.) Many lymphokines also stimulate adhesion of leuko­cytes to endothelial cells damaged by MAT, resulting in recycling of the cells by MOBS, as described later.

DIC Induced by Intracellular Exotoxic, Mycotoxic, Oxidative Stress by Bacteria, Yeast/Fungus and/or Mold

Any cell which has gone from an oxidative to a fer­mentative state can biochemically cause macrophage production of the lymphokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). This protein has been shown to activate the gene for TF in fermenting cells, which are so behaved due to morbid evolution of bacteria, yeast/fungus, and then mold.[49,50] In the author’s view, a cell having been switched entirely to fermentation metabolism as a result of a physical or emotional disturbance of that cell, is what constitutes cancer (see Tables 5 and 13). (One might argue that this definition does not fit all “forms” of cancer, such as leukemia, for example. This is because leukemia is not cancer, but an immune response to the rise in EMPO and MAT in the body, and a relatively easy compensation to correct.)

The surface of many disorganizing or fermented cells (cancer cells) is characterized by small projec­tions in the plasma membrane which pinch off, becoming free vesicles containing toxins as well as TF complexed with factor VII. These vesicles can aggre­gate and/or lodge anywhere, ultimately releasing their contents. Also, the presence of excessive amounts of TF/factor VII complexes on the surface of fermented cells allows the formation of a fibrin net around the cell and around the entire mass of cells (tumor). This seems to be an attempt by the body to encapsulate and contain the mass. However, fermented cells do escape from the primary fibrin net, perhaps due to some electromagnetic effect, and become free-float­ing in the circulation. They may thus lodge elsewhere and instigate the fermentation of other cells by fungal penetration or by poisoning them and provoking a morbid evolution of their inherent microzymas.

Because of the surrounding fibrin net, these mobi­lized fermenting cells are protected from collection by the immune system while in transit.[51,52] (See Table 4.) The blockage or dissolution of fibrin net forma­tion by an anticoagulant such as heparin allows freed, fermenting (metastasizing) cells to be dismantled by natural killer cells and other immune cells (see Tables 5, 12 and 13).

DIC Induced by MAT/EMPO and Immune System Response (Release of MOBS)

Unsaturated fatty acids are highly susceptible to EMPO as well as MAT. Linoleic acid, a long-chain fatty acid present in white cells, has 18 carbons and 2 unsaturations. Subjected to MAT, linoleic acid binds the exotoxin, endotoxin, or mycotoxin, there­by forming an epoxide at the first unsaturation.[53] Research has revealed that this compound, named leukotoxin, is highly disturbing to other cells. It caus­es platelet lysis, thereby releasing TF and initiating DIC.[54] (See Table 10.) The fact that MAT result in fermented fats lends further credence to the sugges­tion that the initial and primary degenerative damage to structures and substances in the body is caused by exotoxins and/or mycotoxins, and that damage by MOBS, or by other free radicals, is not possible.

Another mechanism leading to DIC is the release of a special glycoprotein, sialic acid, from the terminal ends of cell-membrane polysaccharides, where it is always found. Polysaccharides play a highly significant role in biochemical processes, with both enzymes and membrane receptors recognizing various groupings of specific sugars linked in highly specific ways.

Immediately preceding the release of sialic acid in the polysaccharide chain is the sugar galactose. The sialic acid/galactose arrangement is utilized as a biolog­ical indicator of cellular and molecular aging. As cells age, sialic acid is naturally expressed from the terminal ends of polysaccharides, thereby exposing galactose. A membrane-bound enzyme from the liver, galactose oxi­dase, recognizes galactose and eventually disorganizes it, disrupting cell function integrity and hastening demise. Aged red blood cells, which have expressed a significant amount of sialic acid, are removed from the blood by this process. (I theorize that the biological ter­rain may be at work in normal cell aging. That is, the rate at which sialic acid is expressed is determined by the levels of corrosive acids in the system and the body’s ability to remove them, although there are no doubt intracellular factors at work as well.)

I suggest from my years of  clinical research  that cellular breakdown is compounded by the fermentation of the galactose by the microzyma. This is a process that begins from within and not necessarily from without. Not only does this action create more sialic acid, it creates other toxic waste products such as acetic aldehyde, alcohol, uric acid, oxalic acid, etc. The increase in cellular disturbances and fermenta­tion of the galactose creates biochemical signals for more galactose oxidase. This leads to greater cellular disorganization and developmental morbidity, espe­cially in the red blood cells, and a rise in the level of detrital serum proteins, which encourages clotting. From this perspective, diabetes, arthritis, atheroscle­rosis and other symptomatologies become more clearly “degenerative” (see Tables 2-5, 12 and 13).

Fibrinogen is a rather elaborate protein having the structure of three beads on a string. Expressed on the end beads is sialic acid, which indicates the beginning of disorganization of the fibrinogen and a declining negative charge to the positive. Prior to the declining charge and the expression of sialic acid on the end beads, fibrinogen, which is negatively charged, will not polymerize the healthy blood due to mutual repulsion. However, fibrinogen will poly­merize to damaged cells, EMPO, MAT and other positively charged areas of the body for repair pur­poses. Thus, as more and more sialic acid is expressed, there will be a significant reduction in the charge of the fibrinogen, acting as the primary requirement for the polymerization of fibrinogen (hypercoagulable state). The resulting polymer, fib­rin monomer, is the protein chain used in the repair of cells and clotting of blood.[55] End-linking will take place after the release of sialic acid (positive charge) by whatever means.

With this background, it is interesting to note that blood taken from persons suffering from anxiety is expressing sialic acid from fibrinogen, and is halfway toward clotting. Hormones released during anxiety states are easily fermented, giving more momentum to MAT and thereby resulting in this important change in fibrinogen. It leads to a clotting pattern characteristic of anxiety stress, and is readily identi­fied in the MOST. As can be seen in this picture, the pattern is a “snowstorm” of protein polymeriza­tions measuring from 2 to 10 microns.









[Micrograph 2: An Anxiety Profile showing a ‘snowstorm’ of 2 to 10 micron protein polymerizations starting from the center of the clot and moving out towards the edge]

As mentioned earlier, despite the attempt by the body to neutralize EMPO and MAT, an excess will initiate the release of MOBS by immune cells. A major MOBS is superoxide, designated chemically as O 2. It may exist alone or be attached to another ele­ment, such as potassium (KO’2) or sulfur (SO). Again, however, nature has provided a means of pro­tecting healthy cells—their negative charge[1]. Another protection against superoxide is the enzyme superox­ide dismutase (SOD), also found in all healthy cells.

A second member of the MOBS family is hydro­gen peroxide (H202). This molecule is very unstable and tends to react rapidly with other biological mol­ecules, damaging them. The release of hydrogen per­oxide in the body is a response to the overgrowth of decompositional organisms in a declining pH (com­promised biological terrain). The control for healthy cells against hydrogen peroxide is their negative charge and the protective enzyme catalase, one of the most efficient enzymes known.

When leukocytes and other white blood cells are stimulated by the presence of bacteria, yeast/fungus and mold, they treat these organisms as foreign par­ticles to be eliminated. During and prior to phagocy­tosis, the foregoing oxidative cytotoxins, along with the hydroxyl radical (OH’), are generated and released specifically for neutralizing microforms or harmful substances. This release is referred to as an “oxidative burst.” As a result of fermentation and the production of exotoxins and mycotoxins that fer­ment galactose from cells, the immune system is activated. An oxidative burst is released to neutralize the morbid microforms and mycotoxicity.[56] Like other biological processes faced with constantly alarming situations, the continued release of MOBS can get out of control. This may damage endothelial cells, the basement membrane, or other body ele­ments, and this activates fibrinogen to fibrin monomer (repair protein), leading to DIC [see Table 9]. Interestingly, the white blood cells capable of neutralizing MAT through MOBS production are the same ones capable of phagocytosis, the process by which foreign matter, waste products and microor­ganisms are collected and dumped in the liver.[57]

To summarize this section, pathological microforms and their acids create DIC by a number of pathways:

Leukotoxin (linoleic acid bound to mycotoxin) is highly toxic to cells. It causes platelet lysis, there­by releasing TF and initiating DIC.

The expression or release of sialic acid residues from healthy cells that have been disturbed allows for the fermentation of galactose, creating exotox­ins and mycotoxins, biochemically activating galactose oxidase, which further disturbs and dis­organizes healthy cells. This cycle loads the blood with debris.

EMPO and MAT disturb fibrinogen, which releas­es sialic acid and reduces the charge, allowing it to polymerize into fibrin monomer and fibrin nets.

The presence of exotoxins, endotoxins, and myco­toxins and their poisoning of cells activates the immune system. White blood cells generate MOBS (e.g., superoxide [0′2] or hydrogen perox­ide [H202]). These substances bind to and neu­tralize EMPO and MAT. MOBS are repelled by healthy endothelial cells and the basement mem­brane because of their negative charge. Cellular disturbances and disorganization stimulate the generation of fibrin monomer for repair purposes, leading to DIC.

Detection of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

The Sonodot Analyzer

The Sonoclot Coagulation Analyzer provides a reaction-rate record of fibrin and clot formation with platelet interaction. An axially vibrating probe is immersed to a controlled depth in a 0.4 ml sample of blood. The viscous drag imposed upon the probe by the fluid is sensed by the transducer. The electronic circuitry quantifies the drag as a change in electrical output. The signal is transmitted to a chart recorder which provides a representation of the entire clot for­mation, clot contraction and clot lysis processes. The analyzer is extremely sensitive to minute changes in visco-elasticity and records fibrin formation at a very early stage. The Sonoclot has been evaluated scientif­ically and shown to provide an accurate measurement of the clotting process.[58,59]

One application of the Analyzer has been the development of a test to distinguish non-advanced breast cancer from tumors that are benign. The ratio­nale for the test is the hypercoagulable state seen in cancer patients (Trousseau’s Syndrome), resulting from the generation of TF by leukocytes (mono­cytes).[60] (See Table 4.)

Fibrin Degradation
Products and Fibrin Monomer

DIC can be seen as a two-step process. First, fib­rinogen, which is always present in the blood, is acti­vated by any of several mechanisms. This activation leads to an automatic polymerization (chain forma­tion) resulting in fibrin monomer. This is not apparent in a microscope unless the blood is allowed to clot, as in the MOST.[61,62] The second step is the precipitation or deposition of fibrin (hard clot) by several other mechanisms. One of these is the formation of cross­links through the action of factor XIII. Another such mechanism may be poor circulation in an organ already blocked by deposited fibrin. The deposition of precipitated fibrin may be detected microscopically in tissue sections and diagnosed as DIC.[62]

Because fibrin monomer is not readily detected, a chemical test for it is of immense value in diagnosing DIC. Research has indicated that its detection may be very useful in the early diagnosis of DIC and MAT.[63] There are three fundamental physiologic areas related to blood clotting: (1) the prevention of blood clotting, (2) the clotting of blood, and (3) the removal of clotted blood once it has formed.

Enzymes are present that are capable of removing (lysing) clotted blood, one of which is plasmin. Another enzyme, plasminogen, is always present in the blood, but is inactive as a proteolytic agent. Plasminogen acti­vator converts plasminogen to plasmin, which can degrade deposited fibrin. This process is not specific for fibrin, however, and other proteins may be affected. When fibrin is degraded (fibrinolysis), fibrin monomer, as well as several other products, are formed. Commercial kits are available for the analysis of fibrin degradation. This test is an indirect measure of the pres­ence of DIC and MAT.[64]

Other tests include:

Protamine Sulfate: Protamine sulfate is a heparin binder sometimes used in surgery for excessive bleed­ing. The test, which indicates fibrin strands and fibrin degradation products, is conducted in a test tube, with fibrin monomer and fibrin forming early and polymer­ization of fibrin degradation products occurring later.[65] Ethanol Gelation: A white precipitate is formed by the addition of ethanol to a solution in a test tube containing fibrin monomer as a degradation product of fibrin, indicating DIC and MAT.[66]

The Mycotoxic Oxidative Stress Test (MOST)

Up to now, blood chemistries have been the prima­ry mode of diagnosis or analysis for the presence of pathology. In the view presented here, the bright-field microscope, is used to easily and inexpensively reveal a disease state as reflected by changes in certain aspects of blood composition and clotting ability. DIC is char­acterized by the abnormal presence in the blood of fib­rin monomer. When allowed to clot, blood containing such an abnormal artifact will exhibit distortions of normal patterns. The presence in the blood of soluble fragments of the extracellular matrix and soluble fibronectin, as well as other factors, will also create abnormal blood clotting patterns as described below.

A small amount of blood from a fingertip is con­tacted with a microscope slide. A series of drops is allowed to dry and clot in a normal manner. Under the compound microscope, the pattern seen in healthy subjects is essentially the same—a dense mat of red areas interconnected by dark, irregular lines, completely filling the area of the drop. The blood of people under mycotoxic/oxidative stress exhibits a variety of characteristic patterns which deviate from nor­mal, but with one striking, common abnormality: “clear” or white areas, in which the fibrin net/red blood cell conglomerate is missing.

BowelCancerLive Blood Dried Blood_0166









[Micrograph 3; An abnormal clot with striking ‘clear’ or white areas or protein polymerization as seen in the hyper coagulated blood of a patient with lower bowel imbalances]

Why the fibrin net is missing may be understood from the following: Two peptides—A and B—in the central protein bead of the fibrinogen structure become bound in the cross-linking process. There are two ways this can be configured: (1) Thrombin is capable of activating peptides A and B, resulting in the formation of a polymer loosely held together only by hydrogen bonds; (2) With peptides A and B acti­vated normally, the resulting hard clot is insoluble, indicating that the peptides are linked by covalent bonds. The difference in bonds results from factor XIII, an enzyme which links the two fibrin strands with a glutamine-lysine peptide bond.

Additional research has shown that the release of sialic acid from fibrinogen inhibits the action of factor XIII, resulting in a soft, white clot. In addition, acetic aldehyde has been shown to inactivate factor XIII directly. The soft clotting, compounded by other polymeric aggregations (described below), results in clear areas in the dry specimens. In the opposite extreme, high serum levels of calcium, for the pur­pose of neutralizing MAT, activates factor XIII, lead­ing to excessive cross-linking of fibrin to form a clot harder than normal. This is reflected in the MOST pattern characteristic of definite hypercalcemia— that of a series of cracks in the clot radiating outward from the center, resembling the spokes of a wheel. High serum calcium is the body’s attempt to com­pensate for the acidity of mycotoxic stress by pulling this alkalizing mineral from bone into the blood. This demand creates endocrine stress in turn, because reabsorption of bone is mediated by parathormone (PTH). Therefore, this clotting pattern indicates cal­cium deficiency and thyroid/parathyroid imbalance.









[Micrograph 4: A mineral deficiency or more specifically a calcium deficiency pattern associated with an imbalance of they thyroid and/or parathyroid}

Advanced research has shown that there are seven carbohydrate chains in fibrinogen (each terminated by sialic acid). A second action of factor XIII is to ferment a large amount of carbohydrate during clot­ting. Because carbohydrate is most often water solu­ble, the loss of this material undoubtedly adds to the insolubility of a clot, while pathological retention contributes to the softness of the abnormal clot.

Clinical experience demonstrates that the MOST is a reliable indicator of exotoxic and mycotoxic stress and, concurrently, of various disorganizing symptoma­tologies associated with fermentative and oxidative processes. As various cellular degradation occurs, the blood-borne phenomena which accompany such symptoms as diabetes, arthritis, heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis and cancer show up in the MOST, often with sialic acid beads in the clear areas of poly­merized proteins. (Determination of the liberation of sialic acid from carbohydrate has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as an accept­ed indicator for cancer, and is clinically available.)


[Micrograph 5: Sialic acid beads are seen inside the protein
polymerization of the hypocoagulated blood as black dots]

The extent and shape of the clear areas are reflec­tive of particular symptomatologies which have arisen from the way in which the disease condition manifests in a given individual. This observation is borne out by having the patient undergo appropriate alkalizing therapy. With success of treatment based on the patient’s freedom from symptoms, sense of well-being, and live blood exams discussed in the main text of Sick and Tired, Reclaim Your Inner Terrain, Appendix C,[7] repeated analysis with the MOST reveals a progressively improving clotting pattern.

[Micrographs 6 and 7: Medically diagnosed cancer patient with large polymerized protein pools (PPP) in the hypo-coagulated blood above. In the picture below PPP’s have significantly reduced in size and the blood is moving to a more hyper-coagulated state as a result of reducing acid loads with an alkaline lifestyle and diet (7, 70)]

Because of its very nature, the MOST is emi­nently suited to reveal and measure the presence in the blood of abnormal substances, clotting factors, and disorganization of cells due to an inverted way of living, eating, and thinking, which gives rise to MAT. The MOST indicates both the direct and indirect activity of MAT on blood clotting, endothelium, and the extracellular matrix (described next), as well as on biochemical pathways, including hormonal ones. The generation of excessive MOBS in response to EMPO and MAT, the inability that accompanies all degenerative symptoms to neutralize or eradicate EMPO and MAT, and the recognized hyper- and hypocoagulable states seen in various symptomatolo­gies, will beyond doubt be revealed in the MOST.







[Micrograph 8 and 9: Medically Diagnosed HIV/AIDS micrograph showing above an Aspergullus niger mold crystal using dark field microscopy and below a hypocoagulated blood clot with systemic protein polymerizations measuring in excess of 40 microns using bright field microscopy}








As mentioned, hormones are easily fermented, and this will show up as a hypocoagulated blood pattern in the MOST. It is my opinion, this hypocoagulated blood appears in the MOST as misty clouds of protein polymerizations throughout the clot, as seen in the accompanying picture.


[Micrograph 10: Poor fibrin interconnection in the clot associated with endocrine or hormonal imbalance]

The MOST from Solubilized Extracellular Matrix

There is now a clearer picture of the biochemical rationale for correlating abnormal blood clotting patterns with the presence of degenerative symptoms.  A link between symptoms and the distorted clotted blood patterns has been delineated in the MOST.
Another reason for the abnormal clotting patterns accompanying pathological states, in addition to insufficient bonding of fibrinogen peptides as seen in the MOST, is presence in the blood of water-soluble fragments of the extracellular matrix.

Extracellular Matrix Degradation by MAT

The extracellular matrix (EM) is a three-dimen­sional gel, binding cells together and composed of five or more major constituents: collagen (protein), hyaluronic acid (polysaccharide), proteoglycans (pro- tein/polysaccharide), fibronectin and laminin. Also included are glycosaminoglycans and elastin.[67] In every degenerative disease studied by this author, evidence has been found for MAT activity destruc­tive of EM.

One of the proteolytic enzymes activated in response to EMPO and MAT is alpha-1 antitrypsin (capable of neutralizing MAT), normally not active in the presence of the enzyme trypsin. The active por­tion of this anti-exotoxin and antimycotoxin contains the amino acid methionine, which includes a C-S-C linkage. When chelated by the hydroxyl radical (one of the MOBS oxidants), methionine’s central sulfur atom acquires one or two oxygen atoms (forming the sulfone or sulfoxide respectively). The fermentation of methionine is a secondary effect of immune response to an alarming situation, intended to neutral­ize MAT and prevent degradation of the EM. Once alpha-1 antitrypsin is exhausted, MAT will have more access to the EM. If the EM is damaged beyond repair, then the enzyme trypsin is released to disorganize and recycle the cells involved.[68]

A similar scenario holds for the enzymes collage- nase and elastase. Thus, the absence of alpha-1 antitrypsin in the presence of EMPO and MAT activates three enzymes which degrade the extracellular matrix. Degradation of the EM by enzymes and MAT puts into the blood the water-soluble fragments (proteins and glycoproteins) of normally insoluble EM components (see Table 11). The presence of these fragments modifies the normal clotting pattern (described below), as seen in the M/OST, and is therefore an indication of EM degradation, which is always found with degenerative symptoms. (Also present is fibrin monomer, which has been found in the blood of patients suffering from collagen dis­ease.[69] See Table 11.)

Fibronectin is a molecule in EM having several binding sites for various long-chain molecules— heparin (a sulfonated polysaccharide) and collagen, for example. As such, it functions as a cellular glue, bind­ing cells together as well as various components of the EM. A soluble form of fibronectin is normally found free in the blood, and enters into the formation of a blood clot through the action of factor XIII. This form of fibronectin binds to fibrin. Elevated, bound-serum fibronectin results from EM fragmentation by MAT, and accompanies degenerative symptoms such as arthritis and emphysema (collagen diseases).

Water-soluble fragments of the EM bound by fibronectin form a three-dimensional network or gel in the pathologically clotted blood (fibrin and com­ponents of the blood clotting cascade). Since fibronectin binds to both fibrin and collagen, the two polymeric networks are superimposed and intermin­gled, resulting in a modification of the normal clot­ting pattern. Exactly how the pattern is modified depends upon the nature of the collagen abnormally present, the nature and extent of hyaluronate pre­sent, and the degree to which EM fibronectin has been released by MAT.


Thus, it is easily seen that there are many forms which the pattern of clotted blood may take, depending on the individual and the internal terrain that produced the modifying substances. The MOST reveals not only the presence of exotoxic and mycotoxic stress, but indicates as well the nature of the symptom(s) resulting from the stress (see Table 12). Since MAT underlie the entire complex of events which degrade the extracellular matrix, I must conclude that the absence of these exotoxins, endotoxins and mycotoxins would provide substantial improvements in tissue integrity and the overall physiology and functionality of the organism or animal and human.




[1]  Jones, T.W., “Observations on some points in the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the blood.”  British Foreign Medical Review, 1842. 14 : 585.

[2] Trousseau, A., Phlegmasis alba delens. “Clinque Medicale de L’Hotel Dieu de Paris.”, 1865, 3:94

[3]  Virchow, R., “Hypercoagulability: A review of its development, clinical application, and recent progress.”  Gesammelte Abhandlungen our Wussenschaftlichen Medizin, 1856, 26:477.

[4]  Rapaport, S.I., “Blood Coagulation and its Alterations in Hemorrhagic, and Thrombotic Disorders.”  The Western Journal of Medicine, 1993; 158: 153.

[5]  Hamilton, P.J. et al., “Disseminatied Intravascular Coagulation: A Review.”  Journal of Clinical Pathology, 1978, 31: 609

[6] The Harper Collins Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1994, p.13.

[7] Young, RO, “Sick and Tired, Reclaim Your Inner Terraine,” Woodland Publishing, 1999.

[8] BeChamp, A., “The Blood and Its Third Anatomical Element,”  Hikari Omni Publishing, 1999.

[9]  Schwerdtle, C, Arnoul, F, Enerlein, G, “Introduction to Darkfield Diagnostics”, Semmelweis-Verlag (2006).

[10]  Hawk, BO, Thoma, GE, Inkley, JJ, The Evaluation of the Bolen Test as a Screening Test for Malignancy*, on December 5, 2015. © 1951 American Association for Cancer Research.

[11]  Uchida, K., “Role of Reactive Aldehyde in Cardiovascular Diseases”,  Labortory of Food and Biodynamics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya, Japan , Free Radical Biology and MedicineVolume 28, Issue 12, 15 June 2000, Pages 1685–1696

 [12] Chang JCvan der Hoeven LHHaddox CH, “Glutathione reductase in the red blood cells”,  Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1978 Jan-Feb;8(1):23-9.

[13] Kutzing, MK, Firestein, BL, “Altered Uric Acid Levels and Disease States”, Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience (M.K.K., B.L.F.), Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering (M.K.K.), Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey. Address correspondence to: Dr. Bonnie L. Firestein, Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082. E-mail:

[14] Claudino, M,. Ceolin,,DS, Alberti, S.,  Cestari, TM,  Spadella, CT, Fischer Rubira-Bullen, IR, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet, Gerson Francisco de Assis, ” Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Triggers the Development of Periodontal Disease in Rats”,  Published: December 19, 2007. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001320

[15] Young RO (2015), “Alkalizing Nutritional Therapy in the Prevention and Reversal of any Cancerous Condition. Int J Complement Alt Med 2(1): 00046. DOI: 10.15406/ijcam.2015.02.00046

[16] Heloise Pöckel FernandesCarlos Lenz Cesar, and  Maria de Lourdes Barjas-Castro, “Electrical properties of the red blood cell membrane and immunohematological investigation”, Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter. 2011; 33(4): 297–301. doi:  10.5581/1516-8484.20110080 PMCID: PMC3415751

[17] Harris, JO, “The Relationship Between the Surface Charge and the Absorption of Acid Dyes by Bacterial Cells”, Department of Bacteriology, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Manhattan,Kansas, Received for publication March 3, 195.

[18] Young, RO, “Metabolic and Dietary Acids are the Fuel That Lights the Fuse that Ignites Inflammation that Leads to Cancer”. 2015.

[19] Snaders, R, “Did Bacteria Spark Evolution of Multicellular Life?” Berkeley News, Research, Science and Environment,  October 24, 2012.

[20] Wenner, M, “Humans Carry More Bacterial Cells than Human Ones”. Scientific American, November 30th, 2007.

[21} Animals and humans respond to MAT as a poison.

[22]  Morrison, D.C. et al. The effects of bacterial endotox­ins on host mediation systems. American Journal of Pathology, 1978; 93: 526.

[23]  Ibid.

[24]  Ibid.

[25]  Van Deventer, S.J.H. et al. Intestinal Endotoxemia. Gastroenterology, 1988; 94(3): 825-831.

[26]  Morrison, D.C. et al., op. cit.

[27]  Ibid.

[28]  Hu, T. et al. Synthesis of tissue factor messenger RNA and procoagulant activity in breast cancer cells in response to serum stimulation. Thrombosis Research, 1993; 72: 155.

[29]  Rapaport, op. cit. (Ref. 4).

[30]  Ibid.

[31]  Mackman et al. Lipopolysaccharides—mediated tran­scriptional activation of the human tissue factor gene in THP-1 monocytic cells requires both activator protein 1 and nuclear factor kappa B binding sites. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 1991; 174: 1517.

[32]  Yamada, O. et al. Deleterious effects of endotoxins on cultured endothelial cells: An in vitro model of vascular injury. Inflammation, 1981; 5: 115.

[33]  Colucci, M. et al. Cultured human endothelial cells: An in vitro model of vascular injury. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1983; 71: 1893.

[34]  Cho, T.H. et al. Effects of Escherichia coli toxin on structure and permeability of myocardial capillaries.

[35]  Acta Pathologica Japonica, 1991; 41: 12.

[36]  Rapaport, op. cit. (Ref. 4).

[37]  Ibid.

[38]  Margolis, J. The interrelationship of coagulation of plasma and release of peptides. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1963; 104: 133.

[39]  23-25. Ibid.

[40]  Morrison, D.C. et al., op. cit.

[41]  Rapaport, op. cit. (Ref. 4).

[42]  Alberts, B. et al, eds. Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1989 (2nd ed.), p. 818.

[43]  Rapaport, op. cit. (Ref. 4).

[44] Bertz, A., et al. Modulation by cytokines of leukocyte endothelial cell interactions. Implications for thrombo­sis. Biorheology, 1990; 27: 455.

[45]  Rapaport, op. cit. (Ref. 4).

[46]  Nachman, R.L. et al. Hypercoagulable states. Annab of Internal Medicine, 1993; 119: 819.

[47]  Ibid.

[48]  Tallman, M.S., et al. New insights into the pathogene­sis of coagulation dysfunction in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Leukemia and Lymphoma, 1993; IT. 27.

[49]  Silberberg, J.M., et al. Identification of tissue factor in two human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Cancer Research, 1989; 49: 5443.

[50]  Grimstad, I.A. et al. Thromboplastin release, but not content, correlates with spontaneous metastasis of can­cer cells. International Journal of Cancer, 1988; 41: 427.

[51]  Gunji, Y. et al. Role of fibrin coagulation in protection of murine tumor cells from destruction by cytotoxic cells. Cancer Research, 1988; 48: 5216.

[52]  Sugiyama, S. et al. The role of leukotoxin (9, 10- epoxy-12-octadecenoate) in the genesis of coagulation abnormalities. Life Sciences, 1988; 43: 221.

[53]  Ibid.

[54]  White, A. et al, eds. Principles of Biochemistry. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1964, p. 648.

[55]  Mueller, H.E. et al. Increase of microbial neu­raminidase activity by the hydrogen peroxide concen­tration. Experientia, 1972; 23: 397.

[56]  Young, Robert O. Fermentology and oxidology. The study of fungus-produced mycotoxic species and the activation of the immune system and release of microzymian oxidative buffering species (MOBS). Self- published: InnerLight Biological Research Foundation, Alpine, Utah, 1994.

[57]Chandler, WL. et al. Evaluation of a new dynamic vis­cometer for measuring the viscosity of whole blood and plasma. Clinical Chemistry, 1986; 32: 505.

[58]  Saleem, A. et al. Viscoelastic measurement of clot for­mation: A new test of platelet function. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, 1983; 13: 115.

[59]  Spillert, C.R. et al. Altered coagulability: An aid toselective breast biopsy. Journal of the National Medical Association, 1993; 85: 273.

[60]  Bowie, E.J. et al. The clinical pathology of intravascular coagulation. Bibliotheca Haematologica, 1983; 49: 217.

[61]  Muller-Berghaus, G. et al. The role of granulocytes in the activation of intravascular coagulation and the pre­cipitation of soluble fibrin by endotoxin. Blood, 1975; 45: 631.

[62]  Bick, R.L. Disseminated intravascular coagulation. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, 1993; 6: 1259.

[63]  Bredbacka, S. et al. Laboratory methods for detecting disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC): New aspects. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 1993; 37: 125.

[64]  Sigma Diagnostics, St. Louis, MO 63178; tel: 314- 771-5765.

[65]  Nachman, R.L. et al. Detection of intravascular coag­ulation by a serial-dilution protamine sulfate test. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1971; 75: 895.

[66]  Breen, F.A. et al. Ethanol gelation: A rapid screening test for intravascular coagulation. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1970; 69: 1197.

[67] Hay, E.D., ed. Cell Biology of Extracellular Matrix. New York: Plenum Press, 1981, p. 653.

[68]  Carp, H. et al. In vitro suppression of serum elastase- inhibitory capacity by ROTS generated by phagocytos- ing polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1979; 63: 793.

[69]  Wilson, C.L. The alternatively spliced V region con­tributes to the differential incorporation of plasma and cellular fibronectins into fibrin clots. Journal of Cell Biology, 1992; 119: 923.

[70] Young, RO, Young, SR, “The pH Miracle Revised and Updated”, Hachette Publishing, 2010.


Table 1

Expression of Sialic Acid/Galactose [MAT] from Cell and Protein Degeneration (From All Serum Proteins, RBC/WBC and Other Cell Surfaces)

  1.  Carbohydrate, Proteins, and Fats From Diet, Body Cells or Reserves
  2. As cells breakdown or ferment they give birth to bacteria, yeast, fungus and mold [EMPO] and their associated metabolic acidic waste [MAT]
  3. Exotoxins, Endotoxins, and Mycotoxins [MAT]
  4. Acetyl Aldehyde, Ethyl Alcohol, Uric Acid, Alloxan, Lactic Acid are examples of MAT
  5. MAT  Ferments Other Body Cells and their Extracellular Membranes and Proteins
  6. MAT Modifies Glycoprotein
  7. Binds to liver Galactosidase
  8. Creating an Increase in Cell and Protein Fermentation and Degeneration and Increased Amounts of Exotoxins, Endotoxins and Mycotoxins [MAT]


Table 2

Expression of Sialic Acid [MAT] From the Fermentation of Degeneration of Insulin Producing Pancreatic Beta-Cells in Type I, Type II and Type III Diabetes

  1. Pancreatic Insulin producing Beta-Cells with no or minimal Surface Sialic Acid [MAT]A Physical and/or Emotional Disturbance Occurs from Lifestyle and/or Diet
  2. Normal regulation of Insulin Production
  3. A Physical and/or Emotional Disturbance Occurs from Lifestyle and/or Dietary choicesdd
  4. Leads to cellular fermentation and degeneration and the birth of EMPO
  5. This lead to increased abnormal amounts of MAT that the immune system, the alkaline buffering system and the elimination organs has to deal with
  6. Fermenting and degenerating Insulin Producing Beta Cells
  7. Giving Rise to Surface Cell Sialic Acid [MAT}
  8. Increased Amounts of Sialic Acid Activates the Immune Response [MOBS] and Sialidase [AB]
  9. Leads to Lowered or No Insulin Production
  10. Symptoms of Type I, Type II or Type III Expressed
  11. The insulin producing beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans express silica acid on their surface as a break down metabolite.  I have suggested that when insulin producing beta cells are physically disturbed by MAT they begin to disorganize and express sialic acid on the surface of the cell.  This indicates the death of the cell and insulin production will stop.


Table 3


  1. A Physical and/or Emotional Disturbance Occurs from Lifestyle and/or Dietary choices
  2. Leads to cellular fermentation and degeneration and the birth of EMPO
  3. This lead to increased abnormal amounts of MAT that activates the immune system to chelate the MAT.
  4. Increased amounts of MAT will cause endothelial breakdown and the expression of Sialic acid.
  5. Increased Amounts of Sialic Acid and damage to the endothelial will cause a reduction in the negative surface-charge leading to the release of Glycoproteins.
  6. The release of Glycoproteins will cause the activation of Factor XII and the blood clotting cascade.
  7. This cause the creation and formation of fibrin monomers and the increase of Platelet Deposition out of the red blood cells for clotting purposes
  8. The immune system will activate and MOBS will be released as well as sodium bicarbonate, calcium, lipids and other alkaline buffers to reduce metabolic acidity.
  9. The build-up of fibrin monomers in the clotting cascade will lead to fibrin nets and clots causing an increase in blood pressure and the risk of blockages potentially causing a Stroke or Heart Attack.


Table 4


  1. A Physical and/or Emotional Disturbance Occurs from Lifestyle and/or Dietary choices
  2. Leads to cellular fermentation and degeneration and the birth of EMPO
  3. This lead to increased abnormal amounts of MAT that activates the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF).
  4. Increased amounts of TNF activates the Tissue Factor Gene (TF)
  5. Increased Amounts of TF causes the release of Thromboplastin.
  6. The release of Thromboplastin activates the release of clotting Factors VII (VIIa) and trace amounts of Factor Xa into the blood.
  7. This activates the release of Factors IX and X to IXa and the increase of Factor Xa.
  8. The activation of the blood clotting cascade leads to Disseminated Intravascular coagulation and the clotting or thickening of the blood inside the blood vessels.
  9. The DIC or hyper-coagulation will mask the fermentation of healthy cells to unhealthy cells or cancerous cells.
  10. As the unhealthy cells or cancerous cells increase the body will go into preservation mode and begin forming fibrin nets to encapsulated these unhealthy cells to protect healthy body cells.
  11. As body and blood cells breakdown from MAT this causes an increase of MAT and EMPO leading to systemic latent tissue acidosis and a potential metastatic cancerous condition.


 Table 5


  1. A Physical and/or Emotional Disturbance Occurs from Lifestyle and/or Dietary choices.
  2. Leads to cellular fermentation and degeneration and the birth of EMPO
  3. This lead to increased abnormal amounts of MAT that activates the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF).
  4. Increased amounts of TNF activates the Tissue Factor Gene (TF)
  5. Increased Amounts of TF causes the release of Thromboplastin.
  6. The release of Thromboplastin activates the release of clotting Factors VII and Factor Xa in the blood.
  7. This activates the release of Factors IX and X to IXa and the increase of Factor Xa.
  8. The activated blood clotting cascade leads to Disseminated Intravascular coagulation and the clotting or thickening of the blood inside the blood vessels.
  9. The DIC or hyper-coagulation will mask the fermentation of healthy cells to unhealthy cells or cancerous cells.
  10. As the unhealthy cells or cancerous cells increase the body will go into preservation mode and begin forming fibrin nets to encapsulated the unhealthy cells.
  11. This leads to tumor formation of the unhealthy or cancerous cells.
  12. As the body and blood cells breakdown this causes an increase of MAT and EMPO leading to an increased risk of  systemic metastatic cancer.

Table5aTable 6


  1. A Physical and/or Emotional Disturbance Occurs from Lifestyle and/or Dietary choices
  2. Leads to cellular fermentation and degeneration and the birth of EMPO
  3. This leads to increased abnormal amounts of MAT that damages the protective endothelial cover cells leading to a reduction of PGI2
  4. The absence of PGI2 causes the release of Interleukin-1 and/or Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF).
  5. In addition the loss of protective endothelial cover cells leads to Tissue Factor Gene Activation and the release of Thrombin causing a pro-coagulate state leading to DIC
  6. Another pathway to DIC would be the loss of protective endothelial cover cells and the absence of PGI2 causes the suppression of Thromomodulin, Protein C leading to procogradulation and DIC.


 Table 7



Table 8


Table8Table 9



Table 10



Table 11



Table 12



Table 13



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