Category Archives: Pleomorphism

CDC confirms 62 cases of Post-Polio illness or Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP)!

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has confirmed 62 cases of a post polio neurological condition called acute flaccid myelitis, also known as AFM.  So far this year in the U.S. more than 90 percent of the cases involved children 18 or younger, with an average age of just 4 years old.

AFM is an illness that affects the nervous system, specifically the area of spinal cord called gray matter. It causes the muscles and reflexes in the body to become weak or even paralyzed. Cases of AFM are characterized by a sudden onset of arm or leg weakness and loss of muscle tone and reflexes.

Its symptoms are identical to those of poliomyelitis or polio which is associated with a so-called virus.  Years of research have shown that these cases of polio and post-polio are associated with chemical poisoning or organochlorines used as a pesticide in farming found in all of our food sources (except for organically grown food).

Table 1: This graph shows polio in the United States in a context rarely (if ever) portrayed since Dr. Morton Biskind, the environmental context. [1] “DDT” and “DDT-like chemicals” are selected for this graph as the least complex way to represent a broad overview of the evolution of the technology of, and potential for, mass acidic chemical poisoning. (US Vital Statistics, US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.) [2][6]

Additional symptoms can include facial drooping or weakness, difficulty swallowing and slurred speech.

This condition, which may be caused by acidic poisoning from DDT like chemicals found in all non-organic fruit, vegetables, poultry and meat can lead to paralysis and even death, but no deaths have been reported so far this year.

Some prominent organochlorines are chlorobenzene, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane). [3] Chlorobenzene is a precursor, a foundational compound used in the production of many industrial organochlorines as a chemical pesticide. [4] In the U.S., high production of chlorobenzene began in 1915, soon after the beginning of World War I. [5]

The above graph is a compilation of new cases per year (not incidence, as portrayed elsewhere herein). The data for the last half of the 20th century was gathered from U.S. Vital Statistics. [6] The very earliest numbers, from 1887 to about 1904, and the post polio numbers, are interpolated from the general historical commentary regarding those periods. [7] (see bibliography on Homepage and NYC Health Commissioner Haden Emerson’s compilations). While the graph is not perfectly accurate, due to changing methods of diagnoses and record-keeping within the medical system, it does give a reliable overall picture of Polio cases in terms of known literature and records.

The source for the U.S. and Swiss discoveries of paralysis in calves is from Van Nostrand’s Encyclopedia of Science and Engineering (1995), vol. 5, p1725. The phrase “Pesticides as a Panacea: 1942-1962” is a subtitle found in Encyclopedia Britannica, Macropaedia (1986). [8] Refer to other graphs (Overview) for specific pesticide comparisons with Polio incidence.

In 1915 Hooker Electrochemical began massive, unprecedented production of chlorobenzene (8,200 metric tons per year) and Dow Chemical began large-scale production soon thereafter. [9]

Chlorobenzenes are the basis for picric acid explosive used in World War I. [10] They have also been used in the manufacture of wood treatments, war gas, herbicides, insecticides, bactericide, moth control, and polymer resins. [11] (Mono) chlorobenzene is the base compound for DDT production. [12] Currently in the U.S., 15 million pounds of p- dichlorobenzene production goes into room deodorants. [13] According to Peter Duesberg, CDC’s investigation into Legionnaires disease ignored toxic chemical causes and created a new false field of study regarding the Legionella bacterium. [[4]

The sudden surge of chlorobenzene production coincides in time and place (1915, Niagara Falls) to be considered as probable cause for the epidemic of central nervous system diseases that followed the next year in the New York City region. [15] This epidemic lasted only six months, June to November, with 82% of the cases occurring in just 8 weeks. [16] While Polio literature terms this a world-wide Polio epidemic, it was peculiarly a phenomena of the U.S. and was especially prominent in the New York City region. [17] This is strange behavior for a supposedly so-called predatory Poliovirus, in an era, a continent, wholly unprotected by so-called miracle vaccines!

The number of new cases for 1916 (40,485) were calculated by multiplying the U.S. incidence rate by the U.S. population. [18] The number seems too high because of Naomi Rogers’ statements that worldwide new cases in 1916 were 27,000, that two-thirds of world Polio new cases were in the U.S. and that New York City new cases were 9,000. [19] While this discrepancy exists, the data is still useful for showing relative case numbers and/or incidence for the early 20th century. [See Tables 1,3,4,5,8,9,10 and 11]

Both Polio epidemics occurred two years after the beginning of World War I and World War II, if we use the dates of the epidemics, 1916 and 1942. [20]

DDT and “DDT-like chemicals” are used to represent the major organochlorine pesticides and organochlorines of similar neurotoxic character. [21] Most of the industrial organochlorines can produce CNS disease symptoms similar to Polio. [22] [Refer to Tables 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10 and 11] below to see the relationship between DDT and DDT-like chemical production and the incidence of Polio.

Other Poisonous DDT-Like Pesticide Composite

Just over three billion pounds of persistent pesticides are represented in the Table 2 above and 3 below. Virtually all peaks and valleys correlate with a direct one-to-one relationship with each pesticide as it enters and leaves the US market. Generally, pesticide production precedes polio incidence by 1 to 2 years. The variation may be to variations in reporting methods and the time it takes to move pesticides from factory to warehouse, through distribution channels, onto the food crops and to the dinner table. A composite of these graphs, of the persistent pesticides–lead, arsenic, and the dominant organochlorines (DDT and BHC) is presented in Table 10.

The four chemicals were not selected arbitrarily. These are representative of the major pesticides in use during the last major polio epidemic. They persist in the environment as neurotoxins that cause polio-like symptoms, polio-like physiology, and were dumped onto and into human food at dosage levels far above that approved by the FDA. They directly correlate with the incidence of various neurological diseases called “polio” before 1965. They were utilized, according to Dr. Biskind, in the “most intensive campaign of mass poisoning in known human history.” [23]

Critique of Pesticides and Polio Vaccination

It certainly appears, from the above graphs, that the vaccination programs arrived a few years too late to be credited for declining polio case numbers. The programs were close enough, however, for media to shoehorn them into their historical position. This quote from Time Magazine (March 28, 1994) is a typical example:

“The great postwar epidemic peaked in the U.S. in 1952, when more than 20,000 children were paralyzed by polio and it tapered off in the early ’60s, after the Salk vaccine and then the Sabin oral version were introduced.” [23]

This smooth, loaded phrase, framed with glossy photos and clever captions, goes down like several shots of Vodka and with the same physiological effects. However, if we contain our admiration, and review the actual data, we realize that the great Polio epidemic actually occurred from 1942 (or gradually, beginning decades earlier) to 1962, that is, it was not a “postwar epidemic”. (Refer to Table 1) The epidemic declined not “in the early ’60s”, but a full decade earlier, in the early 1950s. Polio cases per year did not “taper off… after the Salk vaccine” as Time would have us believe — new cases per year dove resolutely downward two years before the Salk vaccine field trials and four years before the vaccination programs were firmly underway. The decline of Polio actually occurred after heated discussions regarding the dangers of DDT that began with in-house government/industry reviews of DDT in 1951, following Dr. Morton Biskind and other’s criticism of pesticides which began in 1945. [23 to 85] These discussions were followed by a phase-out through industry compliance, a huge shift of sales to third-world countries, a phase-in of less-persistent pesticides, which was facilitated by legislation in 1954 and 1956, (86) a renewed public image regarding the proper use and dangers of pesticides, [87] the cancellation of DDT registration by 1968, [88] and eventually the official ban of many of the persistent organochlorine pesticides by 1972 (in U.S. and developed countries). [89]

Notice that while pesticide production directly correlates with new polio cases per year through every peak and valley, the Salk vaccine enters only after Polio’s decline. (Refer to Tables 1 and 4) Salk’s point of entry is not sufficient evidence to be routinely offered as proof for the victory of vaccines over the Poliovirus, as Time implies, [90] and as implied by Hayes and Laws, [91] and virtually all other presentations of polio history in whatever media or educational forum.

The molecular biologist, Peter Duesberg, in his attempt to give Modern Medicine some credence with regard to virus causality (before refuting HIV causality with AIDS), [92] apparently felt he could assume, in Inventing the AIDS Virus, that, …the sudden, frightening polio epidemic that exploded in the Western nations, brought home by troops returning from the Pacific theater in 1945. [93]

Yet a glance at the graphs in Tables 1 and 4 shows his statement to be inaccurate. Polio was entrenched in the U.S. long before returning troops, and the increased Polio cases per year correlate much more consistently with pesticide production than returning troops. A rise in new cases per year that peaked in 1945 can be clearly attributed to the government’s release of war surplus DDT to the public market in 1945, not vague data about “troops returning from the Pacific theater in 1945”. The troops were heavily treated with DDT years before the U.S. civilian population and as can be expected, in light of the acidic chemical poison-theory, the troops suffered unusually high Polio incidence rates when compared to the non-treated populations where they were stationed, and soldiers based in the U.S.. [94] The unusual drama and rash assumption that fills this excerpt of Peter Duesberg’s writings gives a sense that he has taken the whole package of ingrained Polio images for granted. [95]

Pesticide Phase-Out and Vaccinations Phase-In

DDT and BHC were phased out from the developed nations and at the same time vaccination programs were dramatically credited with saving these countries from the ravages of the Poliovirus. (96) However, the banned pesticides continued with higher than ever total distribution in the under-developed countries thanks to W.H.O.’s anti-mosquito campaigns, where to this day acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), Polio, and DDT/BHC still prevail. (97) DDT application, DDT phase-out programs, and Polio vaccination programs are all being directed in these countries concurrently by the World Health Organization with little or no success. (98)

Registration for DDT was canceled in 1968, and DDT was banned by the EPA in 1972 — after the major organochlorines (DDT, BHC) had been gradually phased out of the U.S. market by the chemical industry and replaced with the less environmentally persistent pesticides, the organophosphates. (99)

Post-Polio Pesticides

In 1983, via new legislation, DDT was allowed back into the U.S. marketplace, but only in pesticide blends. (100) Within only a few months of this re-entry, a new kind of polio epidemic suddenly occurred. (101) It was labeled “Post-Polio”, the re-emergence of Polio symptoms in former victims. (102) This has involved approximately 600,000 victims and is shown in Table I above. Like most of the data, this correlation is not even a whisper in the mainstream media.

Central nervous system diseases other than Polio continues in the U.S. and throughout the world: acute flaccid paralysis, chronic fatigue syndrome, encephalitis, meningitis, muscular sclerosis, and rarely in humans, rabies. (103)

The harsh realities of government policy are stated in Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology (1996): “Although government agencies and industry have been slow in their re-evaluation of a vast array of pesticides in use, reassessment often comes in the wake of or concomitant with some recently disclosed adverse environmental or health effect.” (104) This after-the-fact approach to pesticide poisoning is puzzling enough without questioning Casarett and Doull’s careful usage of the words: “often”, “some”, “recently”, and “disclosed”. The acidic chemical environmental correlations of “Post-Polio are overlooked.

Searching PubMed has not been successful. However, an online a paper entitled “The Environmental Aspects of The “Post-Polio” Syndrome”, was found. This article establishes a strong correlation between environmental acidic chemical factors and “Post-Polio”. (105)

No other similar articles are to be found, and no abstracts were available, although it can be ordered from PubMed. Poliovirus presence in “Post-Polio” according to immunity and vaccination theories, if anyone should be immune to Polio, it should be former Polio victims, however, numerous studies of “Post-Polio” victims have found evidence of active Poliovirus. (106) (107) (108)

Polio images are projected as if this data doesn’t exist. It does not appear that money is being directed into these kinds of research studies.

Farr’s Law

Farr’s Law requires, for an epidemic to be a valid example of contagion, that the epidemic increase its incidence rates exponentially. (109) Since Polio has been ubiquitous since the beginning of human history, its incidence rate should have peaked long ago and universal immunity conferred, if immunity was ever required, and if the Poliovirus was actually a predator or even existed! Polio’s non-compliance with Farr’s Law is explained by viro pathologists with a unique argument, the inverse of the argument usually given to support so-called germ theory. (110) The argument is that the Poliovirus, which has been intimate with mankind since the beginning of history, suddenly became estranged from humans because of modern hygiene, and thus humans lost their natural immunity to the virus. (111) So it is modern hygiene and the resulting lack of exposure to the virus that is said to have caused the Polio epidemics to rage as never before. (112) It is interesting that for only one brief moment, viro-pathologists are willing to become eco-nutritional types who appreciate the value of natural breast feeding and the importance of the internal microbiological ecology conferred positively upon humans as I have suggested in my pH Miracle books and other published articles. (113)

Three different promotions of their inverse or perverse argument follows:

1)   The prominent book on polio history by Naomi Rogers, where the inverse argument resides in the title, Dirt and Disease: Polio Before FDR. (114) The language style here is popular. (115)

2)   In Textbook of Child Neurology (1995), John H. Menkes promotes the inverse argument with scientific language style: “Poliomyelitis… is less likely to be symptomatic in areas with inadequate sanitation, because poor sanitation is conducive to exposure at an age when lingering

transferred maternal immunity can attenuate the clinical picture.” (116)

3)   In the propaganda film, A Paralyzing Fear: The Story of Polio in America. This was funded by the government and pharmaceutical firms and released in 1998. (117)

The New York Times (March 4, 1998) reviews the film. It reinforces the fundamental tenets of the Polio culture, beginning with a quotation from a section that portrays a “vintage film clip”: “My name is virus Poliomyelitis,” intones a cultivated, sinister male voice, as a camera pans over fair-weather clouds from which a hollow shadow emerges carrying the silhouette of a crutch. “I consider myself quite an artist, a sort of sculptor,” the voice continues. “I specialize in grotesques, twisting and deforming human bodies. That’s why I’m called The Crippler.”

Having dramatically demonized the Poliovirus, the medical cavalry rides to the rescue: …the epidemics grew steadily worse each year, with the number of new cases climbing from 5,000 in 1933 to 59,000 in 1952. (Refer to Tables 1 and 4)

Salvation came in 1954 with the Salk vaccine…And the inverse argument is now fit to print:

“The irony of the rise of polio in the 20th century, the movie reports, is that its prevalence was a result of improved sanitation. In grubbier times, babies and very young children developed antibodies to the disease, which had been around forever. A cleaner environment left increasing numbers of children with no natural immunity. (118)

So The New York Times review concisely presents the standard Polio images:

“the predatory virus, paralytic horror, epidemics, salvation via the Salk vaccine, and a unique exception from Farr’s Law.” (119)

I have my own personal concerns that anyone at NYT actually wrote this article, rather that it was probably supplied to the journalist as a suggested article, to be adjusted to the author’s style, thus essentially a customized press release.

The Epidemic Intelligence, Inventing The AIDS Virus (1996): The CDC’s disease-control mission was increasingly being regarded as obsolete, prompting serious discussions about abolishing the CDC altogether. (120) The situation changed in 1949 when the CDC brought on board Alexander Langmuir, an associate professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. (121) Langmuir was the CDC’s first VIP, bringing with him both his expertise in epidemiology (the statistical study of epidemics) and his high-level connections — including his security clearance as one of the few scientists privy to the Defense Department’s biological warfare program……Langmuir and talked public officials and Congress into giving the CDC contingent powers to deal with potential emergencies… (122)

In July of 1951 he assembled the first class of the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS), composed of twenty-three young medical or public health graduates. After six weeks of intensive epidemiological training, these EIS officers were assigned for two years to hospitals or state and local health departments around the country. Upon completing their field experience, EIS alumni were free to pursue any career they desired, on the assumption that their loyalties would remain with the CDC and that they would permanently act as its eyes and ears. (123) The focus of this elite unit was on activism rather than research and was expressed in its symbol — a shoe sole worn through with a hole. According to British epidemiologist Gordon Stewart, a former CDC consultant, the EIS was nicknamed the “medical CIA.” (124)

To read and understand more about the Phantom virus called Polio please order Dr. Young’s book by clicking here: https://www.amazon.com/…/ref=dbs_a_def_rwt_hsch_vapi_taft_p…

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Do YOU Believe the Polio Viral Theory?

The first isolation of a virus was achieved in 1892 by Russian bacteria hunter Dimitri Iwanowski, who gathered fluid from diseased tobacco plants. He passed this liquid through a filter fine enough to retain bacteria; yet to Iwanowski’s surprise, the bacteria-free filtrate easily made healthy plants sick. In 1898 a Dutch botanist, Martinus Willem Beijerinck, repeating the experiment, also recognized that there was an invisible cause and named the infectious agent “tobacco mosaic virus.” In the same year as Beijerinck’s report, two German scientists purified a liquid containing filterable viruses that caused foot-and-mouth disease in cattle (viruses were at one time called “filterable viruses,” but eventually the term “filterable” came to apply only to viruses, and was dropped). Walter Reed followed in 1901 with a filtrate responsible for yellow fever, and soon dozens of other disease-causing viruses were found.

In 1935 another American, Wendell M. Stanley, went back to the beginning and created pure crystals of tobacco mosaic virus from a filtered liquid solution. He affirmed that these crystals could easily infect plants, and concluded that a virus was not a living organism, since it could be crystallized like salt and yet remained infectious. Subsequently, bacteriologists all over the world began filtering for viruses, and a new area of biology was born-virology.

Historically, medical science has vacillated on the question of whether a virus is alive. Originally it was described as nonliving, but is currently said to be an extremely complex molecule or an extremely simple microorganism, and is usually referred to as a parasite having a cycle of life. (The term “killed” is applied to certain viral vaccines, thus implying an official conviction that viruses live.) Commonly composed of either DNA or RNA cores with protein coverings, and having no inherent reproductive ability, viruses depend upon the host for replication. They must utilize the nucleic acids of living cells they infect to reproduce their proteins (i.e., trick the host into producing them), which are then assembled into new viruses like cars on an assembly line. Theoretically, this is their only means of surviving and infecting new cells or hosts.

The Replicating Virus Theory

Then it was discovered that, when bacteria slowly begin to die, bacteria create tiny, apparently lifeless forms of survival, the so-called spores. It was then suspected that these spores were toxic and that they were the so-called pathogenic poisons. This was then refuted, since the spores are rapidly developing into bacteria when their vital resources are being restored. When scientists in the laboratory observed that the weak, highly inbred bacteria perished very quickly while turning into much smaller structures than the spores, it was first believed that the bacteria were being killed by the alleged pathogenic poisons, called viruses, and that the viruses were thereby replicating.

The Replicating Virus Theory

Then it was discovered that, when bacteria slowly begin to die, bacteria create tiny, apparently lifeless forms of survival, the so-called spores. It was then suspected that these spores were toxic and that they were the so-called pathogenic poisons. This was then refuted, since the spores are rapidly developing into bacteria when their vital resources are being restored. When scientists in the laboratory observed that the weak, highly inbred bacteria perished very quickly while turning into much smaller structures than the spores, it was first believed that the bacteria were being killed by the alleged pathogenic poisons, called viruses, and that the viruses were thereby replicating.

The Invention of Bacterial Viruses

Due to the belief that these – at the time of their discovery still invisible- structures were killing the bacteria, they were called phages/bacteriophages, “eaters of bacteria”. Only later it was determined that merely highly inbred and therefore almost non-viable bacteria can be made to turn into phages, or bacteria which are being destroyed so fast that they do not have time to form spores.

The introduction of the electron microscopy led to the discovery of the structures resulting from the biological transformation or pleomorphism of bacteria when these were suddenly dying or when the metabolism of the highly inbred germs was overwhelmed by processes triggered by the adding of “phages”. It was also discovered that there are hundreds of types of different-looking “phages”. The discovery of phages, the so-called bacterial “viruses”, reinforced the wrong assumption and the belief that there were human and animal viruses that looked the same and had the same structure. This is not and cannot be the case, for several different reasons.

After introducing chemical examination techniques in biology, it was discovered that there are thousands of types of phages and that phages of one type always have the same structure. They consist of a particular molecule, made of nucleic acid, which is covered in a shell of proteins of a given number and composition. It was only later discovered that merely the bacteria which had been highly inbred in the test tube could turn into phages themselves, by contact with phages, but this never applied to natural bacteria or bacteria which had just been isolated from their natural environment. In this process, it was discovered that these “bacterial viruses” actually serve to provide other bacteria with important molecules and proteins, and that the bacteria themselves emerged from such structures.

Before it could be established that the “bacterial viruses” cannot kill natural bacteria, but they are instead helping them to live and that bacteria themselves emerge from such structures, these “phages” were already used as models for the alleged human and animal viruses. It was assumed that the human and animal viruses looked like the “phages”, were allegedly killing cells and thereby causing diseases, while at the same time producing new disease poisons and in this way transmitting the diseases. To date, many new or apparently new diseases have been attributed to viruses if their origin is unknown or not acknowledged. This reflex found an apparent confirmation in the discovery of the “bacterial viruses”.

It is important to note that the theories of fight and infection were accepted and highly praised by a majority of the specialists only if and when the countries or regions where they lived were also suffering from war and adversity. In times of peace, other concepts dominated the world of science.[272]

It is very important to note that the theory of infection – starting from Germany – has only been globalized through the third Reich, when the Jewish researchers, most of which had opposed and refuted the politically exploited theories of infection, were removed from their positions.[273]

The Detection of Phages and Biological Transformation

The existence of phages can be proved rapidly

First step: their presence is confirmed through an effect, namely the transformation of bacteria into phages, and also through an electron micrograph of those phages. The control experiments show that phages do not appear if bacteria do not change or if bacteria randomly start decomposing due to extrinsic sudden annihilation, without forming phages.

Second step: the liquid containing the phages is concentrated and applied on another liquid, which has a high concentration at the bottom of the test tube and a low concentration at the top of the test tube. The test tube with the phages is then powerfully spun (centrifuged) and all the particles gather according to their mass and weight to the place of their own density. The density is the ratio of weight (mass) per unit of volume, expressed as Kg/l or g/mg, respectively. That is why this concentration and purification step for particles with the same density is called density gradient centrifugation.

The layer where many particles of the same density gather becomes “cloudy”, which is called a “band.” This step is being documented, then the particles concentrated, purified and sedimented in a “band” are removed with a syringe needle. The extracted concentrated amount of particles is called an isolate. A fast and simple electron micrograph will confirm the presence of phages in the isolate, which at the same time is an indication for the purity of the isolate, if the micrograph shows no other particles but the phages. The appearance and the diameter of the phages will also be established with the help of this micrograph.

The control experiment performed for this step consists in treating and centrifuging the liquid from bacteria which did not form any phages, where no phages appear at the end of the procedure.

After the step of successfully isolating the phages, the decisive biochemical characterization of the phages follows. The biochemical characterization of their composition is essential for identifying the specific type of phage, since different types of phages often appear to be similar. The isolate obtained through the density gradient centrifugation is now divided in two parts. One part is used to determine the size, type and composition of the nucleic acid; in a separate procedure, the other part is used to determine the amount, size and morphology of the proteins of the phages. Since the 1970s, these tests have been simple standard techniques that are learned by every biology student in their first semesters.

These tests represent the biochemical characterization of the phages. In almost every case, these results have been and are being published in only one publication, since a phage has a very simple structure which is very easy to analyze. The control experiments for these tests use liquid from bacteria which do not form phages and thus cannot present any biochemical proof. The existence of approximately two thousand different types of phages have been scientifically demonstrated this way

The So-Called Pathogenic Viruses

The “bacteriophages,” correctly defined as incomplete mini spores and building blocks of the bacteria, have been scientifically isolated, while the so-called pathogenic viruses have never been observed in humans or animals or in their body fluids and have never been isolated and subsequently biochemically analyzed. To date, none of the researchers involved in virology research seems to have realized this very important point.

The use of electron microscopy and the biochemistry were very slowly returning to normal after 1945 and no one had realized that not one pathogenic virus had ever been isolated in humans or animals; thus, as of 1949 researchers started applying the same idea used for the (bacterio) phages, in order to replicate the human and animal “viruses.” John Franklin Enders, born in 1897 in the family of a rich financier, was active in various fraternities after having finished his studies, then he worked as a real estate agent and studied foreign languages for four years before turning to bacterial virology, which fascinated him. He then simply transferred the ideas and concepts that he learned in this area of research to the supposed pathogenic viruses in humans.

UnScientific Experiments and Interpretations Gave Birth to Virology

With his unscientific experiments and interpretations that he had never confirmed through negative controls, Enders brought the entire “viral” infectious medicine to a dead end. It is important to note at this point that Enders, like many infectious diseases specialists, worked for the U.S. military, which had always been and remains to date a huge victim of the fear of contagions. It was mainly the U.S. military which spread its erroneous belief that besides chemical weapons there were also biological weapons in the form of bacteria and viruses.

In 1949, Enders announced that he had managed to cultivate and grow the alleged polio virus in vitro on various tissues. The American expert opinion believed everything immediately. What Enders did was to add fluids from patients with poliomyelitis to tissue cultures which he claimed to have had sterilized, then he alleged that the cells were dying because of the virus, that the virus was replicating in this way and that a vaccine could be harvested from the respective culture. At that time, summer polio epidemics (polio = flaccid paralysis) were very frequent during summer and they were believed to be caused by the polio virus. A vaccine was to help eradicate the alleged virus. After the polio vaccine was introduced, the symptoms were then re-diagnosed among other things as multiple sclerosis, flaccid acute paralysis, aseptic meningitis etc. and later polio was claimed to have been eradicated. During his experiments, Enders et al. sterilized the tissue cultures in order to exclude the possibility of bacteria killing the cells. What he didn’t take into consideration was that the sterilization and the treatment of the cell culture when preparing it for the alleged infection was exactly what was destroying and killing the cells. Instead, he interpreted the cytopathic effects as the existence and the action of a so-called polio virus, without ever having isolated a single virus and describing its biochemistry. The necessary negative control experiments, which would have shown that the sterilization and the treatment of the cells prior to the “infection” in the test tube was killing the cells, have never been performed. However, for this “performance” Enders received the Nobel prize in 1954.

The Invention of the Polio Virus and ‘YES” the Measles Virus Too!

1954 is also the year in which Enders applied and introduced the same technique in order to allegedly replicate the measles virus. As he had been awarded the Nobel prize for the alleged polio virus the same year, all researchers believed his technique to be scientifically valid. Thus, to date, the entire concept of polio and measles has been based upon this unscientific technique and fraud.

Thus, the polio and measles vaccines do not contain viruses, but particles of dead monkey kidney tissue or human cancerous body cells. To date, no negative control experiments have been done with respect to the so-called polio and measles viruses either, which would have shown that it was the laboratory procedures that lead to the cytopathic effects on the cells.

Additionally, all claims and experiments made by Enders et al. and subsequent researchers lead to the only objective conclusion, that in fact they were observing and analyzing the cellular particles or fragments and the activity thereof in the test tube, misinterpreting these as particles and characteristics of the alleged polio and/or measles viruses.

ALL Viruses from HIV, EBV, CMV, Hepatitis C, West Nile Virus, Ebola, Zika Virus, etc. are ALL Phantom Viruses

Their Existence Has NEVER Been Scientifically Demonstrated!

The following explanations applies to all the so-called (human or animal) “pathogenic viruses”. The six papers provided by Dr. Bardens in the course of the “measles trial” as proof for the existence of the measles virus described in a didactically ideal way the various steps of the chain of misinterpretations up to the belief in the existence of a measles virus.

The first paper was published in 1954 by Enders et al.: “Propagation in tissue cultures of cytopathogenic agents from patients with measles” (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1954 Jun; 86 (2): 277–286).

This publication can be found on the internet, like all the other publications presented at the measles trial. In that experiment, Enders et al. cut down dramatically on the nutrient solution and added cell-destroying antibiotics to the cell culture before introducing the allegedly infected fluid. The subsequent dying of the cells was then misinterpreted as presence and also isolation of the measles virus. No control experiments were performed to exclude the possibility that it was the deprivation of nutrients as well as the antibiotics which led to the cytopathic effects.

Enders’ and his colleagues’ blindness can be explained by the fact that he truly wanted to help people, while the ‘virus hysteria’ was intensifying after the war and during the cold war. It can also be explained by the fact that Enders and many of his colleagues had no idea about medicine or biochemistry and they were competing with the Soviet Union for the development of the first measles vaccine. Such a pressure for success can also explain why Enders and his colleagues ignored their own reservations and cautions expressed in 1954, when they had observed and noted that many cells also died after being treated normally (i.e. without being “infected”), which they thought to have been caused by unknown viruses and other factors.  All these facts and cautions were subsequently disregarded.

The second paper presented by the claimant in the ‘measles trial’ was published in 1959[274] and, for the reasons presented above, the authors concluded that the technique introduced by Enders was not appropriate for the isolation of ANY virus. This rebuttal is not only NOT being discussed by ALL the other researchers, but it is being ignored completely!

The ‘Viral Dogma’ of Pathogenic Viruses is Still Being Promoted Today!

In a third paper[275], the authors photographed typical cellular particles inside the cells and misinterpreted these as measles virus. They did not isolate any virus. For unexplained reasons, they failed to determine and describe the biochemical structure of what they were presenting as a virus in a separate experiment. In the short description of the methods used, one can read that the authors did not apply the standard isolation technique for viruses, i.e. the density gradient centrifugation. They simply centrifuged fragments of dead cells at the bottom of a test tube and then, without describing their biochemical structure, they misinterpreted the cellular debris as viruses.

From the way the experiments were performed, one can only conclude that cellular particles were misinterpreted as viruses. We find the same situation in the fourth[276] and the sixth[277] publication put forward by the claimant as proof of the existence of a measles virus. The fifth publication[278] is a review describing the consensus process as to which nucleic acid molecules from the dead cells would represent the so-called genome of the polio or measles virus. The result is that dozens of research teams work with short pieces of cell-specific molecules, after which -following a given model – they put all the pieces together on paper. However, this jigsaw puzzle made of so many pieces was never scientifically proven to exist as a whole and was never isolated from a virus, for a polio, measles, HIV or Hepatitis C, Ebola or Zika viruses have never been seen, neither in humans nor in a test tube. Referring to this publication, the court-appointed expert stated that it described the gold standard, i.e. the entire virus genome. It is obvious that the expert did not read this paper, whose authors stated that the exact molecular composition and functions of the measles virus genome will have to be the object of further research, which is why they had to rely on other virus models in order to achieve a consensus on the structure and functions of ANY virus genome. The easiest thing for anyone to notice is that in all of these publications, as well as in all other publications on the “measles virus” and other pathogenic viruses, including HIV, EBV, CMV, Ebola and Zika, no control experiments have ever been performed. No researchers used the density gradient centrifugation technique; instead, they only centrifuged cellular debris at the bottom of a test tube. This technique, used to collect all the particles from a fluid, is called pelletizing. From a logical and scientific perspective, it can be said that in all publications on the so-called “pathogenic viruses”, the researchers demonstrated in fact only particles and characteristics of cells. I would also like to point out that the so-called giant viruses[279] , i.e. an enwrapped nucleic acid can be found everywhere in the sea and in basic organisms. Like all bacterial phages, not only are they harmless, but they have beneficial functions. They can be also isolated by using the density gradient centrifugation, which proves their existence (see the graphic above).

I also recommend Prof. Lüdtke’s relevant review (1999).[280] He noted that at the early beginnings of virology, the majority of virologists always concluded that the structures they had mistaken for viruses turned out to be components of the cells and thus, they were only the result of the experiment and not the cause of the changes observed.

After the discovery and characterization of the phages and after introducing the dogma that the nucleic acid was the genome of all cells and viruses, the consensus was born, according to which such viruses must exist in humans and animals as well. In 1992, the dogma stating that the nucleic acid is the genotype of all cells was retracted in the scientific community. The ‘viral dogma’ of pathogenic viruses, however, is still being promoted today to the harm of billions of people. – for what?

The Bottom Line Concerning Phantom Viruses and the Polio Virus

My bottom line still holds the truth that the terrain or internal environment is everything and the germ or so-called virus is NOTHING! The germ or so-called virus can only be a symptom of cellular breakdown due to an imbalance of the delicate alkaline pH balance of the body fluids and NOT the cause of that breakdown. That is why years ago I offered any scientist in the World a finders fee of 5 million US dollars if they could prove the existence of the HIV virus using Koch’s postulates. It has now been over 20 years and I am still waiting even though currently I no longer have the funds to pay the prize due to political assassination! It is unfortunate that a former 5 million US dollar prize offered 20 years ago was not enough money to change the current medical viral dogma that is currently paying out trillions of dollars to guess who?

Click here to read more: http://medcraveonline.com/IJVV/IJVV-02-00032.php

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Lecture in Dubai – The Annual Conference on Bacterial, Viral and Infectious Diseases

http://www.drrobertyoung.com/events.html

Join Robert O Young PhD and Galina Migalko MD in Dubai on December 5th and 6th, 2018 for the Annual Conference on Bacterial, Viral and Infectious Diseases. They will be Key Note Speakers and doing a workshop on the New Biology.

For more information and to register go to: https://bacterialdiseases.infectiousconferences.com/organiz…

The following is the abstract for Dr. Young’s lecture:

The Dismantling of the Viral Theory

Robert O Young CPT, MSc, DSc, PhD, Naturopathic Practitioner

Abstract

There is now over 100 years of documented history and research on the Polio virus and whether or not its treatment by inoculation has been successful in eradicating Polio. I am suggesting in this article and in my lecture that there are significant findings based on historical and past and current research, including my own that the viral theory of Polio and possibly other modern-day diseases, such as Post-Polio Syndrome, Polio Vaccine-Induced Paralysis, Legionnaires, CNS disease, Cancer, HIV/AIDS and now Zika may be caused by acidic chemical poisoning from DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and other related DDT pesticides, acidic vaccinations, and other factors including lifestyle and dietary factors rather than from a lone infectious virus. I will present ten historical graphs outlining the history of Polio, the production of DDT, BHC, Lead, Arsenic, Polio vaccinations and the author’s theory that chemical poisoning, vaccination, and lifestyle and dietary choices are a more likely causes for the symptoms of Polio, neurological diseases, Cancer, HIV/AIDS and now Zika.

https://www.linkedin.com/…/lecture-dubai-annual-conference…/
https://bacterialdiseases.infectiousconferences.com/organiz…

References:

[1] Morton S. Biskind, MD. “Public Health Aspects of the New Insecticides”. American Journal of Digestive Diseases, New York, 1953, v 20, p331.

[2] Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, edited by Wayland J. Hayes, Jr. and Edward R. Laws, Academic Press Inc., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, San Diego, 1991, p769

[3] Toxicological Profile: for DDT, DDE, and DDE. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, September 2002.

[4] U. Beck, E. Löser “Chlorinated Benzenes and other Nucleus-Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons” Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2012, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.

[5] Chlorobenzene”. Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

[6] U.S. Vital Statistics, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

[7] Historical Statistics of the U.S., The U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

[8] Van Nostrand’s Encyclopedia of Science and Engineering (1995), vol. 5, p1725. The phrase “Pesticides As A Panacea: 1942-1962” is a subtitle found in Encyclopedia Britannica, Macropaedia (1986).

[9] Thomas, Robert E. (1955), Salt & Water, Power & People: A Short History of Hooker Electrochemical Co. Niagara Falls, NY: Hooker Chemical Co.

[10] Booth, Gerald (2000), “Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry – Nitro Compounds, Aromatic”. doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_411. ISBN 3527306730

[11] Weber, Manfred; Weber, Markus; Kleine-Boymann, Michael (2004). “Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry – Phenol”. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_299.pub2. ISBN 3527306730.

[12] Haller, H. L., Bartlett, P. D., Drake, N. L., and others: The Chemical Composition of Technical DDT, American Chemical Society, Journal, volume 67, pages 1591- 1602, 1945.

[13] Jo-Yu Chin, Christopher Godwin, Chunrong Jia, Thomas Robins, Toby Lewis, Edith Parker, Paul Max, and Stuart Batterman, “Concentrations and Risks of p-Dichlorobenzene in Indoor and Outdoor Air,” Indoor Air, 2013 Feb; 23(1): 40–49, Published online 2012 Jul 18. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2012.00796.x.

[14] Duesberg, PH, “Inventing the AIDS Virus,” Regnery, (1996). ISBN 0-89526-399-8. [15] Icon Group International (Author), Chlorobenzene: Webster’s Timeline History, 1851 – 2007 May 17, 2010

[16] Ibid [17] Ibid

[18] Risse, GB (1988). Fee E, Fox DM, eds. Epidemics and History: Ecological Perspectives. in AIDS: The Burden of History. University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0-520-06396-1.

[19] A Disease of Cleanliness: Polio in New York City, 1900-1990, in David Rosner, ed., Hives of Sickness: Public Health and Epidemics in New York City Rutgers University Press, 1995, pp. 115-130.

[20] McDonough, F., The Origins of the First and Second World Wars (Cambridge Perspectives in History), Cambridge University Press, August 28, 1997.

[21] Goel, A, Aggarwal, P, “Pesticide Poisoning,” Natl Med J India. 2007 Jul-Aug; 20(4):182-91.

[22] Ibid.

[23] Biskind, MS (1953) “Public Health Aspects of the New Insecticides,” American Journal of Digestive Diseases 20: 331-341.

[24] TIME Magazine, U.S. Edition, March 14, 1994 Vol. 143 No. 11. [25] Baily, J. W.: J. Am. Vet. M. A. 113: 251, Sept. 1948.

[26] Biden-Steele, K. and Stuckey, R. E.: “Poisoning by DDT Emulsion: Report of a Fatal Case”, Lancet, 2: 235-236, Aug. 17, 1946.

[27] Biskind, M. S.: “DDT Poisoning and X Disease in Cattle”, J. Am. Vet. M. A. 114: 20, Jan. 1949.

[28] Biskind, M. S.: “DDT Poisoning a Serious Public Health Hazard”, Am. J. Dig. Dis. 16: 73, Feb. 1949.

[29] Biskind, M. S.: “DDT Poisoning and the Elusive ‘Virus X’: A New Cause for Gastro- Enteritis”, Am. J. Dig. Dis. 16: 79, March 1949.

[30] Boyd, C. L.: “A Report on “XX Disease in Texas”, J. Am. Vet. M. A. 113: 463, Nov. 1948.

[31] Cameron, C. R., and Burgess, F.: “The Toxicity of DDT”, Brit. M. J. 1: 865-871, June 23, 1945.

[32] Carte; R. H., Hubanks, P. E., et al: “Effect of Cooking on the DDT Content of Beef”, Science, 107: 347, April 2, 1948.

[33] Case, R. A. M.: Toxic Effects of DDT in Man”, Brit. M. J., 2: 842-845, Dec. 15, 1945.

[34] Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry, A. M. A.: “Health Hazards of Pesticides”, J. A. M. A. 137: 1603, Aug. 28, 1948.

[35] Crescitelli, F., and Gillman, A.: “Electrical Manifestations of Cerebellum and Cerebral Cortex Following DDT Administration to Cats and Monkeys”, Am. J. Physiol., 147: 127- 137, Sept. 1946.

[36] Deederer, C.: “DDT Toxicity”, M.Rec. 161: 216-220, April 1948

[37] Domenici, T. J.: “Hepatitis without Jaundice and without Hepatomegaly”, N. Eng. J. Med. 240: 88, Jan. 20, 1949

[38] Dunn, J. E., Dunn, J. C., and Smith, R. S.: “Skin Sensitising Properties of DDT for 31

Guinea Pig”, Pub. Health Rep. 61: 1614-1620, 1949.

[39] Editorial: Pesticides: “Chemical Contaminants of Foods”, J.A.M.A. 137: 1604, Aug. 28, 1948.

[40] Fitzhugh, O. G., and Nelson, A. A.: “The Chronic Oral Toxicity of DDT”, J. Pharm.acol. and Exper. Therap. 89: 18-30, Jan. 1947.

[41] Gamier, G.: “Treatment of Scabies with DDT”, .Presse Med. 56: 458, June 23, 1948. [42] Garett, ii. M., “Toxicity of DDT for Man”, Alabama St. M. A. J., 17: 74, Aug. 1947.

[43] Globus, J. H.: “DDT Poisoning; Histopathologic Observations on the Central Nervous System in So-Treated Monkeys, Dogs, Cats and Rats”, J. Neuropath. 7: 418-431, Oct. 1948.

[44] Haymaker, W., Ginzler, A. M., and Ferguson, J. L.: “Toxic Effects of Prolonged Ingestion of DDT on Dogs, with Special Reference to Lesions in Brain”, Am. J. M. Sc. 212: 423, Oct. 1946.

[45] Hill, K. R., and Daniiani, C. R.: “Death Following Exposure to DDT, Report of a Case”, New Eng. J. Med., 235: 897-899, Dec. 19, 1946.

[46] Hill, K. 3. and Robinson, G.: “A Fatal Case of DDT Poisoning in a Child, with an Account of Two Accidental Deaths in Dogs”. Brit. M. J. 2: 845-847, Dee. 15, 1945.

[47] Ingle, L.: “Toxicity of Chlordane to White Rats”, J. Econ. Entomol. 40: 264-268, 1947.

[48] Jandorf, B. J;. Sanett, H. P., and Bodansky, Oscar: “Effect of Oral Administration of DDT on Metabolism of Glucose and Pyruvie Acid in Rat Tissues”, J. Pharmaeol. and Exper. Therap. 88: 333-337, Dec. 1946.

[49] Jenkins, D. W.: “A Review of the Insecticide Hexachloro-cyclohexane (‘666’)”, Office of Technical Services, U. S. Dept of Commerce, Washington, D • C., No. PB 4034, Med. Div. Rept. No. 56, Sept. 26, 1945.

[50] Kempe, H. E.: “Progress Report on Benzene Hexachloride for the Destruction of Sheep Scab Mites”, Vet. Med., Feb. 1948, pp. 76-79.

[51] Kirk, H.: Vet. Red. 58: 43, 1946.

[52] Kirk, H.: “DDT in Canine Practice”, Vet. Med. Feb. 1947, PP. 76-78.

[53] Lawhon, G. J., Jr.: “X Disease in South Carolina”, N. Am. Vet. 29: 643, Oct. 1948.

[54] Leider, M.: “Allergenic Eczematous Contact-Type Dermatitis Caused by DDT”, J. Invest. Dermatol. 8: 125-126., March 1947.

[55] Lillie, R. D., Smith, M. I., and Stohlman, E. F.: Pathologic Action of DDT and Certain of its Analogs and Derivatives”, Arch. Path. 43: 127-142, Feb. 1947.

[56] Mackerras, I. M., and West, R. F. K.: “DDT Poisoning in Man”, M. J. Australia, 1: 400-401, March 23, 1946.

[57] Mobbs, J. F.:” Toxicity of Hexaehloroeyclohexane in Scabies, J.A.M.A. 138: 1253, Dec. 25, 1948. Personal Communication.

[58] Morrill, C. C.: “Hyperkeratosi.s or X Disease”, N. Am. Vet. 29: 642, Oct. 1948.

[59] Neal, P. A., Sweeney, T. B., Spicer, S. S., and von Oettingen, W. F.: “The Excretion of DDT in Man, Together with Clinical Observations”, Pub. Health Rep., 61: 403, March 22, 1946.

[60] Neal, P. A., von Oettingen, W. F., Smith, W. W., et al: Toxicology and Potential Dangers of Aerosols, Mists and Dusting Powders Containing DDT”, Pub. Health Rep. Suppl. 177, 1944.

[61] Neal, P. A., von Oettingeu, W. F., Dunn, R. C., and Sharpless, N. E.: “Toxicology and Potential Dangers of Aerosols and Residues from Aerosols Containing 3 Percent of DDT. Second Report, ibid., Suppl. 183, 1945.

[62] Nelson, A. A., Draize, 3. H., Woodard, G., et al: “Histopathological Changes Following Administration of DDT to Several Species of Animals”, U. S. Pub. Health Rep. 59: 1009, Aug. 4, 1944.

[63] Neve, Helen: “Toxic Effects of DDT on a Cat”, Vet. Rec. 58: 43, 1946. Vet. Med., Feb. 1947, p. 78.

[64] Niedelman, M. L.: “Contact Dermatitis Due to DDT”, Occup. Med. 1: 391-395, April 1946.

[65] Radeleff, R. D.: “DDT Spray Outmodes Dipping Vat”, Vet. Med. Oct. 1947, pp. 372- 373.

[66] Radeleff, R. D.: “Chlordane Poisoning: Symptomatology and Pathology, Vet. Med. Aug. 1948, pp. 342-347.

[67] Robinson, J. H.: “Harvest Analysis of DDT Residues”, Food Packer, 29: 50-53, 1948.

[68] Riker, W. F., Jr., Huebner, Virginia, R., Raska, S. B., and Cattell, McKeen: “Studies on DDT, Effects on Oxidative Metabolism”, J. Pharmacol. and, Exper. Therap., 88: 327- 332, Dec. 1946.

[69] Sarrett, H. P., and Jandorf, B. J.: “Effects of Chronic DDT Intoxication in Rats on Lipids and Other Constituents of Liver”, ibid., 91: 340-344, Dec. 1947.

[70] Smith, M. I.: “Accidental Ingestion of DDT, with a Note on its Metabolism in Man”, J.A.M.A., 131: 519-520, Juno 8, 1946.

[71] Smith, M. I., and Stohlnian, E. F.: “Pharmacologic Action of 2, 2 his (p-Chlorophenyl) 1,1,1-Trichloroethane and its Estimation in the Tissues and Body Fluid”, Pub. Health Rep., 59: 984, July 28, 1944.

[72] SmIth, M. I., and Stohlman, E. F.: “Further Studies on the Pharmacologic Action of DDT”, ibid., 60: 289, March 16, 1945.

[73] Smith, N. 3.: “Death Following Accidental Ingestion of DDT”, J.A.M.A., 136: 469- 471, Feb. 14, 1948.

[74] Smith, R. F., Fullmes, O. H., and Messenger, P. S.: “DDT Residues on Alfalfa Hay and Seed Chaff”, J. Econ. Entomol. 41: 755-8, 1948.

[75] Strycker, G. V., and Godfroy, B.: “Dermatitis Resulting from Exposure to DDT”, J. Missouri St. M. A., 43: 384-386, June 1948.

[76] Taylor, E. L.: “Danger of Ununction with DDT”, Lancet, 2: 320, Sept. 8, 1945.

[77] Telford, H. S., and Guthrie, J. E.: “Transmission of the Toxicity of DDT Through the Milk of White Rats and Goats”, Science, 102: 647, Dec. 21, 1945.

[78] Thoungh, TI. C.: “Poisonous Effects of DDT on Humans”, Indian M. Ga:. 81: 432, Oct. 1946.

[79] U. S. Dept. Agriculture, “Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine: Now Insecticides in Grasshopper Control”, Bull. E-722, May 1947. Bull. EC.1, March 1948.

[80] U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine: “New Insecticides for Controlling External Parasites of Livestock”, Bull. E. 762, Dec. 1948.

[81] Westerfteld, C.: “The Use of DDT in Medicine-A Review”, Vet. Med., Oct. 1946, pp. 355-360.

[82] Wigglesworth, V. D.: “A Case of DDT Poisoning in Man”, Brit M. J. 1: 517, April 14, 1945.

[83] Wilson, J. B.: Are Pesticides Making Your Food Unsafer? Hygiea, Jan. 1949. p. 44.

[84] Woodard, G., Ofner, Ruth B., and Montgomery, C. M.: “Accumulation of DDT in the Body Fat and its Appearance in the Milk of Dogs”, Science, 102: 177-178, Aug. 17, 1945.

[85] Wright, C. S., Doan, C. A., and Haynie, H. C.: “Agranulocytosis Occurring after Exposure to DDT Pyrethrum Aerosol Bomb”, Am. J. Med., 1: 562-567, Nov. 1946.

[86] The Pesticide Residues Amendment of 1954, Pub. L. No. 83-518, ch. 559, 68 Stat. 511 [codified at 21 USC § 346a (1981)]; and the Food Additives Amendments of 1958, Pub. L. No. 85-529, Ch. 4.72 Stat. 1785 [codified at 21 USC § 348 (1981)], respectively.

[87] 20 Fed. Reg. 750 (1955) [codified until repealed at 21 CFR § 120. 1(f) (1956). [88] DDT Regulatory History: A Brief Survey (to 1975). United States Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA).

[89] Ibid.

[90] TIME Magazine, U.S. Edition, March 14, 1994 Vol. 143 No. 11.

(91] Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, edited by Wayland J. Hayes, Jr. and Edward R. Laws, Academic Press Inc., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, San Diego, 1991.

[92] Peter Duesberg and Brian J. Ellison, Inventing the AIDS Virus, Regnery Pub.,1996. [93] Ibid.

[94] Biskind, MS (1953) “Public Health Aspects of the New Insecticides,” American Journal of Digestive Diseases 20: 331-341.

[95] Peter Duesberg and Brian J. Ellison, Inventing the AIDS Virus, Regnery Pub.,1996. [96] DDT Regulatory History: A Brief Survey (to 1975). United States Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA).

[97] Poliomyelitis: Fact sheet N°114″. World Health Organization. Sep 2016. Retrieved 14 Sep 2016.

[98] Ibid.

[99] DDT Regulatory History: A Brief Survey (to 1975). United States Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA).

[100] Ibid.

[101] Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, edited by Wayland J. Hayes, Jr. and Edward R.

Laws, Academic Press Inc., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, San Diego, 1991.

[102] Rea WJ, Johnson AR, Fenyves E, Butler J. Related Articles: The environmental aspects of the post-polio syndrome. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1987;23(4):173-81. No abstract available. Pub Med ID: 3620615; UI: 87299998.

[103] Ibid.

[104] Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology (1996).

[105) Rea WJ, Johnson AR, Fenyves E, Butler J. Related Articles: The environmental aspects of the post-polio syndrome. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1987;23(4):173-81. No abstract available. Pub Med ID: 3620615; UI: 87299998.

[106] PubMed ID: 7611631, UI: 95336052 (London, May, 1995)

[107] Pub Med ID: 7611630, UI: 95336051 (Bethesda, MA, May, 1995)

[108] Pub Med ID: 8818905, UI: 96415998 (Lyon, France, Aug., 1996)

[109] Alfredo Morabia (1 January 2004). A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts. Springer. pp. 133–4. ISBN 978-3-7643-6818-0. Retrieved 22 June 2013.

[110] Ibid.

[111] Morton S. Biskind, MD. “Public Health Aspects of the New Insecticides”. American

Journal of Digestive Diseases, New York, 1953, v 20, p331. [112] Ibid.

[113] Young RO (2016) Second Thoughts Concerning Viruses, Vaccines and the HIV/AIDS Hypothesis – Part 2. Int J Vaccines Vaccin 2(3): 00034. DOI: 10.15406/ijvv.2016.02.00034

[114] Dirt and Disease: Polio before FDR Rutgers University Press, 1992. [115] Ibid.

[116] Menkes, John H., Child Neurology, pg. 420, (1995).

[117] A Paralyzing Fear: The Story of Polio in America. Produced by Paul Wagner, Nina Gilden Seavey. Directed, written by Nina Gilden Seavey. Narration written by Stephen Chodorov. With: Narrator: Olympia Dukakis. Camera (Colorlab color), Allen Moore, Reuben Aaronson; editor, Catherine Shields; music, Paul Christianson; associate producers, Tom Wentworth, Malvina Anderson Martin. Reviewed on videocassette, N.Y., March 3, 1998. Running time: 90 min.

[118] FILM REVIEW; Once a Fear Beyond Fear Itself, by STEPHEN HOLDEN, Published: March 4, 1998, New York Times.

[119] Ibid.

[120] Duesberg, Peter and Ellison, Brian J., Inventing the AIDS Virus, Regnery Pub.,1996.

[121] Ibid.

[122] Ibid.

[123] Ibid.

[124] Ibid.

[125] Rose DR (2004). “Fact Sheet—Polio Vaccine Field Trial of 1954.” March of Dimes Archives. (2004).

[126] Ibid.

[127] American Journal of Digestive Diseases, 1953 20:330 [128] Ibid.

[129] Ibid.

[130] Jenkins, D. W.: “A Review of the Insecticide Hexachloro-cyclohexane (‘666’)”, Office of Technical Services, U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., No. PB 4034, Med. Div. Rept. No. 56, Sept. 26, 1945.

[131] Biskind, M., “DDT Poisoning and the Elusive ‘Virus X’.” A New Cause for Gastroenteritis.” Am. J. Dig., Vol. 16, Num 3, pg. 79-84, (1949).

[132] Biskind, MS, Bieber, I, “DDT Poisoning A New Syndrome With Neuropsychiatric Manifestations,” American Journal of Psychotherapy, p261, (1949).

[133] Presented before the Select Committee to Investigate the Use of Chemicals in Food Products, United States House of Representatives, U.S. December 12, 1950 Westport, Conn.

[134] “Salk and Sabin: poliomyelitis immunisation”. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 75 (11): 1552. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2003.028530. PMC 1738787. PMID 15489385.

[135] H. Rept. No. 2356, 82d Cong., 2d sess. 1 (1952), reprinted in A Legislative History of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and Its Amendments 499 (hereinafter Legislative History)

[136] Scobey, RR, “Is The Public Health Law Responsible For The Poliomyelitis Mystery?” Syracuse, N.Y., Archive of Pediatrics (May, 1951).

[137] White, Mark; Sharon M. McDonnell; Denise H.Werker; Victor M. Cardenas; Stephen B. Thacker (2001). “Partnerships in International Applied Epidemiology Training and Service,”. American Journal of Epidemiology 154 (11): 993–999. doi:10.1093/aje/154.11.993.

[138] Van Nostrand’s Encyclopedia of Science and Engineering, Van Nostrand Reinhold 1995, v 5, p1775

[139] “Salk and Sabin: poliomyelitis immunisation”. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 75 (11): 1552. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2003.028530. PMC 1738787. PMID 15489385.

[140] Ralph R. Scobey, MD. “The Poison Cause of Poliomyelitis and Obstructions to Its Investigation.” Archive of Pediatrics, April 1952.

[141] The National Adipose Tissue Survey, reported in Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, edited by Wayland J. Hayes, Jr. and Edward R. Laws, Academic Press Inc., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, San Diego, 1991, pg. 303.

[142] The National Adipose Tissue Survey, reported in Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, edited by Wayland J. Hayes, Jr. and Edward R. Laws, Academic Press Inc., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, San Diego, 1991, pg. 303.

[143] Van Nostrand’s Encyclopedia of Science and Engineering (1995), vol. 5, pg.1725. [144] Offit, Paul A. (2007). The Cutter Incident: How America’s First Polio Vaccine Led to

the Growing Vaccine Crisis. Yale University Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-300-12605-0. [145] Albert Sabin to Henry Kumm, Sabin Papers, UC, Pittsburgh Press, 1954. [146] American Journal of Digestive Diseases, 1953 20:330.

[147] Trevelyan, B., Smallman-Raynor, M. and Cliff, A.D., The Spatial Dynamics of Poliomyelitis in the United States: From Epidemic Emergence to Vaccine-Induced Retreat, 1910–1971, Ann Assoc Am Geogr. 2005 Jun; 95(2): 269–293.

[148] Baicus, A., History of Polio Vaccination, World J Virol. 2012 Aug 12; 1(4): 108–114. Published online 2012 Aug 12. doi: 10.5501/wjv.v1.i4.108.

[149] Ibid.

[150] Women’s History Month: “Oveta Culp Hobby” by Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison

Humanities Texas, March 2012.

[151] Harry M. Marks, “The 1954 Salk Poliomyelitis Vaccine Field Trial,” Institute of the History of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD: 2008.

152[ National Museum of American History, “Whatever Happened to Polio?” Time line, http://americanhistory.si.edu/polio/timeline/index.htm (accessed March 28,, 2012).

[153] Abid.

[154] Norrby E., Prusiner S.B., Polio and Nobel Prizes: looking vack 50 years. Ann Neurol.

2007 May;61(5):385-95.

[155] Eloise Batic, You Are There 1955: Ending Polio exhibit text (2012).

[156] Boston Herald newspaper, April 18, 1955, “Drug Companies Expecting Big Profit on

Salk Vaccine”,

[157] Washington Bureau of the Detroit Free Press reports, June 3, 1955.

[158] Michigan University. Poliomyelitis Evaluation Center (1955), An evaluation mof the 1954 poliomyelitis vaccine trials; summary report. Ann Arbor: n.p. , pp. 17-18 as quoted in Marks, Harry M. “The 1954 Salk Poliomyelitis Vaccine Field Trial.” Institute of the History of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University. Baltimore: 2008, p. 20.

[160] McBean E. The Poisoned Needle. Mokelumne Hill, California: Health Research,1957:1

[161] McBean E. The Poisoned Needle. Mokelumne Hill, California: Health Research, 1957:119.

[162] McBean E. The Poisoned Needle. Mokelumne Hill, California: Health Research,1957:1

[163] Offit, Paul A. The Cutter Incident: How America’s First Polio Vaccine Led to the Growing Vaccine Crisis, Yale University Press, 2005, pp. 100, 116–19, 133. ISBN 0-300- 10864-8

[164] Ibid.

[165] Smith, JS, “Patenting the Sun: Polio and the Salk Vaccine,” 1st Edition, William

Morrow & Co; 1st edition (April 1990).

[166] Offit PA (2005), “The Cutter incident, 50 years later” (PDF). N. Engl. J. Med. 352 (14): 1411–1412. doi:10.1056/NEJMp048180. PMID 15814877

[167] McBean E., The Poisoned Needle. Mokelumne Hill, California: Health Research,1957:1.

[168] Harris RJ et al Contaminant viruses in two live vaccines produced in chick cells. J Hyg (London) 1966 Mar:64(1) : 1-7

[169] McBean E. The Poisoned Needle. Mokelumne Hill, California: Health Research,1957:1

[170] Ibid.

[171] Ibid.

[172] Ibid.

[173] Ii. Results. American journal of public health and the nation’s health. 1955;45:15–48. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

[174] Harper’s Magazine. “’Who is responsible, and why, for the chaotic confusion over the polio inoculations?’ A noted medical journalist disentangles the essential facts.” August, 1955.

[175] Ibid.

[176] Ibid.

[177] American Cancer Society, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1–218, (1955).

[178] Paul JR. A history of poliomyelitis. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; 1971.

[179] Ibid.

[180] Ibid.

[181] Ibid.

[182] Rogers N. Dirt and disease: Polio before fdr. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press; 1992.

[183] Ibid.

[184] Smith, Derek R; Leggat Peter A (2005). “Pioneering figures in medicine: Albert Bruce Sabin–inventor of the oral polio vaccine”. The Kurume medical journal. 52 (3): 111–6. doi:10.2739/kurumemedj.52.111. PMID 16422178

[185] Rose, David, March of Dimes Archives, August 26, 2010. http://www.marchofdimes.org/mission/a-history-of-the-march-of-dimes.aspx

[186] American Journal of Public Health and the Nations Health: May 1956, Vol. 46, No. 5: 547–562. Citation | PDF (2177 KB) | PDF Plus (744 KB)

[187]

[188] Sweet BH, Hilleman MR. The Vacuolating Virus: SV-40. As cited in The polio vaccine and simian virus 40 by Moriarty, T.J. http://www.chronicillnet.org/online/bensweet.html

[189] O’Hern M. Profiles: Pioneer Women Scientists. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.

[190] Curtis T, Manson P. Scientist’s Polio Fear Unheeded: How U.S. Researcher’s Warning Was Silenced. The Houston Post 1992:A1 and A12.

[191] Sweet BH, Hilleman MR. The Vacuolating Virus: SV-40. As cited in The polio vaccine and simian virus 40 by Moriarty, T.J. http://www.chronicillnet.org/online/bensweet.html

[192] Moriarty T.J. The polio vaccine and simian virus 40. Online News Index.

http://www.chronicillnet.org/online/bensweet.html

[193] Shah K, Nathanson N. Human exposure to SV40. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1976;103:1-12.

[194] Curtis T. The origin of AIDS: A startling new theory attempts to answer the question, “Was it an act of God or an act of man”, Rolling Stone, March 19,1992:57.

[195] Bookchin D, Schumaker J. Tainted Polio Vaccine Still Carries Its Threat 40 Years Later. The Boston Globe, January 26, 1997.

[196] Innis MD. Oncogenesis and poliomyelitis vaccine. Nature, 1968;219:972–3. [197] Soriano F, et al. Simian virus 40 in a human cancer. Nature, 1974; 249:421–4.

[198] Weiss AF, et al. Simian virus 40-related antigens in three human meningiomas with defined chromosome loss. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 1975;72(2):609–13.

[199] Scherneck S, et al. Isolation of a SV-40-like papovavirus from a human glioblastoma. International Journal of Cancer, 1979;24:523–31.

[200] Stoian M, et al. Possible relation between viruses and oromaxillofacial tumors. II. Research on the presence of SV40 antigen and specific antibodies in patients with oromaxillofacial tumors. Virologie, 1987;38:35–40.

[201] Stoian M, et al. Possible relation between viruses and oromaxillofacial tumors. II. Detection of SV40 antigen and of anti-SV40 antibodies in patients with parotid gland tumors. Virologie, 1987;38:41–6.

[202] Bravo MP, et al. Association between the occurrence of antibodies to simian vacuolating virus 40 and bladder cancer in male smokers. Neoplasma, 1988;35:285–8.

[203] O’Connell K, et al. Endothelial cells transformed by SV40 T-antigen causeKaposi’s sarcoma-like tumors in nude mice. American Journal of Pathology, 1991;139(4):743–9.

[204] Weiner LP, et al. Isolation of virus related to SV40 from patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. New England Journal of Medicine, 1972;286:385–90.

[205] Tabuchi K. Screening of human brain tumors for SV-40-related T-antigen. International Journal of Cancer 1978;21:12–7.

[206] Meinke W, et al. Simian virus 40-related DNA sequences in a human brain tumor. Neurology 1979;29:1590–4.

[207] Krieg P, et al. Episomal simian virus 40 genomes in human brain tumors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 1981; 78:6446-50.

[208] Krieg P, et al. Cloning of SV40 genomes from human brain tumors. Virology 1984;138:336–40.

[209] Geissler E. SV40 in human intracranial tumors: passenger virus or oncogenic >hit- and-run= agent? Z Klin Med, 1986;41:493–5.

[210] Geissler E. SV40 and human brain tumors. Progress in Medical Virology, 1990;37:211–22.

[211] Bergsagel DJ, et al. DNA sequences similar to those of simian virus 40 in ependymomas and choroid plexus tumors of childhood. New England Journal of Medicine, 1992;326:988–93.

[212] Martini, M., et al. Human brain tumors and simian virus 40. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 1995;87(17):1331.

[213] Lednicky JA, et al. Natural Simian Virus 40 Strains are Present in Human Choroid Plexus and Ependymoma Tumors. Virology, 1995;212(2):710–7.

[214] Tognon M, et al. Large T Antigen Coding Sequence of Two DNA Tumor Viruses, BK and SV-40, and Nonrandom Chromosome Changes in Two Gioblastoma Cell Lines. Cancer Genetics and Cytogenics, 1996;90(1): 17–23.

[215] Vilchez RA, et al. Association between simian virus 40 and non-hodgkin lymphoma. Lancet, (March 9, 2002), 359: 817–23.

[216] Carbone, M., et al. SV-40 Like Sequences in Human Bone Tumors. Oncogene, 1996;13(3):527–35.

[217] Pass, HI, Carbone, M., et al. Evidence For and Implications of SV-40 Like Sequences in Human Mesotheliomas. Important Advances in Oncology, 1996:89-108.

[218] Rock, Andrea. The Lethal Dangers of the Billion Dollar Vaccine Business, Money, December 1996:161.

[219] Carlsen, W. Rogue virus in the vaccine: Early polio vaccine harbored virus now feared to cause cancer in humans. San Francisco Chronicle, July 15,2001:7. Research by Susan Fisher, epidemiologist, Loyola UniversityMedical Center.

[220] National Institutes of Health. Zones of Contamination: Globe Staff Graphic.

[221] Bookchin D, Schumacher J. Tainted polio vaccine still carries its threat 40 years later. The Boston Globe, January 26, 1997.

[222] SV-40 Contamination of Polio Vaccine. Well Within Online, (February 3,2001, updated). http://www.nccn.net/~wwithin/polio.htm

[223] Rosa FW, et al. Absence of antibody response to simian virus 40 afterinoculation with killed-poliovirus vaccine of mothers offspring with neurological tumors. New England Journal of Medicine, 1988;318:1469.

[224] Rosa FW, et al. Response to: Neurological tumors in offspring after inoculation of mothers with killed poliovirus vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine, 1988, 319:1226.

[225] Martini F, et al. SV-40 Early Region and Large T Antigen in Human Brain Tumors, Peripheral Blood Cells, and Sperm Fluids from Healthy Individuals. Cancer Research, 1996;56(20):4820–5.

[226] Fisher, Barbara. Vaccine safety consumer group cites conflict of interest in government report on cancer and contaminated polio vaccine link. National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC); Press Release, January 27, 1998.

[227] National Cancer Institute (June 2001).

[228] The Landsteiner and Popper study, first published in Germany, was reported in Robert W Lovett, MD. The Occurrence of Infantile Paralysis in Massachusetts in 1908. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, pg. 112, July 22, 1909.

[229] Young, RO (2016) Second Thoughts about Viruses, Vaccines, and the HIV/AIDS Hypothesis – Part 1. Int J Vaccines Vaccin 2(3): 00032. DOI: 10.15406/ijvv.2016.02.00032

[230] Young, RO (2016) Second Thoughts Concerning Viruses, Vaccines and the HIV/AIDS Hypothesis – Part 2. Int J Vaccines Vaccin 2(3): 00034. DOI: 10.15406/ijvv.2016.02.00034

[231] Young RO (2016) Second Thoughts Concerning Viruses, Vaccines and the HIV/AIDS Hypothesis – Part 3 HIV/AIDS and the Monomorphic Disease Model. Int J Vaccines Vaccin 2(3): 00035. DOI: 10.15406/ijvv.2016.02.00035

[232] Young RO (2016) Who Had Their Finger on the Magic of Life – Antoine Bechamp or Louis Pasteur?. Int J Vaccines Vaccin 2(5): 00047. DOI: 10.15406/ijvv.2016.02.00047

[233] Peter Duesberg and Brian J. Ellison, Inventing the AIDS Virus, Regnery Pub., 1996. [234] Gerald L. Geison, The Private Science Of Louis Pasteur, Princeton University Press, 1995.

[235] The Landsteiner and Popper study, first published in Germany, was reported in Robert W Lovett, MD. The Occurrence of Infantile Paralysis in Massachusetts in 1908. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, pg. 112, July 22, 1909.

[236] Shaw D. Unintended casualties in war on polio. Philadelphia Inquirer June 6, 1993:A1.

[237] Moriarty T.J. The polio vaccine and simian virus 40. Online News Index. http://www.chronicillnet.org/online/bensweet.html

[238] Koprowksi H. Tin anniversary of the development of live virus vaccine. Journal of the American Medical Association 1960;174:972–6.

[239] Hayflick L, Koprowski H, et al. Preparation of poliovirus vaccines in a human fetal diploid cell strain. American J Hyg 1962;75:240–58.

[240] Hayflick L, Koprowski H, et al. Preparation of poliovirus vaccines in a human fetal diploid cell strain. American J Hyg 1962;75:240–58.

[241] Koprowski H. In a letter sent to the Congressional Health and Safety Subcommittee, April 14, 1961.

[242] Rock, Andrea. The Lethal Dangers of the Billion Dollar Vaccine Business, Money, December 1996:161.

[243] Scheibner V. Vaccination: 100 Years of Orthodox Research Shows that Vaccines represent a Medical Assault on the Immune System. Blackheath, NSW, Australia: Scheibner Publications, 1993153.

[244] Curtis T. Expert says test vaccine: backs check of polio stocks for AIDS virus. The Houston Post, March 22, 1992:A-21.

[245] Carlsen, W. Rogue virus in the vaccine: Early polio vaccine harbored virus now feared to cause cancer in humans. San Francisco Chronicle, July 15,2001:7. Research by Susan Fisher, epidemiologist, Loyola UniversityMedical Center.

[246] Neustaedter R. The Vaccine Guide. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1996:107–8

[247] Curtis T. Expert says test vaccine: backs check of polio stocks for AIDS virus. The Houston Post, March 22, 1992:A-21.

[248] Essex M, et al. The origin of the AIDS virus. Scientific American, 1988; 259:64–71. [249] Karpas A. Origin and Spread of AIDS. Nature, 1990; 348:578.

[250] Kyle WS. Simian retroviruses, poliovaccine, and origin of AIDS. Lancet, 1992; 339:600–1.

[251] Elswood BF, Stricker RB. Polio vaccines and the origin of AIDS. Medical Hypothesis, 1994:42:347–54.

[252] Myers G, et al. The emergence of simian/human immunodeficiency viruses. AIDS Res Human Retro 1992:8:373–86.

[253] Curtis T. The origin of AIDS: A startling new theory attempts to answer the question “Was it an act of God or an act of man”, Rolling Stone, March 19,1992:57.

[254] O’Hern M. Profiles: Pioneer Women Scientists. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.

[255] Curtis T. Expert says test vaccine: backs check of polio stocks for AIDS virus. The Houston Post, March 22, 1992:A-21.

[256] Curtis T. Expert says test vaccine: backs check of polio stocks for AIDS virus. The Houston Post, March 22, 1992:A-21.

[257] Essex M, et al. The origin of the AIDS virus. Scientific American, 1988; 259:64–71. [258] Karpas A. Origin and Spread of AIDS. Nature, 1990; 348:578.

[259] Kyle WS. Simian retroviruses, poliovaccine, and origin of AIDS. Lancet, 1992; 339:600–1.

[260] Elswood BF, Stricker RB. Polio vaccines and the origin of AIDS. Medical Hypothesis, 1994:42:347–54.

[261] Workshop on Simian Virus-40 (SV-40): A Possible Human Polyomavirus. National Vaccine Information Center, January 27-28, 1997. http://www.909shot.com/polio197.htm (Includes a summary of evidence presented at the Eighth Annual Houston Conference on AIDS.)

[262] Martin B. Polio vaccines and the origin of AIDS: The career of a threatening idea. Townsend Letter for Doctors, January 1994:97–100.

[263] Curtis T. Did a polio vaccine experiment unleash AIDS in Africa? The Washington Post, April 5, 1992:C3+.

[264] Myers G, et al. The emergence of simian/human immunodeficiency viruses. AIDS Res Human Retro 1992:8:373–86.

[265] World Health Organization. T-lymphotropic retroviruses of nonhuman primates. WHO informal meeting. Weekly Epidemiology Records, 1985; 30:269–70.

[266] Ibid.

[267] Elswood BF, Stricker RB. Polio vaccines and the origin of AIDS. Medical

Hypothesis, 1994:42:347–54.

[268] Ohta Y, et al. No evidence for the contamination of live oral poliomyelitis vaccines with simian immunodeficiency virus. AIDS, 1989; 3:183–5.

[269] Huet T, et al. Genetic organization of a chimpanzee lentivirus related to HIV-1. Nature, 1990; 345:356–9.

[270] Desrosiers RC. HIV-1 origins: A finger on the missing link. Nature, 1990;345:288– 9.

[271] Sabin AB. Properties and behavior of orally administered attenuated poliovirus vaccine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1957; 164:1216–23.

[272] Siehe Ausführungen zu Virchows Leben und Wirkung in WissenschafftPlus Nr. 5/2015 und Nr. 6/2015. 2 Anticontagionism between 1821 and 1867.

[273] Aufsatz von Erwin H. Ackerknecht in der Zeitschrift Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Volume XXII, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1948.

[274] Bech V, Magnus Pv. Studies on measles virus in monkey kidney tissue cultures. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand. 1959; 42 (1): 75–85.

[275] Nakai M, Imagawa DT. Electron microscopy of measels virus replication. J. Virol. 1969 Feb; 3v (2): 187–97.

[276] Lund GA, Tyrell, DL, Bradley RD, Scraba DG. The molecular length of measles virus RNA and the structural organization of measles nucleocapsids. J. Gen. Virol. 1984 Sep;65 (Pt 9): 1535–42.

[277] Daikoku E, Morita C, Kohno T, Sano K. Analysis of Morphology and Infectivity of Measles Virus Particles. Bulletin of the Osaka Medical College. 2007; 53 (2): 107–14.

[278] Horikami SM, Moyer SA. Structure, Transcription, and Replication of Measles Virus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1995; 191: 35–50.

[279] Siehe WissenschafftPlus Nr. 1/2014.

[280] Zur Geschichte der frühen Virusforschung. Übersichtsarbeit von Prof. Karlheinz Lüdtke. Reprint 125 des MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT FÜR WISSENSCHAFTSGESCHICHTE, 89 Seiten, 1999.

Dr. Robert O. Young’s 1994 Biological Transformation Research Validated – Pleomorphism or Biological Transformation is a Reality in 2 Studies!

Human Skin Cells Converted Into Embryonic Stem Cells: First Time Human Stem Cells Have Been Produced Via Nuclear Transfer

Dr. Robert O. Young documented the reality of biological transformation of body cells in June of 1994 with the nuclear transfer of red blood cells into bacteria and bacteria into red blood cells.  Now scientists at Oregon Health & Secience University, Oregon National Primate Research Center and Stanford University have also documented the reality of biological transformation or pleomorphism of one cell such as skin cells to embryonic stem cells capable of transforming into other cell types.
 
May 15, 2013 — Scientists at Oregon Health & Science University and the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC) have successfully reprogrammed human skin cells to become embryonic stem cells capable of transforming into any other cell type in the body. It is believed that stem cell therapies hold the promise of replacing cells damaged through injury or illness. Diseases or conditions that might be treated through stem cell therapy include Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, cardiac disease and spinal cord injuries.
 
The research breakthrough, led by Shoukhrat Mitalipov, Ph.D., a senior scientist at ONPRC, follows previous success in transforming monkey skin cells into embryonic stem cells in 2007. This latest research will be published in the journal Cell online May 15 and in print June 6.
The technique used by Drs. Mitalipov, Paula Amato, M.D., and their colleagues in OHSU’s Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, is a variation of a commonly used method called somatic cell nuclear transfer, or SCNT. It involves transplanting the nucleus of one cell, containing an individual’s DNA, into an egg cell that has had its genetic material removed. The unfertilized egg cell then develops and eventually produces stem cells.
“A thorough examination of the stem cells derived through this technique demonstrated their ability to convert just like normal embryonic stem cells, into several different cell types, including nerve cells, liver cells and heart cells. Furthermore, because these reprogrammed cells can be generated with nuclear genetic material from a patient, there is no concern of transplant rejection,” explained Dr. Mitalipov. “While there is much work to be done in developing safe and effective stem cell treatments, we believe this is a significant step forward in developing the cells that could be used in regenerative medicine.”
Another noteworthy aspect of this research is that it does not involve the use of fertilized embryos, a topic that has been the source of a significant ethical debate.
The Mitalipov team’s success in reprogramming human skin cells came through a series of studies in both human and monkey cells. Previous unsuccessful attempts by several labs showed that human egg cells appear to be more fragile than eggs from other species. Therefore, known reprogramming methods stalled before stem cells were produced.
To solve this problem, the OHSU group studied various alternative approaches first developed in monkey cells and then applied to human cells. Through moving findings between monkey cells and human cells, the researchers were able to develop a successful method.
The key to this success was finding a way to prompt egg cells to stay in a state called “metaphase” during the nuclear transfer process. Metaphase is a stage in the cell’s natural division process (meiosis) when genetic material aligns in the middle of the cell before the cell divides. The research team found that chemically maintaining metaphase throughout the transfer process prevented the process from stalling and allowed the cells to develop and produce stem cells.
“This is a remarkable accomplishment by the Mitalipov lab that will fuel the development of stem cell therapies to combat several diseases and conditions for which there are currently no treatments or cures,” said Dr. Dan Dorsa, Ph.D., OHSU Vice President for Research. “The achievement also highlights OHSU’s deep reproductive expertise across our campuses. A key component to this success was the translation of basic science findings at the OHSU primate center paired with privately funded human cell studies.”
One important distinction is that while the method might be considered a technique for cloning stem cells, commonly called therapeutic cloning, the same method would not likely be successful in producing human clones otherwise known as reproductive cloning. Several years of monkey studies that utilize somatic cell nuclear transfer have never successfully produced monkey clones. It is expected that this is also the case with humans. Furthermore, the comparative fragility of human cells as noted during this study, is a significant factor that would likely prevent the development of clones.
“Our research is directed toward generating stem cells for use in future treatments to combat disease,” added Dr. Mitalipov. “While nuclear transfer breakthroughs often lead to a public discussion about the ethics of human cloning, this is not our focus, nor do we believe our findings might be used by others to advance the possibility of human reproductive cloning.”

Skin Cells Turned Directly Into the Cells That Insulate Neurons

Apr. 15, 2013 — Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have succeeded in transforming skin cells directly into oligodendrocyte precursor cells, the cells that wrap nerve cells in the insulating myelin sheaths that help nerve signals propagate.
The current research was done in mice and rats. If the approach also works with human cells, it could eventually lead to cell therapies for diseases like inherited leukodystrophies — disorders of the brain’s white matter — and multiple sclerosis, as well as spinal cord injuries. The study will be published online April 14 in Nature Biotechnology.
Without myelin to insulate neurons, signals sent down nerve cell axons quickly lose power. Diseases that attack myelin, such as multiple sclerosis, result in nerve signals that are not as efficient and cannot travel as far as they should. Myelin disorders can affect nerve signal transmission in the brain and spinal cord, leading to cognitive, motor and sensory problems.
Previous research in rodent disease models has shown that transplanted oligodendrocyte precursor cells derived from embryonic stem cells and from human fetal brain tissue can successfully create myelin sheaths around nerve cells, sometimes leading to dramatic improvements in symptoms. “Unfortunately, the availability of human fetal tissue is extremely limited, and the creation of OPCs from embryonic stem cells is slow and tedious,” said the study’s senior author, Marius Wernig, MD, assistant professor of pathology and a member of Stanford’s Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. “It appeared we wouldn’t be able to create enough human OPCs for widespread therapeutic use, so we began to wonder if we could create them directly from skin cells.”
Nan Yang, PhD, a postdoctoral scholar in the Wernig laboratory and lead author of the study, pointed out that there is another advantage to using this technique. “By using the patient’s own skin cells, we should be able to generate transplantable OPCs that are genetically identical to the patient’s natural OPCs,” Yang said. “This allows us to avoid the problem of immune rejection, which is a major complication in transplantation medicine.”
Last year, Wernig’s team successfully created human nerve cells out of skin cells. Other researchers had successfully used a similar process to turn skin cells into embryonic-like cells called induced pluripotent stem cells, and then grow those iPS cells into nerve cells, but Wernig’s lab was the first to convert skin cells directly into nerve cells without the intermediate iPS cell step.
The team’s current research project also involved directly converting skin cells into OPCs without having to create iPS cells. The researchers showed that mouse and rat skin cells could be directly converted into OPCs, and that these cells would successfully myelinate nerve cells when transplanted into the brains of mice with a myelin disorder.
Next, the team plans to reproduce the research in human cells; if successful, the approach could lay the groundwork for therapies for a wide array of myelin disorders and spinal cord injury.

The Truth About Alkalizing Your Blood, Interstitial and Intracellular Fluids!

The following article is Dr. Robert O. Young’s rebuttal to Dr. Ben Kim’s felacous statements concerning the bio-electro/chemistry of the blood and tissues.
 

April 12, 2012

The Truth About Alkalizing Your Blood

Dr. Ben Kim states: Is it true that the foods and beverages you consume cause your blood to become more alkaline or acidic? Contrary to popular hype, the answer is: not to any significant degree.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: The pH of blood and interstitial fluids are constantly being challenged with environmental, dietary, respiratory, and metabolic acids. The body deals with blood acids by eliminating these acids through the four channels of elimination (urination, perspiration, defecation and respiration) and the buffering of acids through the alkaline buffering system in order to maintain the delicate pH balance of the blood plasma and interstitial fluids at 7.365.

Dr. Kim Ben states: The pH of your blood is tightly regulated by a complex system of buffers that are continuously at work to maintain a range of 7.35 to 7.45, which is slightly more alkaline than pure water.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: The pH of your extracellular fluids, which includes the blood plasma and the interstitial fluids are kept at a very narrow range at 7.365 to 7.385. Any pH measurement of blood plasma in excess of 7.385 indicates a condition of compensated acidosis and any pH measurement of blood plasma or interstitial fluids below 7.365 indicates a condition of decompensated acidosis.

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When the pH of the blood plasma increases above the 7.385 this is the result of the blood pushing environmental, dietary, respiratory and metabolic acids out into the interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues of the schade as the blood is pulling alkaline mineral salts such as calcium ions from the bones or magnesium ions from the muscles to offset the increase of acids in the blood. It is always a sure sign that as the blood plasma is becoming more alkaline the interstitial fluids of  the colloidal connective tissues of the schade are becoming more acidic and this is the cause of ALL inflammatory and degenerative diseases.

When the body tissues, organs, cells, or the alkaline reserves (sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium) become deficient in alkaline minerals the blood plasma pH will drop below the ideal 7.365 causing decompensated acidosis leading to hemolysis at a pH below 7.365 or a coma and/or death at a pH below 7.2.

Dr. Kim Ben states: If the pH of your blood falls below 7.35, the result is a condition called acidosis, a state that leads to central nervous system depression. Severe acidosis – where blood pH falls below 7.00 – can lead to a coma and even death.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: If pH of the blood plasma drops below 7.365 the result is called decompenated acidosis.  If the pH of the blood plasma stays at the ideal 7.365 this is called compensated acidosis. And if the pH of the blood plasma increases above the 7.365 this is called “latent tissue acidosis” in the interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues of the schade.

The blood plasma pH always goes alkaline when the blood pushes out environmental, dietary, respiratory or metabolic acids out into the interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues of the schade. These acids are always deposited into what I call the ‘acid catchers’ which are the connective tissues of the schade. This leads to what I call ‘latent tissue acidosis’.

As acids build-up in the colloidal connective tissues of the schade and if NOT eliminated by the lymphatic system and the out through the channels of elimination, including the skin, lungs, bowels or urine this will result in ALL the connective tissue diseases and degenerative diseases, including ALL cancerous conditions.

Dr. Kim Ben states: If the pH of your blood rises above 7.45, the result is alkalosis. Severe alkalosis can also lead to death, but through a different mechanism; alkalosis causes all of the nerves in your body to become hypersensitive and over-excitable, often resulting in muscle spasms, nervousness, and convulsions; it’s usually the convulsions that cause death in severe cases.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: If the blood plasma pH increases over 7.385 you are in a state of ‘latent tissue acidosis’ of the interstitial fluids on the colloidal connective tissue of the shade and a high risk for cancer. This is what I call the “tee-ter-totter effect”. The body is pulling alkaline minerals into the blood to compensate for an equal amount of acids being pushed out into the interstitial fluids of the connective tissues of the schade to keep the blood plasma in an alkaline state. The result is tissue acidosis which then leads to hypersensitivity and over-excitable nerves, muscle spasms, nervousness and convulsions that can lead to coma or even death.  All of these symptoms are NOT a result of too much base or alkalinity but the result of too much acid from the blood being deposited into the interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues of the schade. The cause of ‘latent tissue acidosis’ is caused by an acidic lifestyle and dietary choices.

Dr. Kim Ben states: The bottom line is that if you’re breathing and going about your daily activities, your body is doing an adequate job of keeping your blood pH somewhere between 7.35 to 7.45, and the foods that you are eating are not causing any wild deviations of your blood pH.

Dr. Robert O. Young: The bottom line is when you understand that having an acidic lifestyle and diet does affect the blood plasma and interstitial fluid pH in a negative way.

The blood responds to increased acids from lifestyle and diet by pushing them out into the interstitial fluids of the connective tissues or the colloidal connective tissues of the schade. The foods you eat, the liquids you drink, the air you breath, even your thoughts will effect the pH of blood and then the interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues. The blood is constantly responding to the acidic wastes of lifestyle and diet choices!!!!!!!!!!!

Dr. Kim Ben stated: So what’s up with all the hype about the need to alkalize your body? And what’s to be made of the claim that being too acidic can cause osteoporosis, kidney stones, and a number of other undesirable health challenges?

Dr. Robert O. Young states: The hype about alkalizing your blood and then interstitial fluids of the connective tissues is important because the human body is alkaline by design and acidic by function. This is the foundation for understanding the true cause of ALL sickness and disease.

Dr. Kim Ben states: As usual, the answers to such questions about human health can be found in understanding basic principles of human physiology. So let’s take a look at the fundamentals of pH and how your body regulates the acid-alkaline balance of its fluids on a moment-to-moment basis.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: The problems with current understanding of the basic principals of human physiology is the basic principals do NOT understand that the human body is alkaline by design and acidic by function. Current medical savants DO NOT understand that there is only one health, one sickness, one disease and one treatment. The one health is to maintain the alkaline design of the blood and interstitial fluids of the connective tissues with an alkaline lifestyle and diet. The one sickness and one disease is the over-acidification of the blood and then tissues due to an inverted way of living, eating and thinking. The one treatment is to restore the alkaline design of the body fluids with an alkaline lifestyle and diet. Remember the fish bowl metaphor? It goes like this – When the fish is sick what would you do? Treat the fish or change the water? Remember the fish is only as healthy as the water it swims in.

Dr. Kim Ben states: pH is a measure of how acidic or alkaline a liquid is. With respect to your health, the liquids involved are your body fluids, which can be categorized into two main groups:

  1. Intracellular fluid, is the fluid found in all of your cells. Intracellular fluid is often called cytosol, and makes up about two-thirds of the total amount of fluid in your body.

  2. Extracellular fluid, is the fluid found outside of your cells. Extracellular fluids are further classified as one of two types:

    • Plasma, which is fluid that makes up your blood.
    • Interstitial fluid, which occupies all of the spaces that surround your tissues. Interstitial fluid includes the fluids found in your eyes, lymphatic system, joints, nervous system, and between the protective membranes that surround your cardiovascular, respiratory, and abdominal cavities.

      Your blood (plasma) needs to maintain a pH of 7.35 to 7.45 for your cells to function properly. Why your cells require your blood to maintain a pH in this range to stay healthy is beyond the scope of this article, but the most important reason is that all of the proteins that work in your body have to maintain a specific geometric shape to function, and the three-dimensional shapes of the proteins in your body are affected by the tiniest changes in the pH of your body fluids.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: pH is a measurement of the concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in a aqueous solution. Any aqueous solutions, including your blood plasma interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues of the schade (the largest organ of the human body) and the intracellular fluids that are saturated in hydrogen ions is less or more acidic and any aqueous solution that is saturated in hydroxyl ions is less or more base or alkaline.

Once again, the human body is alkaline in its design and acidic in its function. Your blood plasma and interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissue of the schade needs to be maintained at a delicate pH of 7.365 for your cells to function properly.

I have found in my own blood research that when your pH is stable at 7.365 you find healthy blood which is even in color, even in size and even in shape. The red blood cell is the primary stem cell which becomes all other body cells. And the health of the blood and the interstitial fluid of the colloidal connective tissues of the shcade is directly connected to the health of all body cells. It is blood that becomes, liver, heart, brain and skin cells. All red blood cells and then body cells are made up of microzymas.

Microzymas are the foundational, indestructable matter and intelligent matter that makes up all living cells, including the DNA. The tiniest changes in the pH of the body fluids can cause the microzymas in the red blood cells or body cells to change into bacteria, yeast and/or mold. This is how germs are created – from within NOT from without.

Dr. Kim Ben states: The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. A liquid that has a pH of 7 is considered to be neutral (pure water is generally considered to have a neutral pH). Fluids that have a pH below 7 – like lemon juice and coffee – are considered to be acidic. And fluids that have a pH above 7 – like human blood and milk of magnesia – are considered to be alkaline.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 with the pH of 7 being the midpoint (pure water may have a pH of 7 but I have found that the pH of pure water has a range of 6.2 to 7.2 – a 10 times exponential swing. I have also found that pure water has an oxidative reduction potential in a range of +50mV to +150mV) which will drain energy from the body. Lemon is an alkaline fruit not an acidic fruit. This is because of its low sugar and high alkaline mineral content of potassium bicarbonate. Lemons do not draw down on the alkaline buffering system and contributes in excess of 10 times in hydroxyl ions (OH-) in relationship to its hydrogen ion content.

Dr. Kim Ben states: It’s important to note that on the pH scale, each number represents a tenfold difference from adjacent numbers; in other words, a liquid that has a pH of 6 is ten times more acidic than a liquid that has a pH of 7, and a liquid with a pH of 5 is one hundred times more acidic than pure water.  Most carbonated soft drinks (pop) have a pH of about 3, making them about ten thousand times more acidic than pure water. Please remember this the next time you think about drinking a can of pop.

When you ingest foods and liquids, the end products of digestion and assimilation of nutrients often results in an acid or alkaline-forming effect – the end products are sometimes called acid ash or alkaline ash.

Dr. Robert O. Young states – All food and drink which has a pH of less than 8.4 will cause the production of sodium bicarbonate by the stomach and the release of this sodium bicarbonate via the salivary glands, the pylorus glands, the pancreas, gall bladder and intestinal glands to alkalize whatever ingested. The main purpose of stomach is to prepare the food in a liquid state at a pH of 8.4 for biological transformation into stem cells which takes place in the crypts of the small intestines.

Dr. Kim Ben states: Also, as your cells produce energy on a continual basis, a number of different acids are formed and released into your body fluids. These acids – generated by your everyday metabolic activities – are unavoidable; as long as your body has to generate energy to survive, it will produce a continuous supply of acids.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: Metabolism produces acidic waste products of lactic, uric, citric and glucose if not eliminated will cause dis-ease and then disease. You are only as healthy as the alkaline fluids of the body which includes the extracellular and intracellular fluids.

Dr. Kim Ben states: So there are two main forces at work on a daily basis that can disrupt the pH of your body fluids – these forces are the acid or alkaline-forming effects of foods and liquids that you ingest, and the acids that you generate through regular metabolic activities. Fortunately, your body has three major mechanisms at work at all times to prevent these forces from shifting the pH of your blood outside of the 7.35 to 7.45 range.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: There are seven main sources at work on a daily basis that can disrupt the pH of your body fluids – these forces include acids from the external environment, acids from the foods and liquids ingested, acids from the air you breath, acids from metabolism, acids from cells breaking down or catobolic acitivity, acids from endogenous bacteria, yeast and mold, and acids from respiration. Your body has an elaborate alkalizing buffering system at work at all times to help prevent through chelaton these forces from shifting the pH of the blood plasma pH as well as the interstitial fluid pH at a delicate pH of 7.365. It is important to note that when the alkaline buffering system (a new organ discovered by Dr. Robert O. Young) becomes depleted and acids are being deposited into the interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues and the fatty tissues this is when dis-ease and eventual disease manifests.

Dr. Kim Ben states:

These mechanisms are:

  1. Buffer Systems

    • Carbonic Acid-Bicarbonate Buffer System
    • Protein Buffer System
    • Phosphate Buffer System
  2. Exhalation of Carbon Dioxide
  3. Elimination of Hydrogen Ions via Kidneys
 
Dr. Robert O. Young states: There are ten (10) mechanisms that the body engages to buffer excess acids from lifestyle and dietary choices that are NOT properly eliminated through the four channels of elimination (bowels, kidney, skin and lungs):
1) The sodium bicarbonate system – the main organ of production is the stomach. The stomach is the major organ for sodium bicarbonate production for alkalizing food and maintaining the alkaline pH of the blood, tissues and organs.
2) The hemoglobin buffering system – the hemoglobin is a secondary alkalizing buffer for the blood when there is insufficient elements for the production of the primary buffer, sodium bicarbonate. This is the main cause of ALL blood diseases and why most all the client/patients I see have to a lesser or greater degree anemic and unhealthy blood.
3) The pHosphate buffering system which buffers acids creating phosphoric acid which is then excreted via the urine.
4) The ammonia buffering system reacts with hydrogen ions or acids to form ammonium ions which are excreted into the urine.
5) The plasma protein buffering system helps to chelate acids. The most plentiful type of buffer in the body including glutathione, methionine, cysteine and taurine which are found in the cells, lymph fluid and plasma.  Most plasma protein activity occurs intracellularly to bind or neutralize acids during cellular metabolism and/or disorganization or transformation of the human cell.
6) The electrolyte buffering system which includes the alkalizing mineral salts of sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium. The chelation of any acid will form a less toxic solid or a stone in the body. All stones and cysts and tumors are the result of excess acids in the extra and intracellular fluids. The electrolyte or mineral buffers work in the blood, lymph, extracellular (blood plasma and interstitial fluids) and intracellular fluids to bind acids which are then removed via the urine. These four elements are recycled by the kidneys into the blood and lymph by binding them to CO2. Over 90 percent of the CO2 produced in the body through cellular fermentation in the production of energy is used to carry out this recycling process.
7) The low density lipo-protein buffering system also referred to as cholesterol works primarily as a binder of acids in the blood, lymph, and extracellular fluids which are then excreted via the urine. If elimination is compromised the fat bound acids are removed away from the organs that sustain life into the body cavities, hips, thighs, buttocks and abdominal area. This is the cause of over-weight and obesity.
8) The endocrine buffering system releases hormones to buffer acids. These hormones include the antidiuretic hormone which regulates the rate at which water is lost or retained by the body and aldosterone which regulates the level of sodium ions and potassium ions in the blood. These two alkaline secretions help the kidneys maintain the alkaline design of the body and reduce excess acidity thus creating pH balance in the body.
9) The release of free radicals or reduced hydrogen (OH- and SO-) by the lymphocytes to buffer excess acids in the blood, interstitial and intracellular fluids.
10) The retention of alkaline water to buffer excess acids in the colloidal connective tissues of the schade. This is the cause of edema or water retention.
Dr. Kim Ben states: It’s not in the scope of this post to discuss the mechanisms listed above in detail. For this article, I only want to point out that these systems are in place to prevent dietary, metabolic, and other factors from pushing the pH of your blood outside of the 7.35 to 7.45 range.
Dr. Robert O. Young states: The blood can be stressed from dietary and metabolic acids which are eliminated through the four channels of elimination or buffered by the ten alkalizing buffering mechanisms to maintain the delicate blood plasma, interstitial and intracellular pH at a healthy 7.365.

Dr. Kim Ben states: When people encourage you to “alkalize your blood,” most of them mean that you should eat plenty of foods that have an alkaline-forming effect on your system. The reason for making this suggestion is that the vast majority of highly processed foods – like white flour products and white sugar – have an acid-forming effect on your system, and if you spend years eating a poor diet that is mainly acid-forming, you will overwork some of the buffering systems mentioned above to a point where you could create undesirable changes in your health.

Dr. Robert O. Young states; Everything you eat, everything you drink, everything you breath, everything you think and everything you do affects the blood and interstitial fluids in an acidic way to a lesser or greater degree. That is why we age. We do not get old we mold from years of acidic lifestyle and dietary choices. The key to a healthy life or a life of sickness and disease and then eventual death is in the blood! Especially the blood plasma.

Dr. Kim Ben states: For example, your phosphate buffer system uses different phosphate ions in your body to neutralize strong acids and bases. About 85% of the phosphate ions that are used in your phosphate buffer system comes from calcium phosphate salts, which are structural components of your bones and teeth. If your body fluids are regularly exposed to large quantities of acid-forming foods and liquids, your body will draw upon its calcium phosphate reserves to supply your phosphate buffer system to neutralize the acid-forming effects of your diet. Over time, this may lead to structural weakness in your bones and teeth.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: Dr Kim Ben has described the cause of bone loss correctly. It is important to remember that the activation of the pHosphate buffering system does not happen when you are on an alkalizing lifestyle and diet and hyper-perfusing the blood and interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues with alkalinity.  The alkaline lifestyle and diet is outlined in my book, The pH Miracle Revised and Updated.

Drawing on your calcium phosphate reserves at a high rate can also increase the amount of calcium that is eliminated via your genito-urinary system, which is why a predominantly acid-forming diet can increase your risk of developing calcium-rich kidney stones.

Dr. Ken Ben states: This is just one example of how your buffering systems can be overtaxed to a point where you experience negative health consequences. Since your buffering systems have to work all the time anyway to neutralize the acids that are formed from everyday metabolic activities, it’s in your best interest to follow a diet that doesn’t create unnecessary work for your buffering systems.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: The protocol that will NOT unnecessarily activate the alkaline buffering systems of the body is outlined in the pH Miracle Revised and Updated by Dr. Robert O. Young.

Dr. Kim Ben states: Generally speaking, most vegetables and fruit have an alkaline-forming effect on your body fluids.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: Generally, all green fruit and vegetables are the ONLY alkalizing foods for the blood and interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues and are critical in building healthy blood and then healthy body cells.

Dr. Kim Ben states: Most grains, animal foods, and highly processed foods have an acid-forming effect on your body fluids.

Dr. Robert O. Young states; All grains, animal foods, dairy products, fermented foods, algae, probiotics, enzymes, high sugar fruit, high sugar vegetables, vinegar, corn, nuts, mushrooms, alcohol, carbonate drinks, sport drinks and tobacco products are acidic to the blood and interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective tissues of the schade (the largest organ of the body) and will activate the alkaline buffering systems.

Dr. Kim Ben states: Your health is best served by a good mix of nutrient-dense, alkaline andacid-forming foods; ideally, you want to eat more alkaline-forming foods than acid-forming foods to have the net acid and alkaline-forming effects of your diet match the slightly alkaline pH of your blood.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: The only way to achieve extraordinary health and fitness is with the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet as outlined in The pH Miracle Revised and Updated book.

Dr. Kim Ben states: The following lists indicate which common foods have an alkaline-forming effect on your body fluids, and which ones result in acid ash formation when they are digested and assimilated into your system.

Please note that these lists of acid and alkaline-forming foods are not comprehensive, nor are they meant to be.

If you’re eating mainly grains, flour products, animal foods, and washing these foods down with coffee, soda, and milk, you will almost certainly improve your health by replacing some of your food and beverage choices with fresh vegetables and fruits.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: The four alkalizing food groups are chlorophyll from green fruit and green vegetables, mono and polyunsaturated oils, alkalizing water and finally alkalizing mineral salts. I call this the COWS Plan as outlined in The pH Miracle Revised and Updated book.

Dr. Kim Ben states: The primary purpose of this article is to offer information that explains why I believe that you don’t need to take one or more nutritional supplements or “alkalized water” for the sole purpose of alkalizing your body. Your body is already designed to keep the pH of your body fluids in a tight, slightly alkaline range.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: Your body is alkaline by design but acidic by function and that is why you would be wise to follow an alkaline lifestyle and diet to prevent ALL sickness and disease and remain strong, healthy and fit. Drinking alkaline water is essential to maintaining the healthy alkaline state of ALL your body fluids!!!!!!

Dr. Kim Ben states: The ideal scenario is to make fresh vegetables and fruits the centerpieces of your diet, and to eat small amounts of any other nutrient-dense foods that your appetite calls for and that experience shows your body can tolerate.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: The ideal scenario is to make fresh organic electron-rich green alkalizing fruit and vegetables the centerpiece of your diet with liberal amounts of alkalizing polyunsaturated oils, alkalizing water at a pH of 9.5 and finally alkalizing mineral salts of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium.

Dr. Kim Ben states: I hope these thoughts bring some clarity to this often misunderstood health topic.

Dr. Robert O. Young states: I hope these scientific truths brings some clarity to Dr. Kim Ben and others that are confused about the biochemistry, bioenergetics and the importance of alkalizing the blood and interstitial fluids of the colloidal connective  tissues of the schade (the largest organ of the human body) with an alkaline lifestyle and diet as outlined in my book, The pH Miracle, revised and updated.

For additional information read The pH Miracle Revised and Updated by Dr. Robert O. Young .