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The Incredible Health Benefits of Peppermint Essential Oil

732x549_Peppermint_Oil_And_Headaches A favorite herbal medicine of the ancients, peppermint leaves have been found in Egyptian pyramids dating back to 1,000 BC. Modern scientific investigations have now confirmed that this remarkable plant has over a dozen healing properties.

In our continuing effort to educate folks to the vast array of healing agents found in the natural world around us, we are excited to feature peppermint, a member of the aromatic mint family that you may already have squirreled away somewhere in your kitchen cupboard. While most have experienced peppermint as a flavoring agent, or perhaps as a comforting cup of herbal tea, few are aware of its wide range of experimentally confirmed therapeutic properties.

The ancients certainly were aware of the mint family’s medicinal value, having been used as herbal medicines in ancient Egypt, Greek and Rome thousands of years ago.[27] Dried peppermint leaves have even been found in several Egyptian pyramids carbon dating back to 1,000 BC.

Today, modern scientific investigations are revealing an abundance of potential health benefits associated with the use of different components of the peppermint plant, including aromatherapeutic, topical and internal applications.

Most of the human research on peppermint performed thus far indicates this plant has great value in treating gastrointestinal disorders

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1) Irritable Bowel Syndrome – Since the late 90’s it was discovered that enteric-coated peppermint oil capsules are safe and effective in the treatment of this increasingly prevalent disorder.[2] This beneficial effect extends to the pediatric community. In one children’s trial 75% of those receiving peppermint oil had reduced severity of pain associated with IBS within 2 weeks.[3] Another 2005 trial in adults concluded that “Taking into account the currently available drug treatments for IBS Peppermint oil (1-2 capsules t.i.d. over 24 weeks) may be the drug of first choice in IBS patients with non-serious constipation or diarrhea to alleviate general symptoms and to improve quality of life.”[4] In another 2007 trial 75% of patients receiving peppermint oil saw an impressive 50% reduction of “total irritable bowel syndrome score.”[5] Most recently, a study published January of this year found that peppermint oil was effective in relieving abdominal pain in diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome.[6]

2) Colonic spasm – Peppermint oil has been studied as a safe and effective alternative to the drug Buscopan for its ability to reduce spasms during barium enemas.[7] [8]

3) Gastric Emptying Disorders – Peppermint has been found to enhance gastric emptying, suggesting its potential use in a clinical setting for patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders.[9]

4) Functional dyspepsia – A 2000 study published in the journal Ailment Pharmacology and Therapy found that 90 mg of peppermint oil and 50 mg of caraway oil resulted in 67% of patients reporting “much or very much improved” in their symptoms of functional dyspepsia. [10]

5) Infantile Colic: A 2013 study found that peppermint is at least as effective as the chemical simethicone in the treatment of infantile colic.[11]

Other studied applications include

6) Breastfeeding Associated Nipple Pain and Damage: A 2007 study found that peppermint water prevented nipple cracks and nipple pain in breastfeeding mothers.[12]

7) Tuberculosis: A 2009 study found that inhaled essential oil of peppermint was able to rapidly regress tuberculous inflammation, leading the authors to conclude: “This procedure may be used to prevent recurrences and exacerbation of pulmonary tuberculosis.”[13]

8) Allergic rhinitis (hay fever): A 2001 preclinical study found that extracts of the leaves of peppermint inhibit histamine release indicating it may be clinically effective in alleviating the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis.[14]

9) Shingles Associated Pain (Post-Herpetic Neuralgia): A 2002 case study found that topical peppermint oil treatment resulted in a near immediate improvement of shingles associated neuropathic pain symptoms; the therapeutic effects persisted throughout the entire 2 months of follow-up treatment. [15]

10) Memory problems: A 2006 study found that the simple aroma of peppermint enhances memory and increases alertness in human subjects.[16]

11) Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea: A 2013 study found that peppermint oil was found to be effective in reducing chemotherapy-induced nausea, and at reduced cost versus standard drug-based treatment.[17]

12) Prostate Cancer: Preclinical research indicates that peppermint contains a compound known as menthol which inhibits prostate cancer growth.[18] [19]

13) Radiation Damage: Preclinical research indicates peppermint protects against radiation-induced DNA damage and cell death.[20]  [21]

14) Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1: Peppermint has been found to have inhibitory activity against acyclovir-resistant Herpes Simplex virus type 1.[22] [23]

15) Dental Caries/Bad Breath: Peppermint oil extract has been found to be superiorto the mouthwash chemical chlorhexidine inhibiting Streptococus mutans driven biofilm formation associated with dental caries.[24] [25] This may explain why powdered peppermint leaves were used in the Middle Ages to combat halitosis and whiten teeth.

Peppermint is actually a hybridized cross between Water Mint (Mentha aquatica) and Spearmint (Mentha spicata),[26] the latter of which has also been researched to possess remarkable therapeutic properties, such as the ability to exert significant anti-androgenic effects in polycystic ovarian syndrome[28] and ameliorating the related condition of mild hirsutism, marked by excessive hair growth in females.[29]

Like all plant medicines, extreme caution must be exercised when using extracts and especially essential oils. Also, remember that more is not always better. A recent study on the use of rosemary in improving cognitive performance in the elderly found that a lower ‘culinary’ dose (750 mg) was not only more effective in improving cognition (as measured by memory speed) than a higher dose, but the highest dose (6,000 mg) had a significant memory impairing effect.[30] This illustrates quite nicely how less can be more, and why an occasional nightly cup of peppermint tea may be far superior as preventive strategy than taking large ‘heroic’ doses of an herb only after a serious health problem sets in.

To order the iJuice Peppermint oil go to:https://www.ijuicenow.com/product-page/ijuice-peppermint-sage-oil

References

1) Peppermint oil is a safe and effective alternative for the elimination of colonic spasms instead of Buscopan during a double-contrast barium enema

Abstract Title:

Spasmolytic effect of peppermint oil in barium during double-contrast barium enema compared with Buscopan.

Abstract Source:

Clin Radiol. 2003 Apr;58(4):301-5. PMID: 12662951

Abstract Author(s):

T Asao, H Kuwano, M Ide, I Hirayama, J-I Nakamura, K-I Fujita, R Horiuti

Abstract:

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of peppermint oil in barium as a spasmolytic agent during a double-contrast barium enema (DCBE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 383 DCBEs with positive results from occult blood tests were assessed. Patients were assigned to one of four groups: peppermint in barium (n=91), peppermint in tube (n=90), Buscopan (n=105), or no treatment (n=97). After a screening sigmoidoscopy, the DCBEs were performed using air as a distending gas. In the Buscopan group, the DCBE was performed with an intramuscular injection of 20mg Buscopan at the start of the examination. Patients in the no-treatment group underwent DCBE without any spasmolytic agent. A peppermint oil preparation (30ml) was mixed in the barium solution for patients in the peppermint-in-barium group, and the same dose of peppermint oil was included in the enema tube in the peppermint-in-tube group. The presence of spasm on a series of spot films was evaluated without information about the type of spasmolytic agent used. RESULTS: The percentage of patients in the four groups (no treatment, Buscopan, peppermint in tube, and peppermint in barium) with absence of spasm in the entire colon on the series of spot films was 13.4, 38.1, 41.8, and 37.8%, respectively. In the group using peppermint oil or Buscopan, the rate of patients with non-spasm examination was higher than that in no-treatment group (p<0.0005). Peppermint oil had the same spasmolytic effect as the systemic administration of Buscopan in the transverse and descending colon. Peppermint oil had a stronger effect in the caecum and the ascending colon than a Buscopan injection (p<0.005). There was no advantage to placing peppermint oil in the enema tube over mixing it in the barium solution. A total of 157 polyps were found during the DCBE procedures, and no differences were observed in the number of lesions among the four groups. Peppermint oil did not impair image quality. CONCLUSION: Barium solution mixed with peppermint oil was safe and effective for the elimination of colonic spasm during the DCBE procedure, and it could be used instead of Buscopan.

Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2003

Study Type : Human Study

2) Enteric-coated peppermint-oil capsules is safe and effective in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

Abstract Title:

Enteric-coated peppermint-oil capsules in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized trial.

Abstract Source:

J Gastroenterol. 1997 Dec;32(6):765-8. PMID: 9430014

Abstract Author(s):

J H Liu, G H Chen, H Z Yeh, C K Huang, S K Poon

Abstract:

To determine the efficacy and tolerability of an enteric-coated peppermint-oil formulation (Colpermin), we conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in 110 outpatients (66 men/44 women; 18-70 years of age) with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Patients took one capsule (Colpermin or placebo) three to four times daily, 15-30 min before meals, for 1 month. Fifty-two patients on Colpermin and 49 on placebo completed the study. Forty-one patients on Colpermin (79%) experienced an alleviation of the severity of abdominal pain (29 were pain-free); 43 (83%) had less abdominal distension, 43 (83%) had reduced stool frequency, 38 (73%) had fewer borborygmi, and 41 (79%) less flatulence. Corresponding figures for the placebo group were: 21 patients (43%) with reduced pain (4 were pain-free), 14 (29%) with reduced distension, 16 (32%) with reduced stool frequency, 15 (31%) with fewer borborygmi, and 11 (22%) with less flatulence. Symptom improvements after Colpermin were significantly better than after placebo (P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test). One patient on Colpermin experienced heartburn (because of chewing the capsules) and one developed a mild transient skin rash. There were no significant changes in liver function test results. Thus, in this trial, Colpermin was effective and well tolerated.

Article Published Date : Dec 01, 1997

Study Type : Human Study

3) Peppermint oil improves abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. – Article 2

Abstract Title:

Peppermint oil in irritable bowel syndrome.

Abstract Source:

Phytomedicine. 2005 Aug;12(8):601-6. PMID: 16121521

Abstract Author(s):

H G Grigoleit, P Grigoleit

Abstract:

In a literature search 16 clinical trials investigating 180-200 mg enteric-coated peppermint oil (PO) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or recurrent abdominal pain in children (1 study) with 651 patients enrolled were identified. Nine out of 16 studies were randomized double blind cross over trials with (n = 5) or without (n = 4) run in and/or wash out periods, five had a randomized double blind parallel group design and two were open labeled studies. Placebo served in 12 and anticholinergics in three studies as comparator. Eight out of 12 placebo controlled studies show statistically significant effects in favor of PO. Average response rates in terms of “overall success” are 58% (range 39-79%) for PO and 29% (range 10-52%) for placebo. The three studies versus smooth muscle relaxants did not show differences between treatments hinting for equivalence of treatments. Adverse events reported were generally mild and transient, but very specific. PO caused the typical GI effects like heartburn and anal/perianal burning or discomfort sensations, whereas the anticholinergics caused dry mouth and blurred vision. Anticholinergics and 5HT3/4-ant/agonists do not offer superior improvement rates, placebo responses cover the range as in PO trials. Taking into account the currently available drug treatments for IBS PO (1-2 capsules t.i.d. over 24 weeks) may be the drug of first choice in IBS patients with non-serious constipation or diarrhea to alleviate general symptoms and to improve quality of life.

Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2005

Study Type : Human Study

4) Peppermint oil is effective in relieving abdominal pain in diarrhea predominant IBS transiently

Abstract Title:

Efficacy of Peppermint Oil in Diarrhea Predominant IBS – A Double Blind Randomized Placebo – Controlled Study.

Abstract Source:

Mymensingh Med J. 2013 Jan ;22(1):27-30. PMID: 23416804

Abstract Author(s):

M S Alam, P K Roy, A R Miah, S H Mollick, M R Khan, M C Mahmud, S Khatun

Article Affiliation:

Dr Md Shah Alam, EMO, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

Abstract:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is associated with considerable sufferings of patient and Peppermint oil is volatile oil, its active principle is menthol-contain a cyclic monoterpine which has anti-spasmotic properties due to its ability to block calcium channel of intestinal smooth muscles. This study observed the efficacy of peppermint oil for relieving the symptoms and changes of quality of life (QOL) in diarrhea predominant IBS. This was a prospective double blind randomized placebo-controlled study conducted in the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University during July 2008 to September 2009. Patients who fulfilled ROME II were initially selected but those had red flag signs or any organic disease was excluded from the study. Seventy four patients were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to receive either peppermint oil or placebo three times daily for six weeks. Changes of symptoms were assessed three week interval during treatment and two weeks after the end of treatment. Data were analyzed by paired and unpaired ‘t’ test. Finally sixty five patients completed the trial. It was observed that, at six weeks of therapy abdominal pain is markedly improved (mean±SD) 4.94±1.30 in peppermint oil group compared with 6.15±1.24 in placebo group and the difference was statistically highly significant (p>0.001). But two weeks after end of trials pain score again increased (6.09±1.93). Other symptoms and quality of life did not improve significantly. So the study result concludes that peppermint oil is effective in reliving only abdominal pain in diarrhea predominant IBS transiently.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2012

Study Type : Human Study

5) Peppermint oil improves abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. – Article 1

Abstract Title:

Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.

Abstract Source:

Dig Liver Dis. 2007 Jun;39(6):530-6. Epub 2007 Apr 8. PMID: 17420159

Abstract Author(s):

G Cappello, M Spezzaferro, L Grossi, L Manzoli, L Marzio

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: The use of peppermint oil in treating the irritable bowel syndrome has been studied with variable results probably due to the presence of patients affected by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, lactose intolerance or celiac disease that may have symptoms similar to irritable bowel syndrome. AIM: The aim of the study was to test the effectiveness of enteric-coated peppermint oil in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in whom small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, lactose intolerance and celiac disease were excluded. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with irritable bowel syndrome according to the Rome II criteria, with normal lactose and lactulose breath tests and negative antibody screening for celiac disease, were treated with peppermint oil (two enteric-coated capsules twice per day or placebo) for 4 weeks in a double blind study. The symptoms were assessed before therapy (T(0)), after the first 4 weeks of therapy (T(4)) and 4 weeks after the end of therapy (T(8)). The symptoms evaluated were: abdominal bloating, abdominal pain or discomfort, diarrhoea, constipation, feeling of incomplete evacuation, pain at defecation, passage of gas or mucus and urgency at defecation. For each symptom intensity and frequency from 0 to 4 were scored. The total irritable bowel syndrome symptoms score was also calculated as the mean value of the sum of the average of the intensity and frequency scores of each symptom. RESULTS: At T(4), 75% of the patients in the peppermint oil group showed a >50% reduction of basal (T(0)) total irritable bowel syndrome symptoms score compared with 38% in the placebo group (P<0.009). With peppermint oil at T(4) and at T(8) compared with T(0) a statistically significant reduction of the total irritable bowel syndrome symptoms score was found (T(0): 2.19+/-0.13, T(4): 1.07+/-0.10*, T(8): 1.60+/-0.10*, *P<0.01 compared with T(0), mean+/-S.E.M.), while no change was found with the placebo. CONCLUSION: A 4 weeks treatment with peppermint oil improves abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

Article Published Date : Jun 01, 2007

Study Type : Human Study

6) Peppermint oil is effective in relieving abdominal pain in diarrhea predominant IBS transiently

Abstract Title:

Efficacy of Peppermint Oil in Diarrhea Predominant IBS – A Double Blind Randomized Placebo – Controlled Study.

Abstract Source:

Mymensingh Med J. 2013 Jan ;22(1):27-30. PMID: 23416804

Abstract Author(s):

M S Alam, P K Roy, A R Miah, S H Mollick, M R Khan, M C Mahmud, S Khatun

Article Affiliation:

Dr Md Shah Alam, EMO, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

Abstract:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is associated with considerable sufferings of patient and Peppermint oil is volatile oil, its active principle is menthol-contain a cyclic monoterpine which has anti-spasmotic properties due to its ability to block calcium channel of intestinal smooth muscles. This study observed the efficacy of peppermint oil for relieving the symptoms and changes of quality of life (QOL) in diarrhea predominant IBS. This was a prospective double blind randomized placebo-controlled study conducted in the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University during July 2008 to September 2009. Patients who fulfilled ROME II were initially selected but those had red flag signs or any organic disease was excluded from the study. Seventy four patients were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to receive either peppermint oil or placebo three times daily for six weeks. Changes of symptoms were assessed three week interval during treatment and two weeks after the end of treatment. Data were analyzed by paired and unpaired ‘t’ test. Finally sixty five patients completed the trial. It was observed that, at six weeks of therapy abdominal pain is markedly improved (mean±SD) 4.94±1.30 in peppermint oil group compared with 6.15±1.24 in placebo group and the difference was statistically highly significant (p>0.001). But two weeks after end of trials pain score again increased (6.09±1.93). Other symptoms and quality of life did not improve significantly. So the study result concludes that peppermint oil is effective in reliving only abdominal pain in diarrhea predominant IBS transiently.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2012

Study Type : Human Study

7) Peppermint is a simple, safe and inexpensive way to relieve spasm during barium enema

Abstract Title:

Does peppermint oil relieve spasm during barium enema?

Abstract Source:

Br J Radiol. 1995 Aug;68(812):841-3. PMID: 7551780

Abstract Author(s):

M J Sparks, P O’Sullivan, A A Herrington, S K Morcos

Article Affiliation:

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital NHS Trust, Sheffield, UK.

Abstract:

The effectiveness of topical peppermint oil added to barium sulphate suspension in relieving colonic muscle spasm during double contrast barium enema examination was assessed in a double blind study. 141 patients were randomized either to a control group (71 patients) examined with standard barium suspension or to the treatment group which received peppermint oil mixed with the barium preparation. No residual spasm was evident in a significant proportion of patients in the treated group (60%) compared with the control group (35%) (p<0.001). The patients’ acceptability of the procedure was good and there were no adverse effects on the overall quality of the examination. In conclusion, the addition of peppermint oil to the barium suspension seems to reduce the incidence of colonic spasm during the examination. The technique is simple, safe, cheap and it may lessen the need for intravenous administration of spasmolytic agents.

Article Published Date : Aug 01, 1995

Study Type : Human Study

8) Peppermint oil is a safe and effective alternative for the elimination of colonic spasms instead of Buscopan during a double-contrast barium enema

Abstract Title:

Spasmolytic effect of peppermint oil in barium during double-contrast barium enema compared with Buscopan.

Abstract Source:

Clin Radiol. 2003 Apr;58(4):301-5. PMID: 12662951

Abstract Author(s):

T Asao, H Kuwano, M Ide, I Hirayama, J-I Nakamura, K-I Fujita, R Horiuti

Abstract:

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of peppermint oil in barium as a spasmolytic agent during a double-contrast barium enema (DCBE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 383 DCBEs with positive results from occult blood tests were assessed. Patients were assigned to one of four groups: peppermint in barium (n=91), peppermint in tube (n=90), Buscopan (n=105), or no treatment (n=97). After a screening sigmoidoscopy, the DCBEs were performed using air as a distending gas. In the Buscopan group, the DCBE was performed with an intramuscular injection of 20mg Buscopan at the start of the examination. Patients in the no-treatment group underwent DCBE without any spasmolytic agent. A peppermint oil preparation (30ml) was mixed in the barium solution for patients in the peppermint-in-barium group, and the same dose of peppermint oil was included in the enema tube in the peppermint-in-tube group. The presence of spasm on a series of spot films was evaluated without information about the type of spasmolytic agent used. RESULTS: The percentage of patients in the four groups (no treatment, Buscopan, peppermint in tube, and peppermint in barium) with absence of spasm in the entire colon on the series of spot films was 13.4, 38.1, 41.8, and 37.8%, respectively. In the group using peppermint oil or Buscopan, the rate of patients with non-spasm examination was higher than that in no-treatment group (p<0.0005). Peppermint oil had the same spasmolytic effect as the systemic administration of Buscopan in the transverse and descending colon. Peppermint oil had a stronger effect in the caecum and the ascending colon than a Buscopan injection (p<0.005). There was no advantage to placing peppermint oil in the enema tube over mixing it in the barium solution. A total of 157 polyps were found during the DCBE procedures, and no differences were observed in the number of lesions among the four groups. Peppermint oil did not impair image quality. CONCLUSION: Barium solution mixed with peppermint oil was safe and effective for the elimination of colonic spasm during the DCBE procedure, and it could be used instead of Buscopan.

Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2003

Study Type : Human Study

9) Peppermint may have therapeutic value in gastric emptying disorders

Abstract Title:

Early effects of peppermint oil on gastric emptying: a crossover study using a continuous real-time 13C breath test (BreathID system).

Abstract Source:

J Gastroenterol. 2007 Jul;42(7):539-42. Epub 2007 Jul 25. PMID: 17653649

Abstract Author(s):

Masahiko Inamori, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Keiko Akimoto, Koji Fujita, Hirokazu Takahashi, Masato Yoneda, Yasunobu Abe, Kensuke Kubota, Satoru Saito, Norio Ueno, Atsushi Nakajima

Article Affiliation:

Gastroenterology Division, Yokohama City University, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between peppermint oil and gastric emptying by using a novel noninvasive technique for measuring gastric emptying with a continuous real-time (13)C breath test (BreathID system, Oridion, Israel). METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive a test meal (200 kcal per 200 ml) containing 0.64 ml of peppermint oil or the test meal alone, after fasting overnight. A (13)C-acetic acid breath test was continuously performed with the BreathID system, which monitors gastric emptying, for 4 h after the administration of the test meal. Using Oridion Research Software (beta version), the time for emptying of 50% of the labeled meals (T 1/2), the analog to the scintigraphy lag time for 10% emptying of the labeled meal (T lag), the gastric emptying coefficient (GEC), and the regression-estimated constants (beta and kappa) were calculated. The parameters between two occasions were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: After peppermint oil intake, the T lag and beta constant were significantly decreased. No significant differences in T 1/2, GEC, or kappa were observed between the two occasions. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in the T lag and beta constant suggests acceleration of gastric emptying during the early phase. This study showed that peppermint oil enhances gastric emptying, suggesting the potential use of peppermint oil in clinical settings for patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

Article Published Date : Jul 01, 2007

Study Type : Human Study

10) Peppermint oil and caraway oil have a therapeutic effect in patients suffering from functional dyspepsia

Abstract Title:

Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of peppermint oil and caraway oil in patients suffering from functional dyspepsia.

Abstract Source:

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Dec;14(12):1671-7. PMID: 11121917

Abstract Author(s):

B May, S Köhler, B Schneider

Article Affiliation:

University Medical Clinic and Out-patient Clinic, Bochum, Germany.

Abstract:

AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of enteric coated capsules containing a fixed combination of 90 mg peppermint oil and 50 mg caraway oil (PCC; Enteroplant) in patients with functional dyspepsia. METHODS: A total of 96 out-patients received one capsule twice daily of PCC or placebo for 28 days. Primary efficacy variables were the intra-individual change in (i) pain intensity and (ii) sensation of pressure, heaviness and fullness between days 1 and 29, and the investigators’ rating of (iii) global improvement (Clinical Global Impressions [CGI] item 2) on day 29. A global type I error of alpha=0.05 was controlled by a priori ordering of hypotheses. RESULTS: All patients were evaluable for efficacy and safety. On day 29, the average intensity of pain was reduced by 40% vs. baseline in the PCC group and by 22% in the placebo group. With regards to pressure, heaviness and fullness, a 43% reduction was observed for PCC vs. 22% for placebo. In CGI item 2, 67% (PCC) vs. 21% (placebo) of the patients were described as much or very much improved. In all three target parameters, the superiority of PCC over placebo was statistically significant. Six patients (PCC: 5; placebo: 1) reported adverse events, either unrelated to the trial, or attributable to an aggravation of the disease under investigation. Eructation with peppermint taste did not occur. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the good tolerability and the favourable risk-benefit ratio of PCC for the treatment of functional dyspepsia.

Article Published Date : Dec 01, 2000

Study Type : Human Study

11) Peppermint is at least as effective as the drug simethicone in the treatment of infantile colic

Article Publish Status: FREE

Click here to read the complete article.

Abstract Title:

Effectiveness of Mentha piperita in the Treatment of Infantile Colic: A Crossover Study.

Abstract Source:

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012 ;2012:981352. Epub 2012 Jul 12. PMID: 22844342

Abstract Author(s):

João Guilherme Bezerra Alves, Rita de Cássia Coelho Moraes de Brito, Telma Samila Cavalcanti

Article Affiliation:

Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Rua dos Coelhos, 301 Boa Vista, 52050-080 Recife, PE, Brazil.

Abstract:

Background. Infantile colic is a distressing and common condition for which there is no proven standard treatment. Objective. To compare the efficacy of Mentha piperita with simethicone in treatment for infantile colic. Methods. A double-blind crossover study was performed with 30 infants attending IMIP, Recife, Brazil. They were randomized to use Mentha piperita or simethicone in the treatment of infantile colic during 7 days with each drug. Primary outcomes were mother_s opinion about responses to the treatment, number of daily episodes of colic, and time spent crying, measured by a chronometer. Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests were used to compare the results. This study was previously approved by the Ethical Committee in Research at IMIP. Results. At baseline daily episodes of infantile colic was 3.9 (±1.1) and the mean crying time per day was 192 minutes (±51.6). At the end of the study daily episodes of colic fell to 1.6 (±0.6) and the crying duration decreased to 111 (±28) minutes. All mothers reported decrease of frequency and duration of the episodes of infantile colic and there were nodifferences between responses to Mentha piperita and simethicone. Conclusions. These findings suggest that Mentha piperita may be used to help control infantile colic. However, these results must be repeated by others studies.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2011

Study Type : Human Study

12) Peppermint water is effective in the prevention of nipple pain and damage associated with breastfeeding

Abstract Title:

Effect of peppermint water on prevention of nipple cracks in lactating primiparous women: a randomized controlled trial.

Abstract Source:

Int Breastfeed J. 2007;2:7. Epub 2007 Apr 19. PMID: 17442122

Abstract Author(s):

Manizheh Sayyah Melli, Mohammad Reza Rashidi, Abbas Delazar, Elaheh Madarek, Mohammad Hassan Kargar Maher, Alieh Ghasemzadeh, Kamran Sadaghat, Zohreh Tahmasebi

Article Affiliation:

Department of Obstetrics&Gynecology, Alzahra Teaching Hospital, South Artesh Avenue, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. manizheh_610@yahoo.com

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Nipple pain and damage in breastfeeding mothers are common causes of premature breastfeeding cessation. Peppermint water is popularly used for the prevention of nipple cracks in the North West of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of peppermint water in the prevention of nipple cracks during breastfeeding in comparison with the application of expressed breast milk (EBM). METHODS: One hundred and ninety-six primiparous breastfeeding women who gave birth between February and May 2005 in a teaching hospital in Tabriz, Iran, were randomized to receive either peppermint water or EBM. Each woman was followed for up to three visits or telephone calls within 14 days and then by telephone call at week six postpartum. RESULTS: Women who were randomized to receive peppermint water were less likely to experience nipple and areola cracks (9%) compared to women using EBM (27%; p<0.01). Women who used the peppermint water on a daily basis were less likely to have a cracked nipple than women who did not use peppermint water (relative risk 3.6, 95%CI: 2.9, 4.3). Nipple pain in the peppermint water group was lower than the expressed breast milk group (OR 5.6, 95% CI: 2.2, 14.6; p<0.005). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that peppermint water is effective in the prevention of nipple pain and damage. Further studies are needed to assess the usefulness of peppermint water in conjunction with correct breastfeeding techniques.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2007

Study Type : Human Study

13) Inhalation of the essential oil of peppermint may prevent recurrences and exacerbations of pulmonary tuberculosis

Abstract Title:

[Use of essential oil of peppermint (Mentha piperita) in the complex treatment of patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].

Abstract Source:

Virol J. 2009 Jan 20;6:8. PMID: 17128800

Abstract Author(s):

V A Shkurupiĭ, O A Odintsova, N V Kazarinova, K G Tkrachenko

Abstract:

The paper describes the effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita) essential oil inhaled by patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis in the penitentiary system. This procedure is shown to be most effective in infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis in the phase of resorption of infiltrates and/or closure of decay cavities. The efficiency is determined by the rapid positive changes in a tuberculous process, which appear as a rapider regression of tuberculous inflammation, causing small residual changes. This procedure may be used to prevent recurrences and exacerbations of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Article Published Date : Jan 20, 2009

Study Type : Human Study

14) Peppermint may be clinically effective in alleviating the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis

Abstract Title:

Effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) extracts on experimental allergic rhinitis in rats.

Abstract Source:

Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Jan;24(1):92-5. PMID: 11201253

Abstract Author(s):

T Inoue, Y Sugimoto, H Masuda, C Kamei

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to clarify the effects of extracts of the leaves of Mentha piperita L. on experimental allergic rhinitis. The 50% EtOH extract of peppermint inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells induced by compound 48/80. The effect was dose-dependent and significant inhibition was observed at a concentration of 3 microg/ml. In addition, the 50% EtOH eluate separated from the 50% EtOH extract of peppermint by column chromatography (DIAION HP-20) was also effective in inhibiting histamine release at a concentration of 1 microg/ml. Nasal symptoms, sneezing and nasal rubbing induced by antigen challenge in actively sensitized rats were inhibited by oral administration of the 50% EtOH eluate. Significant inhibition of sneezing and nasal rubbing was observed at doses of 300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., respectively. Furthermore, the 50% EtOH eluate inhibited dye leakage into the nasal cavity of rats induced by antigen in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that extracts of Mentha piperita L. may be clinically effective in alleviating the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2001

Study Type : Human Study

15) Peppermint oil has been used to successfully treat post-herpetic neuralgia

Abstract Title:

A novel treatment of postherpetic neuralgia using peppermint oil.

Abstract Source:

Clin J Pain. 2002 May-Jun;18(3):200-2 PMID: 12048423

Abstract Author(s):

Simon J Davies, Louise M Harding, Andrew P Baranowski

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Postherpetic neuralgia remains a difficult problem to treat. A number of therapies have been shown to be effective, but some patients have intractable pain. PATIENT: The case of a 76-year-old woman whose pain had been resistant to standard therapies is described. The pattern of quantitative sensory testing results for this patient led the authors to believe that she had an “irritable nociceptor” type of pathophysiology. INTERVENTION: The patient was instructed to apply neat peppermint oil (containing 10% menthol) to her skin, resulting in an almost immediate improvement in her pain. This pain relief persisted for 4-6 hours after application of the oil. RESULTS: The patient was successfully treated with topical peppermint oil. During 2 months of follow-up she has had only a minor side effect, with continuing analgesia. The authors believe this is the first evidence of peppermint oil (or menthol) having a strong analgesic effect on neuropathic pain. The possible mechanisms of action of peppermint oil are discussed.

Article Published Date : May 01, 2002

Study Type : Human: Case Report

16) The aroma of peppermint enhances memory and increases alertness in human subjects

Abstract Title:

Modulation of cognitive performance and mood by aromas of peppermint and ylang-ylang.

Abstract Source:

Nutr Cancer. 2006;55(1):53-62. PMID: 18041606

Abstract Author(s):

Mark Moss, Steven Hewitt, Lucy Moss, Keith Wesnes

Abstract:

This study provides further evidence for the impact of the aromas of plant essential oils on aspects of cognition and mood in healthy participants. One hundred and forty-four volunteers were randomly assigned to conditions of ylang-ylang aroma, peppermint aroma, or no aroma control. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment battery, with mood scales completed before and after cognitive testing. The analysis of the data revealed significant differences between conditions on a number of the factors underpinning the tests that constitute the battery. Peppermint was found to enhance memory whereas ylang-ylang impaired it, and lengthened processing speed. In terms of subjective mood peppermint increased alertness and ylang-ylang decreased it, but significantly increased calmness. These results provide support for the contention that the aromas of essential oils can produce significant and idiosyncratic effects on both subjective and objective assessments of aspects of human behavior. They are discussed with reference to possible pharmacological and psychological modes of influence.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2006

Study Type : Human Study

17) Peppermint and Spearmint essential oils are safe and effective for antiemetic treatment in patients, as well as being cost effective

Article Publish Status: FREE

Click here to read the complete article.

Abstract Title:

Antiemetic activity of volatile oil from Mentha spicata and Mentha× piperita in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

Abstract Source:

Ecancermedicalscience. 2013 ;7:290. Epub 2013 Jan 31. PMID: 23390455

Abstract Author(s):

Z Tayarani-Najaran, E Talasaz-Firoozi, R Nasiri, N Jalali, Mk Hassanzadeh

Article Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 91775-1365, Iran.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: This study is aimed at determining the efficacy of Mentha spicata (M. spicata) and Mentha× piperita (M. × piperita) in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).

METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind clinical trial study. Prior to the study, patients were randomly assigned into four groups to receive M. spicata or M.× piperita. Statistical analysis included the χ(2) test, relative risk, and Student’s t-test. Fifty courses were analysed for each group that met our eligibility criteria. The treatment and placebo groups applied essential oils of M. spicata, M. × piperita, or a placebo, while the control group continued with their previous antiemetic regimen. Patients or guardians recorded the number of emetic events, the intensity of nausea over 20 h of chemotherapy, as well as any possible adverse effects that occurred during this time.

RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in the intensity and number of emetic events in the first 24 h with M. spicata and M.× piperita in both treatment groups (p<0.05) when compared with the control and no adverse effects were reported. The cost of treatment was also reduced when essential oils were used.

CONCLUSION: M. spicata or M.× piperita essential oils are safe and effective for antiemetic treatment in patients, as well as being cost effective.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2012

Study Type : Human Study

18) Peppermint oil exhibits antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2, including an acyclovirresistant strain of HSV-1

Abstract Title:

Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro.

Abstract Source:

Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):504-10. PMID: 13678235

Abstract Author(s):

A Schuhmacher, J Reichling, P Schnitzler

Abstract:

The virucidal effect of peppermint oil, the essential oil of Mentha piperita, against herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of peppermint oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 0.002% and 0.0008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Peppermint oil exhibited high levels of virucidal activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in viral suspension tests. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 82% and 92% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Higher concentrations of peppermint oil reduced viral titers of both herpesviruses by more than 90%. A clearly time-dependent activity could be demonstrated, after 3 h of incubation of herpes simplex virus with peppermint oil an antiviral activity of about 99% could be demonstrated. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of the essential oil, peppermint oil was added at different times to the cells or viruses during infection. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited when herpes simplex virus was pretreated with the essential oil prior to adsorption. These results indicate that peppermint oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell. Thus this essential oil is capable to exert a direct virucidal effect on HSV. Peppermint oil is also active against an acyclovir resistant strain of HSV-1 (HSV-1-ACV(res)), plaque formation was significantly reduced by 99%. Considering the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate the skin, peppermint oil might be suitable for topical therapeutic use as virucidal agent in recurrent herpes infection.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2003

Study Type : In Vitro Study

19) Menthol, a naturally occurring compound from peppermint oil, exhibits some anti-prostate cancer activity

Abstract Title:

Menthol regulates TRPM8-independent processes in PC-3 prostate cancer cells.

Abstract Source:

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Apr;1770(4):659-65. Epub 2006 Nov 23. PMID: 18955132

Abstract Author(s):

Su-Hwa Kim, Joo-Hyun Nam, Eun-Jung Park, Byung-Joo Kim, Sung-Joon Kim, Insuk So, Ju-Hong Jeon

Article Affiliation:

Department of Physiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-Dong, Chongno-Gu, Seoul 110-799, Korea.

Abstract:

Menthol, a naturally occurring compound from peppermint oil, binds and activates the TRPM8 Ca(2+)-permeable channel that exhibits abnormal expression patterns in prostate cancer, suggesting that TRPM8 links Ca(2+) transport pathways to tumor biology. We thus investigated the cellular responses of prostate cancer cells to menthol. Here we found that menthol increases [Ca(2+)](i) via Ca(2+) influx mechanism(s) independent of TRPM8 in PC-3 cells. We demonstrated that menthol induces cell death at supramillimolar concentrations in PC-3 cells and the cell death is not suppressed by low extracellular Ca(2+) condition which indicates that menthol-induced cell death is not associated with Ca(2+) influx pathways. In addition, we showed that menthol increases a phosphorylated form of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in PC-3 cells through TRPM8-independent mechanisms. Thus, our data indicate that there is an apparent lack of causality between TRPM8 activation and menthol-induced cell death and that menthol can regulate TRPM8-independent Ca(2+)-transport and cellular processes.

Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2007

Study Type : In Vitro Study

20. Peppermint has neuro-protective properties against gamma irradiation induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis

Abstract Title:

Mentha piperita as a pivotal neuro-protective agent against gamma irradiation induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis : Mentha extract as a neuroprotective against gamma irradiation.

Abstract Source:

Cytotechnology. 2013 Jan ;65(1):145-56. Epub 2012 Sep 21. PMID: 23011739

Abstract Author(s):

Hanaa A Hassan, Hani S Hafez, Mona S Goda

Article Affiliation:

Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt, drhanaahassan@yahoo.com.

Abstract:

Ionizing radiation is classified as a potent carcinogen, and its injury to living cells, in particular to DNA, is due to oxidative stress enhancing apoptotic cell death. Our present study aimed to characterize and semi-quantify the radiation-induced apoptosis in CNS and the activity of Mentha extracts as neuron-protective agent. Our results through flow cytometry exhibited the significant disturbance and arrest in cell cycle in % of M1: SubG1 phase, M2: G0/1 phase of diploid cycle, M3: S phase and M4: G2/M phase of cell cycle in brain tissue (p < 0.05). Significant increase in % of apoptosis and P53 protein expression as apoptotic biomarkers were coincided with significant decrease in Bcl(2) as an anti-apoptotic marker. The biochemical analysis recorded a significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid contents. Moreover, numerous histopathological alterations were detected in brain tissues of gamma irradiated mice such as signs of chromatolysis in pyramidal cells of cortex, nuclear vacuolation, numerous apoptotic cell, and neural degeneration. On the other hand, gamma irradiated mice pretreated with Mentha extract showed largely an improvement in all the above tested parameters through a homeostatic state for the content of brain apoptosis and stabilization of DNA cycle with a distinct improvement in cell cycle analysis and antioxidant defense system. Furthermore, the aforementioned effects of Mentha extracts through down-regulation of P53 expression and up-regulation of Bcl(2) domain protected brain structure from extensive damage. Therefore, Mentha extract seems to have a significant role to ameliorate the neuronal injury induced by gammairradiation.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2012

Study Type : Animal Study

21) Peppermint protects against radiation-induced testicular damage

Abstract Title:

Protection against radiation-induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn.).

Abstract Source:

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009 Apr;104(4):329-34. PMID: 19320637

Abstract Author(s):

Ravindra M Samarth, Meenakshi Samarth

Article Affiliation:

Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302055, India. rmsamarth@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:

The protective effects of Mentha piperita leaf extract against radiation-induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given M. piperita leaf extract orally (1 g/kg body weight/day) for three consecutive days before radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma-radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days after irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, and acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. Radiation treatment showed reduction in the testis weight during all days of observation, however, in the M. piperita leaf extract-pretreated irradiated group there was a significant increase in testis weight. Radiation treatment induced moderate to severe testicular atrophy with degeneration of germ cells in seminiferous tubules. The tubules were shrunken and greatly depleted of germ cells. Sertoli cells with few germ cells were observed in the lumen. However, animals pre-treated with M. piperita leaf extract and exposed to radiation showed normal testicular morphology with regular arrangement of germ cells and slight degeneration of seminiferous epithelium. Significant decreases in the lipid peroxidation and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The M. piperita leaf extract showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonols. The results of the present study suggest that M. piperita has a significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, the content of flavonoids and flavonols of M. piperita leaf extract may be held responsible for radioprotective effect due to their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2009

Study Type : Animal Study

22) Extracts from plants in the Lamiacea family inhibit HSV-1, HSV-2 and acyclovir-resistant strains of HSV-1

Abstract Title:

Antiviral effect of aqueous extracts from species of the Lamiaceae family against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro.

Abstract Source:

Planta Med. 2006 Dec;72(15):1378-82. Epub 2006 Nov 7. PMID: 17091431

Abstract Author(s):

Silke Nolkemper, Jürgen Reichling, Florian C Stintzing, Reinhold Carle, Paul Schnitzler

Abstract:

Aqueous extracts from species of the Lamiaceae family were examined for their antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus (HSV). Extracts from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), peppermint (Mentha x piperita), prunella (Prunella vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) were screened. Their inhibitory activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), type 2 (HSV-2) and an acyclovir-resistant strain of HSV-1 (ACV (res)) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells in a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC (50)) of the extracts for HSV plaque formation were determined in dose-response studies. All test compounds showed a high antiviral activity against HSV-1, HSV-2 and ACV (res). In order to identify the mode of antiviral action, the extracts were added to the cells or viruses at different stages of infection. Both types of Herpes virus including ACV (res) were considerably neutralized after treatment with the extracts prior to infection. At maximum non-cytotoxic concentrations of the extracts, plaque formation was significantly reduced by > 90% for HSV-1 and HSV-2 and > 85% for ACV (res). In time-response studies over a period of 2 hours, a clearly time-dependent activity was demonstrated. These results indicate that the extracts affect HSV before adsorption, but have no effect on the intracellular virus replication. Therefore, the extracts exert their antiviral effect on free HSV and offer a chance to use them for topical therapeutic application against recurrent HERPES infections.

Article Published Date : Dec 01, 2006

Study Type : In Vitro Study

23) Peppermint oil exhibits antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2, including an acyclovir resistant strain of HSV-1

Abstract Title:

Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro.

Abstract Source:

Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):504-10. PMID: 13678235

Abstract Author(s):

A Schuhmacher, J Reichling, P Schnitzler

Abstract:

The virucidal effect of peppermint oil, the essential oil of Mentha piperita, against herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of peppermint oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 0.002% and 0.0008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Peppermint oil exhibited high levels of virucidal activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in viral suspension tests. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 82% and 92% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Higher concentrations of peppermint oil reduced viral titers of both herpesviruses by more than 90%. A clearly time-dependent activity could be demonstrated, after 3 h of incubation of herpes simplex virus with peppermint oil an antiviral activity of about 99% could be demonstrated. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of the essential oil, peppermint oil was added at different times to the cells or viruses during infection. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited when herpes simplex virus was pretreated with the essential oil prior to adsorption. These results indicate that peppermint oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell. Thus this essential oil is capable to exert a direct virucidal effect on HSV. Peppermint oil is also active against an acyclovir resistant strain of HSV-1 (HSV-1-ACV(res)), plaque formation was significantly reduced by 99%. Considering the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate the skin, peppermint oil might be suitable for topical therapeutic use as virucidal agent in recurrent herpes infection.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2003

Study Type : In Vitro Study

24) Peppermint and rosemary extract are superior to the chemical chlorhexidine in preventing dental biofilm formation

Abstract Title:

Phytotherapeutic prevention of dental biofilm formation.

Abstract Source:

Phytother Res. 2008 Sep;22(9):1162-7. PMID: 18729251

Abstract Author(s):

Iraj Rasooli, Shojaedin Shayegh, Massoud Taghizadeh, Shakiba Darvish Alipoor Astaneh

Article Affiliation:

Department of Biology, Shahed University, Opposite Imam Khomeini’s Shrine, Tehran-Qom Highway, Tehran, Iran. rasooli@shahed.ac.ir

Abstract:

The antimicrobial and biofilm formation preventive properties of Mentha piperita and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and chlorhexidine were assessed against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus pyogenes. 26 and 20 compounds were identified by GC and GC-MS analysis in hydrodistilled oils from M. piperita and R. officinalis, respectively. The minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the M. piperita and R. officinalis oils and chlorhexidine were (6000, 2000, 8000 ppm) and (1000, 4000, 1000 ppm) for S. mutans and S. pyogenes, respectively. The decimal reduction time (D) of S. mutans exposed to the oils at their MBC levels was 2.8 min while chlorhexidine showed a longer time. The D values of S. pyogenes on exposure to the MBC levels of M. piperita and R. officinalis oils and of chlorhexidine were 2.14, 4.28 and 2.8 min, indicating a higher efficacy of M. piperita oil. Biofilm formation was performed by growing S. mutans culture with and without essential oils in LB medium in polystyrene tubes. In vitro biofilm inhibitory properties were in the order M. piperita>R. officinalis>chlorhexidine. In vivo experiments on the antibiofilm properties revealed that all concentrations of the oils were significantly (p<0.001) more effective than chlorhexidine. In conclusion, essential oils may be considered as safe agents in the development of novel antibiofilm agents.

Article Published Date : Sep 01, 2008

Study Type : In Vitro Study

25) Peppermint and to a lesser extent cumin essential oil compare favorably to the chemical chlorhexidine as anti-gingival dental plaque agents

Abstract Title:

Phytotherapeutic inhibition of supragingival dental plaque.

Abstract Source:

Nat Prod Res. 2008 Mar 20;22(5):428-39. PMID: 18404563

Abstract Author(s):

Shojaedin Shayegh, Iraj Rasooli, Massoud Taghizadeh, Shakiba Darvish Alipoor Astaneh

Article Affiliation:

Department of prosthetics, College of Dentistry, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract:

Antimicrobial activities and biofilm-formation preventive properties of Mentha piperita and Cuminum cyminum essential oils and chlorhexidine were assessed against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus pyogenes. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis led to the identification of 26 and 32 compounds in the essential oils of M. piperita and C. cyminum, respectively. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the oils and chlorhexidine and microbial decimal reduction time (D value) were determined. Antibacterial and in vivo biofilm preventive efficacies of all the concentrations of M. piperita oil were significantly (p<0.001) higher. The biofilm inhibitory properties in planktonic cultures were in M. piperita>chlorhexidine>C. cyminum order. In vivo experiments conducted on male and female volunteers who brushed with essential oil blended toothpastes indicated that lower concentrations of the oils, in particular the M. piperita oil, were significantly higher (p<0.001) and effective during the course of the study as compared to chlorhexidine. In conclusion, there may be a potential role for essential oils in the development of novel anticaries treatments.

Article Published Date : Mar 20, 2008

Study Type : In Vitro Study

26) The Complete Illustrated Book of Herbs, Alex Frampton, The Reader’s Digest Association, 2009

27) A. Sustrikova, I. Salamon, Essential oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) from fields in Eastern Slovakia., 2004: Zahradnictvi Horticultural Science 31(1): 31-36

28) Spearmint herbal tea has significant anti-androgen effects in polycystic ovarian syndrome

Abstract Title:

Spearmint herbal tea has significant anti-androgen effects in polycystic ovarian syndrome. A randomized controlled trial.

Abstract Source:

Phytother Res. 2009 Jul 7. PMID: 19585478

Abstract Author(s):

Paul Grant

Abstract:

Hirsutism in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), consequent to elevated androgen levels leads to significant cosmetic and psychological problems. Recent research in Turkey has shown that spearmint tea has antiandrogenic properties in females with hirsutism. No research has yet been undertaken to assess whether a reduction in androgen levels brought about by spearmint tea, translates to a clinical improvement in the degree of hirsutism.This study was a two centre, 30 day randomized controlled trial. Forty two volunteers were randomized to take spearmint tea twice a day for a 1 month period and compared with a placebo herbal tea. At 0, 15 and 30 days of the study serum androgen hormone levels and gonadotrophins were checked, the degree of hirsutism was clinically rated using the Ferriman-Galwey score and a questionnaire (the modified DQLI = Dermatology Quality of Life Index) was used to assess improvements in the level of self-reported hirsutism.Forty one of 42 patients completed the study. Free and total testosterone levels were significantly reduced over the 30 day period in the spearmint tea group (p < 0.05). LH and FSH also increased (p < 0.05). Patient’s subjective assessments of their degree of hirsutism scored by the modified DQLI were significantly reduced in the spearmint tea group (p < 0.05). There was, however, no significant reduction in the objective Ferriman-Galwey ratings of hirsutism between the two trial groups over the trial duration (p = 0.12). There was a clear and significant alteration in the relevant hormone levels. This is associated clinically with a reduction in the self-reported degree of hirsutism but unfortunately not with the objectively rated score.It was demonstrated and confirmed that spearmint has antiandrogen properties, the simple fact that this does not clearly translate into clinical practice is due to the relationship between androgen hormones and follicular hair growth and cell turnover time. Simply put, the study duration was not long enough. The original studies from Turkey were in fact only 5 days long. The time taken for hirsutism to resolve is significant and a much longer future study is proposed as the preliminary findings are encouraging that spearmint has the potential for use as a helpful and natural treatment for hirsutism in PCOS. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Article Published Date : Jul 07, 2009

Study Type : Human Study

29) Spearmint can be an alternative to antiandrogenic treatment for mild hirsutism

Abstract Title:

Effect of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae) teas on androgen levels in women with hirsutism.

Abstract Source:

Phytother Res. 2007 May;21(5):444-7. PMID: 17310494

Abstract Author(s):

Mehmet Akdoğan, Mehmet Numan Tamer, Erkan Cüre, Medine Cumhur Cüre, Banu Kale Köroğlu, Namik Delibaş

Abstract:

Mentha spicata Labiatae, known as spearmint and Mentha piperita Labiatae, known as peppermint can be used for various kinds of illnesses in herbal medicine and flavoring in industry. M. spicata Labiatae grows on the Anamas plateau of Yenithornarbademli town of Isparta, located in southwest part of Turkey. In this town, clinicians thought that consumption of tea steeped with M. spicata or M. piperita caused a diminished libido. Because antiandrogenic effects of spearmint and peppermint were found previously in rats, it was decided to observe the effect of this herbal tea on the androgen levels in hirsute women.Twenty-one female hirsute patients, 12 with polycystic ovary syndrome and 9 with idiopathic hirsutism were included to the study. They were took a cup of herbal tea which was steeped with M. spicata for 5 days twice a day in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycles. After treatment with spearmint teas, there was a significant decrease in free testosterone and increase in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol. There were no significant decreases in total testosterone or dehydroepiandrostenedione sulphate levels. Spearmint can be an alternative to antiandrogenic treatment for mild hirsutism. Further studies are needed to test the reliability of these results and the availability of spearmint as a drug for hirsutism. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Article Published Date : May 01, 2007

Study Type : Human Study

30) “Short-term study on the effects of rosemary on cognitive function in an elderly population.”

Abstract Title:

Short-term study on the effects of rosemary on cognitive function in an elderly population.

Abstract Source:

J Med Food. 2012 Jan ;15(1):10-7. Epub 2011 Aug 30. PMID: 21877951

Abstract Author(s):

Andrew Pengelly, James Snow, Simon Y Mills, Andrew Scholey, Keith Wesnes, Leah Reeves Butler

Article Affiliation:

Herbal Medicine Department, Tai Sophia Institute, Laurel, Maryland 20723, USA. apengelly@tai.edu

Abstract:

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has traditional reputations that justify investigation for a potential role in reducing widespread cognitive decline in the elderly. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, repeated-measures crossover study was conducted to investigate possible acute effects of dried rosemary leaf powder on cognitive performance. Twenty-eight older adults (mean age, 75 years) were tested using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment system 1, 2.5, 4, and 6 hours following a placebo and four different doses of rosemary. Doses were counterbalanced, and there was a 7-day washout between visits. There was a biphasic dose-dependent effect in measures of speed of memory: the lowest dose (750 mg) of rosemary had a statistically significant beneficial effect compared with placebo (P=.01), whereas the highest dose (6,000 mg) had a significant impairing effect (P<.01). There were significant deleterious effects on other measures of cognitive performance, although these were less consistent. Speed of memory is a potentially useful predictor of cognitive function during aging. The positive effect of the dose nearest normal culinary consumption points to the value of further work on effects of low doses over the longer term.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2011

Study Type : Human Study

78 Scientific Published Articles on the Health Benefits of Coconut Oil!

Robert Young

Robert Young, CPT, MSc, DSc, PhD, Naturopath

Research Scientist at the pH Miracle Center 85 articles

78 Benefits of coconut oil are just phenomenal for your body, skin and hair. There are many nutritional, skin care and hair care products that have coconut oil or coconut powder as an active ingredient in their formulations. There is, unfortunately, some of these products on the market that use processed refined coconut oil. Refined, chemically processed coconut oil is no match to cold-pressed virgin (pure) coconut oil when it comes to the health benefits for YOUR body, skin and hair.

What is Virgin Coconut oil

Cold-Pressed Virgin coconut oil means pure, unrefined coconut oil which is extracted from cold pressing of coconut kernels. Cold pressing involves pressing and grinding process at lower temperatures to retain the original taste, aroma and nutritional value. Most of the coconut oil available these days are refined ones. Refining process involves bleaching and addition of added artificial fragrances. This is the reason that most of the coconut oils available these days are colorless and don’t have that essence of pure coconut oil. The Nutritional content of these refined coconut oils is far less than virgin coconut oil. Refined coconut oil lacks sweet taste, smell and other vital health benefits.

Is Coconut oil healthy or Is It Poison?

There is a general conception that SATURATED FATS are not good to eat because they would add calories which in turn will make you overweight, less energetic and cause sclerotic plaque in the arteries leading to heart disease. This is why you see a lot of processed foods highlighting ZERO SATURATED FATS or ZERO TRANS FATS on their packaging. Trans fats or the crossing linking of hydrogen ions are BAD for YOU but are SATURATED FATS highs in coconut oil BAD for you also and does coconut oil contain trans fats?

A recent lecture by a Harvard professor calling coconut oil “pure poison” has gone viral on YouTube, nearing 1 million views on Wednesday.

Screen Shot 2018-08-25 at 10.58.50 AM

In her talk titled “Coconut oil and other nutritional errors,” Karin Michels, who is an adjunct professor of epidemiology at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, says coconut oil is not healthy, calling it “poison” at least three times in the widely-circulated video.

Dr. Michels states, “I can only warn you urgently about coconut oil,” she says. “This is one of the worst foods you can eat.”

Objective Science vs Subjective Science

Listening to Dr. Michels lecture reminds me of a story I like to tell to illustrate the objectivity vs. the subjectivity of current scientific research. Here is an of example of what I mean:

Objective medical research finding – A new study shows:

1) Japanese eat very little fat and have fewer heart attacks than Americans

Objective medical research finding – A new study shows:

2) Mexicans eat a lot of fat and have fewer heart attacks than Americans

Objective medical research finding – A new study shows:

3) Chinese drink very little red wine and have fewer heart attacks than Americans

Objective medical research finding – A new study shows:

4) Italians drink a lot of red wine and have fewer heart attacks than Americans

Objective medical research finding – A new study shows:

5) Germans drink a lot of beer and eat sausage but suffer fewer heart attacks than Americans

Final subjective medical research conclusion:

Eat and drink whatever you like being American is what kills you!

This conclusion sounds outrageous but this is what we are dealing with when we understand that the sciences are NOT objective BUT subjective based upon the investigators subjective conclusions.

Traditional medical research science can be good, but other ways of knowing should be equally valued! Why? Because science is actually the product of many of the other ways of knowing that research scientists seem to think below their objective measure.

The truth is, there is no way of truly knowing what objectivity is, because we all have our subjective way of experiencing and interpreting the world.

This line of thinking is what led Rene Descarte to doubt everything. But, the only thing he knew he could not doubt was that he was doubting. Hence, his famous pronouncement, “I think, therefore I am.” A better translation would’ve been, I doubt, therefore I know I am because I know it is me that is doubting!

 

Therefore, I would suggest that Dr. Michel’s conclusions concerning the efficacy of coconut oil can only be subjective and her personal perspective or opinion as she views the current research on coconut oil, even though my experience is totally different.

Normal and Low Cholesterol Causes Coronary Heart Disease and Heart Attacks

The largest and longest study on saturated fats and hyper-cholesterol causing coronary heart disease is called the Framingham study. This landmark study started in the 50’s showing that a high-fat diet does NOT cause heart disease! In fact, the higher the cholesterol the lower the risk of coronary heart disease showing the protective benefits of high cholesterol. It is important to note that 80 percent of all people developing coronary heart disease and are at a risk for a heart attack have normal or low cholesterol. The following is the graphic results of this HUGE study that has been kept a secret from the population Worldwide.

The research of Robert O Young PhD shows the same results when the client/patient follows an alkaline lifestyle and diet. The following represents that research of Dr. Young and the effects of the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet, a high-fat diet, including coconut oil. Maren is part of an on-going study being conducted by the University of Utah on diagnosed Familia Hyper-cholesterolemia. Here are the results!

 

Maren also lost over 70 pounds of acidic bound fat following an alkaline lifestyle and diet, including liberal amounts of coconut oil.

So, according to Karin Michels coconut oil would NOT have ANY health benefits because coconut oil is nothing but saturated fat and saturated causes blocked arteries leading to heart disease, weight gain and loss of energy. My own research has found that a high fat diet from plant sources, including coconut oil protects against coronary heart disease leading to heart attacks, the number one cause of death in the World.

The Real Truth About Coconut Oil!

Coconut oil is a medium chain saturated fatty acid; it is not a long chain saturated fatty acid like various fatty meats, butter, cheese, various seed oils etc. Medium chain saturated fatty acids (MCSFAs) are also known as medium chain triglycerides (MCTs). Similarly, long chain saturated fatty acids (LCFAs) are known as long chain triglycerides (LCTs).

Benefits of MCSFAs over LCSFAs

  • Unlike LCSFAs, MCSFAs break down easily putting a lesser burden on your alimentary canal.
  • MCSFAs permeate easily through cell membranes and hence are easily absorbed by your body.
  • MCSFAs are transferred directly to your liver from the small and large intestines. Hence, they are readily converted into energy and are not stored as fats (as in case of LCSFAs)
  • MCSFAs can be metabolized at a faster rate than LCSFAs.

Hence, coconut oil is a medium chain saturated fatty acid and is surely one of those saturated fats which is healthful NOT harmful and surely NOT poisonous!

Coconut oil as an anti-inflammatory:

Benefits of oral consumption of Coconut Oil

Coconut oil contains a fatty acid known as lauric acid. Lauric acid is commonly found in breast milk (this is why coconut oil is an active ingredient in various baby care products). This lauric acid has anti-fungal, anti-viral and anti-bacterial properties. Coconut oil is considered a natural immunity booster for ages.

  • Coconut oil is a natural immunity booster; reduces inflammation and eliminates bad bacteria from your body. In this way, coconut oil fixes all the three issues related to an autoimmune disorder like Psoriasis. Coconut oil detox program is highly recommended by health experts to get rid of Candida (yeast infection).
  • MCSFAs present in coconut oil transforms or destroys various harmful viruses, bacteria, fungi present in your body.
  • MCSFAs present in coconut oil stimulates body metabolism process which in turn brings back all the natural mechanisms like body detoxification, cells repair and growth back on track eventually enhancing your body immunity
  • Coconut oil works amazingly well in dealing with leaky gut syndrome (and fat malabsorption) because MCSFAs present in coconut oil are easily absorbed by your body.
  • Coconut oil helps in weight loss because MCSFAs present in coconut oil goes straight from the small and large intestines to liver where they are converted into energy increasing your energy level. Due to this increased energy level, you would feel satisfied (fuller) and a disciplined diet program, like the pH Miracle diet would be easier for you.

Coconut oil for skin and hair: Benefits of topical application

Topical application of coconut oil is not a new concept. Coconut oil can moisturize your scalp and your body amazingly well. Psoriasis flakes are very dry in nature and quite itchy as well, particularly the scalp psoriasis. Hence, using coconut oil on your scalp can be a soothing experience for you. Pleasing smell of coconut oil is a great news for those who are looking for some natural topical alternatives to those steroids based topical ointments. Coconut oil’s pleasant smell and non sticky nature readily make it an amazing choice for topical application on the skin.

How to use coconut oil

Virgin coconut oil is consumed orally as well as applied on skin to take care of psoriasis.

Oral consumption of coconut oil is possible in two ways:

1. Consuming it as a whole – Take one teaspoonful of virgin coconut oil twice a day, in the morning before breakfast and at night before sleep. You should not eat or drink anything before and after taking it for at least 1 hour to get the best benefits.

2. As an alternative to cooking oil/butter– Thanks to the heat withstanding properties of coconut oil, it can be used as a regular cooking oil in baking, cooking and frying. You can also use it as a spread on bread or as salad dressing.

3. Topical application of coconut oil: Generally, it is advised to apply coconut oil on your skin after taking bath/shower and properly massage it to make sure it is well absorbed by the body. Coconut oil is absorbed by the body readily. Do not forget to massage coconut oil on your scalp also. It is amazingly good for scalp psoriasis.

Where to Buy the Best Cold-Pressed Organic Virgin Coconut oil

Availability of virgin coconut oil in general departmental stores is suspicious. Always buy cold-pressed organic virgin coconut oil by checking the packing label. It should clearly mention that it is cold pressed and unrefined and organic. You can purchase virgin coconut oil from various health stores or online shopping portals like at: http://www.ijuicenow.com

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Good to know: Benefits of Coconut Water

Apart from coconut oil, coconut water is also fortified with a lot of health benefits. Drinking coconut water can improve digestion, reduces acid reflux and is a rich source of various electrolytes (calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus). Drinking coconut water has numerous health benefits with almost no side effects. The recommended dosage is 15-20 ounces of coconut water a day.

The following are 78 peer-reviewed scientific researched and tested human health benefits and uses for cold-pressed organic virgin coconut oil!

78 HUMAN HEALTH BENEFITS and USES FOR COCONUT OIL! and GROWING! (Check back daily on this article for updates on the scientific benefits of COCONUT OIL)

1. Use Coconut Oil with instead of vegetable or seed oils. Coconut oil naturally has a high temperature point, is highly stable due to its high saturated fat content, and imparts very little “coconut” flavor to your foods.

2. In your Coconut oil instead of dairy creamer. Yes – that’s right, use coconut oil, not cows milk which is high in lactose, a sugar that may cause cancer!

3. To wash your face with Coconut oil instead of soap. It sounds strange, but oil washes impurities out better than soap and it doesn’t dry your skin! It takes a week to get use to it – the skin on your face is so use to being dried out by soap and facial cleansers that it’s producing extra oil to counteract it. So, it’ll take a little bit of time for your skin to stop producing all that extra oil.

4. Brush your teeth with Coconut Oil. Coconut oil has many antimicrobial properties which can make it good for eliminating or transforming bacteria and yeast in your mouth. To make your own toothpaste, simply add 2 tablespoons of coconut oil (melt it in surgical stainless steel cookware very briefly so that it’s softened) to 2-3 tablespoons of pHour salts – http://www.phoreveryoung.com. Mix to form a paste and spread on your toothbrush. (The pHour Salts will whitens your teeth because of the sodium and potassium bicarbonate).

5. Coconut oil pulling. This is similar to the previous use in that it helps with oral hygiene. Oil pulling has long been a popular practice in India and with Ayurvedic practitioners. It involves swishing oil around your mouth for 20 minutes before spitting it out. The idea behind the practice is to remove bacteria and yeast from your teeth and mouth, which can then alleviate various other health challenges (including arthritis and fatigue).

6. Coconut oil as a body moisturizer. Our skin absorbs whatever creams we put on it (think of all the topical pain relief medications that work because it gets absorbed through our skin). So, instead of pumping random chemicals from your moisturizers into your skin, many people choose to use coconut oil instead. You can use it at the end of your shower so that it’s more easily absorbed and before your skin has had a chance to dry.

7. Coconut oil as a sun-screen. This is not a high SPF sunscreen, but a 2013 study found that coconut oil absorbs 20% in the UVB region (this equates to something under SPF 10 –). So definitely use coconut oil and stay alkaline so the skin pH is over 7.2 for preventing sun burn.

8. Coconut oil as a hair conditioner. Use coconut oil as a hair conditioner, or use iJuice Conditioner and Shampoo which has a coconut base – http://www.ijuicenow.com. You don’t need much and just rub it into the scalp and hair.

9. Coconut as a supplement. Using iJuice coconut oil as a supplement can help with weight loss and increasing your “HDL” cholesterol while lowering your “LDL” cholesterol.

10. Coconut oil as a massage oil. Coconut oil doesn’t get absorbed into your skin quickly, which ensures your skin stays slippery for longer period of time thereby making it perfect for you to enjoy a long and relaxing massage!

11. Coconut oil for reducing scars.

12. Coconut oil for treating lice. There have been several studies showing it’ efficacy.

13. Coconut oil to soften cracked heels.

14. Coconut oil as a hair serum. Use it to smooth away any frizz just like you would use hair serum for.

15. Coconut oil as a buttery spread. Because coconut oil is solid at room temperature, it’s usually at a perfect spread consistency when heated just a little. It’s perfect for spreading on some Paleo bread.

16. Coconut oil to prevent and treat fungal infections. It’s an easy and cheap cure for things like Athlete’s Foot.

17. Coconut oil as a glaze. When cold, coconut oil becomes solid very quickly. This gives it a white glaze appearance. Perfect to top onto chilled desserts!

18. Coconut oil to season cast iron pans. Instead of using rancid vegetable and seed oils, try using coconut oil.

19. Coconut oil to improve Parkinson’s disease.

20. Coconut oil to condition wooden cutting boards

21. Coconut oil to bake with instead of butter. Coconut oil can be used as a replacement for butter in a lot of recipes.

22. Coconut oil as an easy way to make coconut butter. Here’s my recipe for coconut butter.

23. As an eye make-up remover. This is my personal favorite – why use chemicals in the delicate areas around your eyes when coconut oil works just as well!

24. As a natural remedy for diaper rash.

25. To add to your protein shake.

26. To relieve itching from bug bites.

27. To help lower high blood pressure. study found that coconut oil reduced blood pressure in rats.

28. To lessen the damaging effects of dementia.

29. To heal wounds. A study on rats found extra virgin coconut oil to speed up the healing process (when compared to not using any oil).

30. To reduce puffiness around the eyes. Don’t forget that eating an anti-inflammatory diet will also help with this!

31. As a lip balm. And it tastes great too.

32. To enhance nutrient absorption. Many nutrients are fat-soluble, which means that your body cannot absorb them if there’s not enough fat in what you eat. Coconut oil has been shown to be better than several other oils at this for certain nutrients.

33. To improve osteoporosis.

34. To relieve sun-burn.

35. To improve your memory. A 2004 study found coconut oil to improve cognitive functions in Alzheimer patients.

36. To make lotion bars. One of my favorite lotion bars from a local honey producer contains just 3 ingredients: beeswax, coconut oil, and olive oil.

37. To make soap, shampoo and hair conditioner.

38. To make laundry detergent. Slightly different method to making soap.

39. For hemorrhoid relief.

40. As a hair gel.

41. To remove stretch marks.

42. As a shaving cream. Moisturizes and acts as lubricant!

43. In a nourishing hair mask. Quick recipe here.

44. In an after-shave cream. Simple recipe here.

45. In a nourishing lotion for your skin. Simple recipe here.

46. As a salt scrub. Simple recipe here.

47. In a cough syrup. Simple recipe here.

48. In a sore throat cure. Recipe here.

49. In a homemade natural deodorant. Recipe here.

50. To help hair regrowth (baldness issues). Here’s a guide about it.

51. To make your own cuticle oil. Recipe here.

52. To stop nose bleeds. Cayenne mixed with a little bit of coconut oil has been.

53. To prevent nose bleeds. Rub a little bit up your nose to stop it from drying out in the winter time when your heating is on.

54. To fuel your workouts. Yes, fat is a fuel, and a lot of your body runs on saturated fats (which is the main fat in coconut oil).

55. To build more muscle. Body builders have long used MCT oil (a component of coconut oil) to help them build muscle.

56. As a testosterone booster.

57. As first aid. It’s great to put on cuts and scrapes after washing the wound.

58. To kill off candida yeast growth. 

59. To help cure small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

60. To decrease an insulin spike. It takes longer for your body to digest fats, and so any carbohydrates you eat with the fats will take longer to digest thereby lessening any spikes in your insulin.

61. To stimulate your thyroid.

62. To burn fat around your stomach. A 2009 study concluded that: “It appears that dietetic supplementation with coconut oil…seems to promote a reduction in abdominal obesity.”

63. To remove chewing gum from hair. I had no idea this was even a problem that could arise!

64. To clean and restore leather.

65. To season stoneware. Here’s how to do it with coconut oil.

66. To make good healthy mayo. Here’s my recipe with olive oil – you can substitute coconut oil instead.

67. In a natural vapor rub.

68. As a sexual lubricant.

69. Virgin coconut oil consumption reduced the side effects of chemotherapy and helped improve the functional status and the quality of life of breast cancer patients.

70. Coconut oil was found to be beneficial in female patients with Alzheimer’s dementia.

71. Daily consumption of virgin coconut oil in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

72. Coconut oil may have therapeutic value in treating acute aluminium phosphide poisoning.

73. Coconut oil exhibits beneficial properties for cardiovascular health.

74. Coconut oil is an effective burn wound healing agent.

75. Coconut oil has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities.

76. Safety study: Coconut oil is safe as a cosmetic ingredient.

77. Coconut oil intake may improve brain health by directly activating ketogenesis in astrocytes.

78. Coconut oil contains lauric acid which lowers cholesterol.

Conclusion

Coconut oil is a medium chain fatty acid having incredible health and fitness benefits. It is a powerful body moisturizer and it is anti bacterial and anti fungal in nature. It can help you rid YOUR body of the pleomorphic bacteria and yeast (Candida). It can also help you to reverse the problem of leaky gut syndrome to restrengthen the immunity of YOUR body. Scientific research has shown that coconut oil eases the symptoms of psoriasis by drinking coconut water and applying coconut oil on YOUR skin regularly. The bottom-line is this – Coconut oil is safe and effective and can be used daily in providing human health, energy and vitality and preventing and reversing human sickness and disease.

Scientific Research, Both Human and Animal Studies Proving the Efficacy of Coconut Oil

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1) A diet rich in extra virgin coconut oil seems to favor the reduction of waist circumference and the increase of HDL-C concentrations

Article Publish Status: FREE

Abstract Title:

A COCONUT EXTRA VIRGIN OIL-RICH DIET INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND DECREASES WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AND BODY MASS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE PATIENTS

Abstract Source:

Nutr Hosp. 2015 ;32(5):2144-52. Epub 2015 Nov 1. PMID: 26545671

Abstract Author(s):

Diuli A Cardoso, Annie S B Moreira, Glaucia M M de Oliveira, Ronir Raggio Luiz, Glorimar Rosa

Article Affiliation:

Diuli A Cardoso

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: saturated fat restriction has been recommended for coronary arterial disease, but the role of coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) extra virgin, lauric acid source in the management of lipid profile remains unclear.

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the effect of nutritional treatment associated with the consumption of extra virgin coconut oil in anthropometric parameters and lipid profile.

METHODS: we conducted a longitudinal study of 116 adults of both sexes presenting CAD. Patients were followed in two stages: the first stage (basal-3 months), intensive nutritional treatment. In the second stage (3-6 months), the subjects were divided into two groups: diet group associated with extra virgin coconut oil consumption (GDOC) and diet group (DG). Held monthly anthropometric measurements: body mass, waist circumference (WC), neck circumference (PP), body mass index (BMI). Gauged to collected blood pressure and blood samples were fasted for 12 hours, for total cholesterol analysis and fractions apoproteins (Apo A-1 and B), glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin (I). Comparing the averages at the beginning and end of the study employing the paired Student t-independent. And set the diastolic blood pressure by BMI using ANOVA. Analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package, being significant p<0.05.

RESULTS: the mean age of the population was 62.4± 7.7 years, 63.2% male, 70% elderly, 77.6% infarcted, 52.6% with angina, hypertension and dyslipidemia 100%. In the first stage the nutritional treatment reduced body weight, WC, BMI and PP and insulin concentrations, HbA1C, HOMA-IR and QUICK, without changing the other parameters. In the second stage of the study, it was observed that the GDOC maintained the reduction of body mass, BMI, WC, with a significant difference between groups for DC (-2.1 ± 2,7 cm; p<0.01). In addition, there was an increase in HDL-C concentrations, Apo A, with significant difference in GD, only for HDL-C (3.1± 7.4 mg/dL; p = 0.02).

CONCLUSION: it was observed that the nutritional treatment associated with extra virgin coconut oil consumption reduced the CC and increased HDL-C levels in patients with CAD.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014

Study Type: Human Study

2. Although permethrin lotion is still effective for some people, coconut and anise spray can be a significantly more effective alternative treatment

Abstract Title:

Clinical trial showing superiority of a coconut and anise spray over permethrin 0.43% lotion for head louse infestation, ISRCTN96469780.

Abstract Source:

Eur J Pediatr. 2010 Jan ;169(1):55-62. Epub 2009 Apr 3. PMID: 19343362

Abstract Author(s):

Ian F Burgess, Elizabeth R Brunton, Nazma A Burgess

Article Affiliation:

Medical Entomology Centre, Insect Research&Development Limited, 6 Quy Court, Colliers Lane, Stow-cum-Quy, Cambridge CB25 9AU, UK. ian@insectresearch.com

Abstract:

Permethrin is the most widely used pediculicide, but evidence of resistance from several countries and anecdotal reports from Germany suggest that permethrin lotion is now less effective. We designed a randomized, controlled, parallel group trial involving 100 participants with active head louse infestation to investigate the activity of a coconut and anise spray and to see whether permethrin lotion is still effective, using two applications of product 9 days apart. The spray was significantly more successful (41/50, 82.0%) cures compared with permethrin (21/50, 42.0%; p<0.0001, difference 40.0%, 95% confidence interval of 22.5% to 57.5%). Per-protocol success was 83.3% and 44.7%, respectively. Thirty-three people reported irritant reactions following alcohol contact with excoriated skin. We concluded that, although permethrin lotion is still effective for some people, the coconut and anise spray can be a significantly more effective alternative treatment.

Article Published Date: Jan 01, 2010

Study Type: Human Study

3. Coconut oil was found to be beneficial in female patients with Alzheimer’s dementia

Abstract Title:

[COCONUT OIL: NON-ALTERNATIVE DRUG TREATMENT AGAINST ALZHEIME´S DISEASE]

Abstract Source:

Nutr Hosp. 2015 ;32(6):2822-7. Epub 2015 Dec 1. PMID: 26667739

Abstract Author(s):

Iván Hu Yang, Jose Enrique De la Rubia Ortí, Pablo Selvi Sabater, Sandra Sancho Castillo, Mariano Julián Rochina, Noemí Manresa Ramón, Inmaculada Montoya-Castilla

Article Affiliation:

Iván Hu Yang

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer’s dementia is the most prevalent nowadays. As for treatment, there is no definitive cure drug, thus new therapies are needed. In this regard the medium chain triglycerides are a direct source of cellular energy and can be a nonpharmacological alternative to the neuronal death for lack of it, that occurs in Alzheimer patients.

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the impact of coconut oil in the development of Alzheimer’s dementia, in any degree of dementia. Also determine whether this improvement influences within variables such as sex and suffering or not Type II Diabetes Mellitus.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: a prospective study was conducted in patients with Alzheimer’s dementia, with a control and an intervention group which was administered 40 ml/day of extra virgin coconut oil. The parameters evaluated were the mini test scores Lobo cognitive test, pre and post intervention in both groups.

RESULTS: it was observed in subjects taking the product, a statistically significant increase in test score MECWOLF and therefore an improvement in cognitive status, improving especially women’s, those without diabetes mellitus type II, and severe patients.

CONCLUSION: this study, although preliminary, demonstrated the positive influence of coconut oil at the cognitive level of patients with Alzheimer’s, this improvement being dependent on sex, presence or absence of diabetes and degree of dementia.

Article Published Date: Dec 31, 2014

Study Type: Human Study

4. Medium Chain Triglycerides (coconut fat) increase cognitive performance in Alzheimer’s disease

Abstract Title:

Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adults.

Abstract Source:

Neurobiol Aging. 2004 Mar;25(3):311-4. PMID: 15123336

Abstract Author(s):

Mark A Reger, Samuel T Henderson, Cathy Hale, Brenna Cholerton, Laura D Baker, G S Watson, Karen Hyde, Darla Chapman, Suzanne Craft

Abstract:

Glucose is the brain’s principal energy substrate. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), there appears to be a pathological decrease in the brain’s ability to use glucose. Neurobiological evidence suggests that ketone bodies are an effective alternative energy substrate for the brain. Elevation of plasma ketone body levels through an oral dose of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) may improve cognitive functioning in older adults with memory disorders. On separate days, 20 subjects with AD or mild cognitive impairment consumed a drink containing emulsified MCTs or placebo. Significant increases in levels of the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) were observed 90 min after treatment (P=0.007) when cognitive tests were administered. beta-OHB elevations were moderated by apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype (P=0.036). For 4+ subjects, beta-OHB levels continued to rise between the 90 and 120 min blood draws in the treatment condition, while the beta-OHB levels of 4- subjects held constant (P<0.009). On cognitive testing, MCT treatment facilitated performance on the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog) for 4- subjects, but not for 4+ subjects (P=0.04). Higher ketone values were associated with greater improvement in paragraph recall with MCT treatment relative to placebo across all subjects (P=0.02). Additional research is warranted to determine the therapeutic benefits of MCTs for patients with AD and how APOE-4 status may mediate beta-OHB efficacy.

Article Published Date: Mar 22, 2006

Study Type: Human Study

5. Isocaloric coconut oil enriched Mediterranean diet seems to improve cognitive functions in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

Abstract Title:

Improvement of Main Cognitive Functions in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease after Treatment with Coconut Oil Enriched Mediterranean Diet: A Pilot Study.

Abstract Source:

J Alzheimers Dis. 2018 Jul 20. Epub 2018 Jul 20. PMID: 30056419

Abstract Author(s):

José Enrique de la Rubia Ortí, Mar Rsquo Ia Pilar García-Pardo, Eraci Drehmer, David Sancho Cantus, Mariano Julián Rochina, Maria Asunción Aguilar Calpe, Iván Hu Yang

Article Affiliation:

José Enrique de la Rubia Ortí

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder (mainly in women), and new therapies are needed. In this way, ketone bodies are a direct source of cellular energy and can be obtained from coconut oil, postulating that coconut oil could be a new non-pharmacological alternative in AD patients.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to detect changes in the main cognitive functions of patients with AD after following a coconut oil enriched Mediterranean diet, and to determine whether there are differences in function of stage or sex.

METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal, qualitative, analytic, experimental study was carried out in 44 patients with AD, who were randomly divided into two homogenous groups of 22 patients each: an experimental group of patients who followed a coconut oil enriched Mediterranean diet for 21 days and a control group. In order to determine the cognitive changes after the intervention, we carried out the 7 Minute Screen, which analyses temporal orientation, visuospatial and visuoconstructive abilities, and semantic and episodic memory.

RESULTS: After intervention with coconut oil, improvements in episodic, temporal orientation, and semantic memory were observed, and it seems that the positive effect is more evident in women with mild-moderate state, although other improvements in males and severe state were also shown.

CONCLUSIONS: The isocaloric coconut oil enriched Mediterranean diet seems to improve cognitive functions in patients with AD, with differences according to patient sex and degree of severity of the disease, although more studies in this line are needed.

Article Published Date : Jul 19, 2018

Study Type: Human Study

6. Dietary coconut oil elevates HDL and reduces abdominal obesity in women

Abstract Title:

Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity.

Abstract Source:

Lipids. 2009 Jul;44(7):593-601. Epub 2009 May 13. PMID: 19437058

Abstract Author(s):

Monica L Assunção, Haroldo S Ferreira, Aldenir F dos Santos, Cyro R Cabral, Telma M M T Florêncio

Abstract:

The effects of dietary supplementation with coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting waist circumferences (WC) >88 cm (abdominal obesity) were investigated. The randomised, double-blind, clinical trial involved 40 women aged 20-40 years. Groups received daily dietary supplements comprising 30 mL of either soy bean oil (group S; n = 20) or coconut oil (group C; n = 20) over a 12-week period, during which all subjects were instructed to follow a balanced hypocaloric diet and to walk for 50 min per day. Data were collected 1 week before (T1) and 1 week after (T2) dietary intervention. Energy intake and amount of carbohydrate ingested by both groups diminished over the trial, whereas the consumption of protein and fibre increased and lipid ingestion remained unchanged. At T1 there were no differences in biochemical or anthropometric characteristics between the groups, whereas at T2 group C presented a higher level of HDL (48.7 +/- 2.4 vs. 45.00 +/- 5.6; P = 0.01) and a lower LDL:HDL ratio (2.41 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.8; P = 0.04). Reductions in BMI were observed in both groups at T2 (P < 0.05), but only group C exhibited a reduction in WC (P = 0.005). Group S presented an increase (P < 0.05) in total cholesterol, LDL and LDL:HDL ratio, whilst HDL diminished (P = 0.03). Such alterations were not observed in group C. It appears that dietetic supplementation with coconut oil does not cause dyslipidemia and seems to promote a reduction in abdominal obesity.

Article Published Date: July 01, 2009

Study Type: Human Study

7. Virgin coconut oil consumption reduced the side effects of chemotherapy and helped improve the functional status and the quality of life of breast cancer patients.

Article Publish Status: FREE

Click here to read the complete article.

Abstract Title:

The effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) as supplementation on quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients.

Abstract Source:

Lipids Health Dis. 2014 ;13:139. Epub 2014 Aug 27. PMID: 25163649

Abstract Author(s):

Kim Sooi Law, Nizuwan Azman, Eshaifol Azam Omar, Muhammad Yusri Musa, Narazah Mohd Yusoff, Siti Amrah Sulaiman, Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain

Article Affiliation:

Kim Sooi Law

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer amongst Malaysian women. Both the disease and its treatment can disrupt the lives of the woman and adversely affect all aspects of life and thus can alter a woman’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on the quality of life (QOL) of patients diagnosed with breast cancer.

METHODS: This was a prospective study of breast cancer patients admitted into the Oncology Unit of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. The sample consisted of 60 patients with stage III and IV breast cancer allocated to either an intervention group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 30) using a simple random table. QOL was evaluated from the first cycle of chemotherapy to the sixth cycle, and data were collected using a validated Bahasa Malaysia version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Breast Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its breast-specific module (QLQ-BR 23).

RESULTS: The mean age of breast cancer patients was 50.2 (SD = 13.5) years. There were significant mean score differences for functioning and global QOL between groups (α < 0.01). The intervention group also had better scores for symptoms including fatigue, dyspnea, sleep difficulties, and loss of appetite compared to the control group. Although there are deteriorations for sexual enjoyment, the intervention group exhibited improvement in breast functioning and symptom scores for body image, sexual function, future perspective, breast symptoms, and systemic therapy side effects.

CONCLUSION: VCO consumption during chemotherapy helped improve the functional status and global QOL of breast cancer patients. In addition, it reduced the symptoms related to side effects of chemotherapy.

Article Published Date: Dec 31, 2013

Study Type: Human Study

8. Coconut oil may have therapeutic value in treating acute aluminium phosphide poisoning

Abstract Title:

Successful treatment of acute aluminium phosphide poisoning: possible benefit of coconut oil.

Abstract Source:

Hum Exp Toxicol. 2005 Apr;24(4):215-8. PMID: 15957538

Abstract Author(s):

Shahin Shadnia, Mojgan Rahimi, Abdolkarim Pajoumand, Mohammad-Hosein Rasouli, Mohammad Abdollahi

Article Affiliation:

Poison Center, Loghman-Hakim Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Shaheed-Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract:

Aluminium phosphide is used to control rodents and pests in grain storage facilities. It produces phosphine gas, which is a mitochondrial poison. Unfortunately, there is no known antidote for aluminium phosphide intoxication, but our recent experience with a case showed that rapid prevention of absorption by coconut oil might be helpful. In the present case, we used the same protocol in a 28-year-old man who had ingested a lethal amount (12 g) of aluminium phosphide with suicidal intent and was admitted to hospital approximately 6 hours postingestion. The patient had signs and symptoms of severe toxicity, and his clinical course included metabolic acidosis and liver dysfunction. Treatment consisted of gastric lavage with potassium permanganate solution, oral administration of charcoal and sorbitol suspension, intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, magnesium sulphate and calcium gluconate, and oral administration of sodium bicarbonate and coconut oil. Conservative and supportive therapy in the Intensive Care Unit was also provided. The patient survived following rapid treatment and supportive care. It is concluded that coconut oil has a positive clinical significance and can be added to the treatment protocol of acute aluminium phosphide poisoning in humans.

Article Published Date: Apr 01, 2005

Study Type: Human: Case Report

9. Virgin coconut oil is superior to mineral oil in treating atopic dermatitis in a pediatric population.

Abstract Title:

The effect of topical virgin coconut oil on SCORAD index, transepidermal water loss, and skin capacitance in mild to moderate pediatric atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.

Abstract Source:

Abstract Author(s):

Mara Therese Padilla Evangelista, Flordeliz Abad-Casintahan, Lillian Lopez-Villafuerte

Article Affiliation:

Department of Dermatology, Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center, Manila, Philippines.

Abstract:

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease characterized by defects in the epidermal barrier function and cutaneous inflammation, in which transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is increased and the ability of the stratum corneum to hold water is impaired, causing decreased skin capacitance and hydration. This study investigated the effects of topical virgin coconut oil (VCO) and mineral oil, respectively, on SCORAD (SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis) index values, TEWL, and skin capacitance in pediatric patients with mild to moderate AD, using a randomized controlled trial design in which participants and investigators were blinded to the treatments allocated. Patients were evaluated at baseline, and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. A total of 117 patients were included in the analysis. Mean SCORAD indices decreased from baseline by 68.23% in the VCO group and by 38.13% in the mineral oil group (P < 0.001). In the VCO group, 47% (28/59) of patients achieved moderate improvement and 46% (27/59) showed an excellent response. In the mineral oil group, 34% (20/58) of patients showed moderate improvement and 19% (11/58) achieved excellent improvement. The VCO group achieved a post-treatment mean TEWL of 7.09 from a baseline mean of 26.68, whereas the mineral oil group demonstrated baseline and post-treatment TEWL values of 24.12 and 13.55, respectively. In the VCO group, post-treatment skin capacitance rose to 42.3 from a baseline mean of 32.0, whereas that in the mineral oil group increasedto 37.49 from a baseline mean of 31.31. Thus, among pediatric patients with mild to moderate AD, topical application of VCO for eight weeks was superior to that of mineral oil based on clinical (SCORAD) and instrumental (TEWL, skin capacitance) assessments.

Article Published Date: Dec 09, 2013

Study Type: Human Study

10. Caprylic triglyceride impoved certain cases of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease

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Abstract Title:

Retrospective case studies of the efficacy of caprylic triglyceride in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

Abstract Source:

Abstract Author(s):

Steven Douglas Maynard, Jeff Gelblum

Article Affiliation:

Union Associated Physicians Clinic, Terre Haute, IN, USA ; Indiana University School of Medicine, Terre Haute, IN, USA.

Abstract:

Under normal conditions, the adult human brain is fueled primarily by glucose. A prominent feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is region-specific decreases in cerebral glucose metabolism. Ketone bodies are a group of compounds produced from fat stores during periods of low glucose availability that can provide an alternative to glucose for brain metabolism. Consumption of sufficient quantities of caprylic triglyceride (CT) increases plasma concentrations of ketone bodies and may be beneficial in conditions of compromised glucose metabolism, such as AD. The present study describes the use of CT in mild-to-moderate AD in routine clinical practice. Case records from eight patients with extensive monitoring of cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and who had received CT for≥6 months were reviewed. All were outpatients aged ≥50 years, cared for in standard practice, had a diagnosis of probable AD of mild-to-moderate severity (MMSE 14-24), and had received CT for at least 6 months in addition to other approved pharmacotherapy for AD. Response to CT administration asmeasured by MMSE scores varied by patient. However, the rate of decline in MMSE scores appeared slower than previously published reports for patients treated with pharmacotherapy alone. Profiling of individual patients may provide insight regarding those most likely to benefit from addition of CT to currently approved AD pharmacotherapy.

Article Published Date: Dec 31, 2012

Study Type: Human: Case Report

11. Daily consumption of virgin coconut oil in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

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Abstract Title:

Daily Consumption of Virgin Coconut Oil Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

Abstract Source:

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017 ;2017:7251562. Epub 2017 Dec 14. PMID: 29387131

Abstract Author(s):

Surarong Chinwong, Dujrudee Chinwong, Ampica Mangklabruks

Article Affiliation:

Surarong Chinwong

Abstract:

This open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover trial assessed the effect of daily virgin coconut oil (VCO) consumption on plasma lipoproteins levels and adverse events. The study population was 35 healthy Thai volunteers, aged 18-25. At entry, participants were randomly allocated to receive either (i) 15 mL VCO or (ii) 15 mL 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution (as control), twice daily, for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, participants had an 8-week washout period and then crossed over to take the alternative regimen for 8 weeks. Plasma lipoproteins levels were measured in participants at baseline,week-8, week-16, and week-24 follow-up visits. Results. Of 32 volunteers with complete follow-up (16 males and 16 females), daily VCO intake significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 5.72 mg/dL (p = 0.001) compared to the control regimen. However, there was no difference inthe change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between the two regimens. Mild diarrhea was reported by some volunteers when taking VCO, but no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Daily consumption of 30 mL VCO in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No major safety issues of taking VCO daily for 8 weeks were reported.

Article Published Date: Dec 31, 2016

Study Type: Human Study

12. Coconut oil is superior to mineral oil in treating dry skin

Abstract Title:

A randomized double-blind controlled trial comparing extra virgin coconut oil with mineral oil as a moisturizer for mild to moderate xerosis.

Abstract Source:

Dermatitis. 2004 Sep ;15(3):109-16. PMID: 15724344

Abstract Author(s):

Anna Liza C Agero, Vermén M Verallo-Rowell

Article Affiliation:

Department of Dermatology, Makati Medical Center, Makati City, Philippines.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Xerosis is a common skin condition (1) characterized by dry, rough, scaly, and itchy skin, (2) associated with a defect in skin barrier function, and (3) treated with moisturizers. People in the tropics have effectively used coconut oil as a traditional moisturizer for centuries. Recently, the oil also has been shown to have skin antiseptic effects. A moisturizer with antiseptic effects has value, but there are no clinical studies to document the efficacy and safety of coconut oil as a skin moisturizer.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effectivity and safety of virgin coconut oil compared with mineral oil as a therapeutic moisturizer for mild to moderate xerosis.

METHODS: A randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on mild to moderate xerosis in 34 patients with negative patch-test reactions to the test products. These patients were randomized to apply either coconut oil or mineral oil on the legs twice a day for 2 weeks. Quantitative outcome parameters for effectivity were measured at baseline and on each visit with a Corneometer CM825 to measure skin hydration and a Sebumeter SM 810 to measure skin lipids. For safety, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured with a Tewameter TM210, and skin surface hydrogen ion concentration (pH) was measured with a Skin pH Meter PH900. Patients and the investigator separately evaluated, at baseline and at each weekly visit, skin symptoms of dryness, scaling, roughness, and pruritus by using a visual analogue scale and grading of xerosis.

RESULTS: Coconut oil and mineral oil have comparable effects. Both oils showed effectivity through significant improvement in skin hydration and increase in skin surface lipid levels. Safety was demonstrated through no significant difference in TEWL and skin pH. Subjective grading of xerosis by the investigators and visual analogue scales used by the patients showed a general trend toward better (though not statistically evident) improvement with coconut oil than with mineral oil. Safety for both was further demonstrated by negative patch-test results prior to the study and by the absence of adverse reactions during the study.

CONCLUSION: Coconut oil is as effective and safe as mineral oil when used as a moisturizer.

Article Published Date: Aug 31, 2004

Study Type: Human Study

13. Oil pulling can be explored as a safe and effective alternative to Chlorhexidine

Abstract Title:

The Effect of Coconut Oil pulling on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva in Comparison with Chlorhexidine Mouthwash.

Abstract Source:

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2016 ;17(1):38-41. Epub 2016 Jan 1. PMID: 27084861

Abstract Author(s):

Mamta Kaushik, Pallavi Reddy, Roshni Sharma, Pooja Udameshi, Neha Mehra, Aditya Marwaha

Article Affiliation:

Mamta Kaushik

Abstract:

OBJECTIVES: Oil pulling is an age-old practice that has gained modern popularity in promoting oral and systemic health. The scientific verification for this practice is insufficient. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of coconut oil pulling on the count of Streptococcus mutans in saliva and to compare its efficacy with that of Chlorhexidine mouthwash: in vivo. The null hypothesis was that coconut oil pulling has no effect on the bacterial count in saliva.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized controlled study was planned and 60 subjects were selected. The subjects were divided into three groups, Group A:

STUDY GROUP: Oil pulling, Group B:

STUDY GROUP: Chlorhexidine, and Group C:

CONTROL GROUP: Distilled water. Group A subjects rinsed mouth with 10 ml of coconut oil for 10 minutes. Group B subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml Chlorhexidine mouthwash for 1 minute and Group C with 5 ml distilled water for 1 minute in the morning before brushing. Saliva samples were collected and cultured on 1st day and after 2 weeks from all subjects. Colonies were counted to compare the efficacy of coconut oil and Chlorhexidine with distilled water.

RESULTS: Statistically significant reduction in S. mutans count was seen in both the coconut oil pulling and Chlorhexidine group.

CONCLUSION: Oil pulling can be explored as a safe and effective alternative to Chlorhexidine.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Edible oil-pulling therapy is natural, safe and has no side effects. Hence, it can be considered as a preventive therapy at home to maintain oral hygiene.

Article Published Date: Dec 31, 2015

Study Type: Human Study

14. These are the first data to provide evidence that targeted nutrition is associated with the rate of Parkinson’s disease progression

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Abstract Title:

Role of Diet and Nutritional Supplements in Parkinson’s Disease Progression.

Abstract Source:

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017 ;2017:6405278. Epub 2017 Sep 10. PMID: 29081890

Abstract Author(s):

Laurie K Mischley, Richard C Lau, Rachel D Bennett

Article Affiliation:

Laurie K Mischley

Abstract:

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to describe modifiable lifestyle variables associated with reduced rate of Parkinson’s disease (PD) progression.

METHODS: The patient-reported outcomes in PD (PRO-PD) were used as the primary outcome measure, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess dietary intake. In this cross-sectional analysis, regression analysis was performed on baseline data to identify the nutritional and pharmacological interventions associated with the rate of PD progression. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, and years since diagnosis.

RESULTS: 1053 individuals with self-reported idiopathic PD were available for analysis. Foods associated with the reduced rate of PD progression included fresh vegetables, fresh fruit, nuts and seeds, nonfried fish, olive oil, wine, coconut oil, fresh herbs, and spices (P<0.05). Foods associated with more rapid PD progression include canned fruits and vegetables, diet and nondiet soda, fried foods, beef, ice cream, yogurt, and cheese (P<0.05). Nutritional supplements coenzyme Q10 and fish oil were associated with reduced PD progression (P = 0.026 and P = 0.019, resp.), and iron supplementation was associated with faster progression (P = 0.022).

DISCUSSION: These are the first data to provide evidence that targeted nutrition is associated with the rate of PD progression.

Article Published Date: Dec 31, 2016

Study Type: Human Study

15. Virgin coconut oil consumption reduced the side effects of chemotherapy and helped improve the functional status and the quality of life of breast cancer patients

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Abstract Title:

The effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) as supplementation on quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients.

Abstract Source:

Lipids Health Dis. 2014 ;13:139. Epub 2014 Aug 27. PMID: 25163649

Abstract Author(s):

Kim Sooi Law, Nizuwan Azman, Eshaifol Azam Omar, Muhammad Yusri Musa, Narazah Mohd Yusoff, Siti Amrah Sulaiman, Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain

Article Affiliation:

Kim Sooi Law

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer amongst Malaysian women. Both the disease and its treatment can disrupt the lives of the woman and adversely affect all aspects of life and thus can alter a woman’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on the quality of life (QOL) of patients diagnosed with breast cancer.

METHODS: This was a prospective study of breast cancer patients admitted into the Oncology Unit of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. The sample consisted of 60 patients with stage III and IV breast cancer allocated to either an intervention group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 30) using a simple random table. QOL was evaluated from the first cycle of chemotherapy to the sixth cycle, and data were collected using a validated Bahasa Malaysia version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Breast Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its breast-specific module (QLQ-BR 23).

RESULTS: The mean age of breast cancer patients was 50.2 (SD = 13.5) years. There were significant mean score differences for functioning and global QOL between groups (α < 0.01). The intervention group also had better scores for symptoms including fatigue, dyspnea, sleep difficulties, and loss of appetite compared to the control group. Although there are deteriorations for sexual enjoyment, the intervention group exhibited improvement in breast functioning and symptom scores for body image, sexual function, future perspective, breast symptoms, and systemic therapy side effects.

CONCLUSION: VCO consumption during chemotherapy helped improve the functional status and global QOL of breast cancer patients. In addition, it reduced the symptoms related to side effects of chemotherapy.

Article Published Date: Dec 31, 2013

Study Type: Human Study

16. Virgin coconut oil inhalation can alleviate inflammatory conditions of the airways following inhalation

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Abstract Title:

Does Inhalation of Virgin Coconut Oil Accelerate Reversal of Airway Remodelling in an Allergic Model of Asthma?

Abstract Source:

Int J Inflam. 2017 ;2017:8741851. Epub 2017 Jun 4. PMID: 28660089

Abstract Author(s):

N A Kamalaldin, S A Sulaiman, M R Yusop, B Yahaya

Article Affiliation:

N A Kamalaldin

Abstract:

Many studies have been done to evaluate the effect of various natural products in controlling asthma symptoms. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is known to contain active compounds that have beneficial effects on human health and diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of VCO inhalation on airway remodelling in a rabbit model of allergic asthma. The effects of VCO inhalation on infiltration of airway inflammatory cells, airway structures, goblet cell hyperplasia, and cell proliferation following ovalbumin induction were evaluated. Allergic asthma was induced by a combination of ovalbumin and alum injection and/or followed by ovalbumin inhalation. The effect of VCO inhalation was then evaluated via the rescue or the preventive route. Percentage of inflammatory cells infiltration, thickness of epithelium and mucosa regions, and the numbers of goblet and proliferative cells were reduced in the rescue group but not in preventive group. Analysis using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry found that lauric acid and capric acid were among the most abundant fatty acids present in the sample. Significant improvement was observed in rescue route in alleviating the asthma symptoms, which indicates the VCO was able to relieve asthma-related symptoms more than preventing the onset of asthma.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

Study Type : Human Study

17. Virgin coconut oil is safe and effective in reducing visceral adiposity in obese, though healthy, men

Abstract Title:

An open-label pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of virgin coconut oil in reducing visceral adiposity.

Abstract Source:

ISRN Pharmacol. 2011 ;2011:949686. Epub 2011 Mar 15. PMID: 22164340

Abstract Author(s):

Kai Ming Liau, Yeong Yeh Lee, Chee Keong Chen, Aida Hanum G Rasool

Article Affiliation:

Healthy Lifestyle Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang 11800, Malaysia.

Abstract:

Introduction. This is an open-label pilot study on four weeks of virgin coconut oil (VCO) to investigate its efficacy in weight reduction and its safety of use in 20 obese but healthy Malay volunteers. Methodology. Efficacy was assessed by measuring weight and associated anthropometric parameters and lipid profile one week before and one week after VCO intake. Safety was assessed by comparing organ function tests one week before and one week after intake of VCO. Paired t-test was used to analyse any differences in all the measurable variables. Results. Only waist circumference (WC) was significantly reduced with a mean reduction of 2.86 cm or 0.97% from initial measurement (P = .02). WC reduction was only seen in males (P<.05). There was no change in the lipid profile. There was a small reduction in creatinine and alanine transferase levels. Conclusion. VCO is efficacious for WC reduction especially in males and it is safe for use in humans.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2011

Study Type : Human Study

18. Coconut oil exhibits beneficial properties for cardiovascular health

Abstract Title:

Effect of combination therapy of Fatty acids, calcium, vitamin d and boron with regular physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in rat.

Abstract Source:

J Oleo Sci. 2012 ;61(2):103-11. PMID: 22277894

Abstract Author(s):

M R Naghii, P Darvishi, Y Ebrahimpour, G Ghanizadeh, M Mofid, M Hedayati, A R Asgari

Article Affiliation:

Sport Physiology Research Center, and Health School , Baqiyatallah (a.s.) University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN.

Abstract:

The effect of consumption of fatty acids and selected nutrients, along with regular physical activity, on cardiovascular risk factors in rats was investigated.Male rats were divided into the seven groups: Group 1: regular food and drinking water, Group 2: same as Group. 1 + physical activity (whole body vibration; WBV), Group 3: same as Group. 2 + calcium, vitamin D, boron, Group 4: same as Group. 3 + canola oil, Group 5: same as Group. 3 + sunflower oil, Group 6: same as Group. 3 + mix of sunflower oil and canola oil, Group 7: same as Group. 3 + coconut oil. Rats were treated for 8 weeks, and analysis of the frozen plasmas was performed. A- Analysis between the treatment groups and control revealed that vibration training in Group 2 increased body weight (P = 0.04), plasma creatin kinase (CK), (P = 0.02), and estradiol (E2), (P = 0.03). Rats in Group 5 consumed less food and plasma levels of cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased significantly (P = 0.02) in Group 6 and in Group 7 (p<0.05). B- Analysis of data among Group 4 – 7 (the oil consuming groups) and Group 3 revealed significant differences in cholesterol (Chol), LDL-C, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), C- reactive protein (hs-CRP), estradiol (E2), atherogenic index (AI), and risk factor (RF), (p<0.05). In addition, plasma levels of testosterone (T) and free testosterone (FT) in Group 7 had a remarkable but non-significant increase. As a result of vibration training, a similar trend was observed for vitamin D in Group 2-7. The findings show that WBV is effective in improving health status by influencing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Moreover, canola oil and sunflower oil, separately, showed beneficial impacts on CVD risk factors; whereas their combination had negative impacts on lipid profile. Coconut oil revealed to be efficient to provide health benefits in terms of CVD treatments.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2012

Study Type : Animal Study

19. Coconut oil has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities

Abstract Title:

Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

Abstract Source:

Pharm Biol. 2010 Feb;48(2):151-7. PMID: 20645831

Abstract Author(s):

S Intahphuak, P Khonsung, A Panthong

Article Affiliation:

McCormick Faculty of Nursing, Payap University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. sophaphan_in@yahoo.com

Abstract:

This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2010

Study Type : Animal Study

20. Coconut oil is an effective burn wound healing agent

Abstract Title:

Burn wound healing property of Cocos nucifera: An appraisal.

Abstract Source:

Indian J Pharmacol. 2008 Aug;40(4):144-6. PMID: 20040946

Abstract Author(s):

Pallavi Srivastava, S Durgaprasad

Article Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacology, KMC International Centre, Manipal, India.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVES: The study was undertaken to evaluate the burn wound healing property of oil of Cocos nucifera and to compare the effect of the combination of oil of Cocos nucifera and silver sulphadiazine with silver sulphadiazine alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Partial thickness burn wounds were inflicted upon four groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control, Group II received the standard silver sulphadiazine. Group III was given pure oil of Cocos nucifera , and Group IV received the combination of the oil and the standard. The parameters observed were epithelialization period and percentage of wound contraction. RESULTS: It was noted that there was significant improvement in burn wound contraction in the group treated with the combination of Cocos nucifera and silver sulphadiazine. The period of epithelialization also decreased significantly in groups III and IV. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that oil of Cocos nucifera is an effective burn wound healing agent.

Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2008

Study Type : Animal Study

21. Safety study: coconut oil is safe as a cosmetic ingredient

Abstract Title:

Final report on the safety assessment of Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil and related ingredients.

Abstract Source:

Int J Toxicol. 2011 May ;30(3 Suppl):5S-16S. PMID: 21772024

Abstract Author(s):

Christina L Burnett, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Curtis D Klaassen, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen

Article Affiliation:

Cosmetic Ingredient Review, 1101 17th Street, NW, Suite 412, Washington, DC 20036, USA.

Abstract:

Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil, oil from the dried coconut fruit, is composed of 90% saturated triglycerides. It may function as a fragrance ingredient, hair conditioning agent, or skin-conditioning agent and is reported in 626 cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0001% to 70%. The related ingredients covered in this assessment are fatty acids, and their hydrogenated forms, corresponding fatty alcohols, simple esters, and inorganic and sulfated salts of coconut oil. The salts and esters are expected to have similar toxicological profiles as the oil, its hydrogenated forms, and its constituent fatty acids. Coconut oil and related ingredients are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

Article Published Date : Apr 30, 2011

Study Type : Review

22. Phenolic compounds and hormones (cytokinins) found in coconut may assist in preventing the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide, potentially inhibiting a key step in the pathogenesis of AD

Abstract Title:

The role of dietary coconut for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: potential mechanisms of action.

Abstract Source:

Br J Nutr. 2015 May 22:1-14. Epub 2015 May 22. PMID: 25997382

Abstract Author(s):

W M A D B Fernando, Ian J Martins, K G Goozee, Charles S Brennan, V Jayasena, R N Martins

Article Affiliation:

W M A D B Fernando

Abstract:

Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated to provide a large number of products, although it is mainly grown for its nutritional and medicinal values. Coconut oil, derived from the coconut fruit, has been recognised historically as containing high levels of saturated fat; however, closer scrutiny suggests that coconut should be regarded more favourably. Unlike most other dietary fats that are high in long-chain fatty acids, coconut oil comprises medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). MCFA are unique in that they are easily absorbed and metabolised by the liver, and can be converted to ketones. Ketone bodies are an important alternative energy source in the brain, and may be beneficial to people developing or already with memory impairment, as in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Coconut is classified as a highly nutritious ‘functional food’. It is rich in dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals; however, notably, evidence is mounting to support the concept that coconut may be beneficial in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidaemia, elevated LDL, insulin resistance and hypertension – these are the risk factors for CVD and type 2 diabetes, and also for AD. In addition, phenolic compounds and hormones (cytokinins) found in coconut may assist in preventing the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide, potentially inhibiting a key step in the pathogenesis of AD. The purpose of the present review was to explore the literature related to coconut, outlining the known mechanistic physiology, and to discuss the potential role of coconut supplementation as a therapeutic option in the prevention and management of AD.

Article Published Date : May 21, 2015

Study Type : Review

23. Coconut oil protects cortical neurons from amyloid beta toxicity by enhancing signaling of cell survival pathways

Abstract Title:

Coconut oil protects cortical neurons from amyloid beta toxicity by enhancing signaling of cell survival pathways.

Abstract Source:

Neurochem Int. 2017 Jan 23. Epub 2017 Jan 23. PMID: 28126466

Abstract Author(s):

F Nafar, J P Clarke, K M Mearow

Article Affiliation:

F Nafar

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has links with other conditions that can often be modified by dietary and life-style interventions. In particular, coconut oil has received attention as having potentially having benefits in lessening the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer’s disease. In a recent report, we showed that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ was rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Here we investigated treatment with Aβ for 1, 6 or 24 h followed by addition of coconut oil for a further 24 h, or treatment with coconut oil for 24 h followed by Aβ exposure for various periods. Neuronal survival and several cellular parameters (cleaved caspase 3, synaptophysin labeling and ROS) were assessed. In addition, the influence of these treatments on relevant signaling pathways was investigated with Western blotting. In terms of the treatment timing, our data indicated that coconut oil rescues cells pre-exposed to Aβ for1 or 6 h, but is less effective when the pre-exposure has been 24 h. However, pretreatment with coconut oil prior to Aβ exposure showed the best outcomes. Treatment with octanoic or lauric acid also provided protection against Aβ, but was not as effective as the complete oil. The coconut oil treatment reduced the number of cells with cleaved caspase and ROS labeling, as well as rescuing the loss of synaptophysin labeling observed with Aβ treatment. Treatment with coconut oil, as well as octanoic, decanoic and lauric acids, resulted in a modest increase in ketone bodies compared to controls. The biochemical data suggest that Akt and ERK activation may contribute to the survival promoting influence of coconut oil. This was supported by observations that a PI3-Kinase inhibitor blocked the rescue effect of CoOil on Aβ amyloid toxicity. Further studies into the mechanisms of action of coconut oil and its constituent medium chain fatty acids are warranted.

Article Published Date : Jan 22, 2017

Study Type : In Vitro Study

24. In Silico and wet lab studies reveal the cholesterol lowering efficacy of lauric acid

Abstract Title:

In Silico and Wet Lab Studies Reveal the Cholesterol Lowering Efficacy of Lauric Acid, a Medium Chain Fat of Coconut Oil.

Abstract Source:

Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2016 Sep 27. Epub 2016 Aug 27. PMID: 27679437

Abstract Author(s):

Devi Lekshmi Sheela, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla Nazeem, Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Jeksy Jos Manalil, Achuthan C Raghavamenon

Article Affiliation:

Devi Lekshmi Sheela

Abstract:

The coconut oil (CO) contains 91 % of saturated fatty acids in which 72 % are medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) like lauric, capric and caprylic acids. In contrast to animal fat, coconut oil has no cholesterol. Despite this fact, CO is sidelined among other vegetable oils due to the health hazards attributed to the saturated fatty acids. Though various medicinal effects of CO have been reported including the hypolipidemic activity, people are still confused in the consumption of this natural oil. In silico analyses and wet lab experiments have been carried out to identify the hypolipidemic properties of MCFAs and phenolic acids in CO by using different protein targets involved in cholesterol synthesis. The molecular docking studies were carried out using CDOCKER protocol in Accelery’s Discovery Studio, by taking different proteins like HMG- CoA reductase and cholesterol esterase as targets and the different phytocompounds in coconut as ligands. Molecular docking highlighted the potential of lauric acid in inhibiting the protein targets involved in hyperlipidemics. Further, validation of in silico results was carried out through in vivo studies. The activity of key enzymes HMG- CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase were found reduced in animals fed with lauric acid and CO.

Article Published Date : Sep 26, 2016

Study Type : In Vitro Study

25. Coconut oil intake may improve brain health by directly activating ketogenesis in astrocytes

Article Publish Status: FREE

Click here to read the complete article.

Abstract Title:

Lauric Acid Stimulates Ketone Body Production in the KT-5 Astrocyte Cell Line.

Abstract Source:

J Oleo Sci. 2016 Aug 1 ;65(8):693-9. Epub 2016 Aug 15. PMID: 27430387

Abstract Author(s):

Yudai Nonaka, Tetsuo Takagi, Makoto Inai, Shuhei Nishimura, Shogo Urashima, Kazumitsu Honda, Toshiaki Aoyama, Shin Terada

Article Affiliation:

Yudai Nonaka

Abstract:

Coconut oil has recently attracted considerable attention as a potential Alzheimer’s disease therapy because it contains large amounts of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and its consumption is thought to stimulate hepatic ketogenesis, supplying an alternative energy source for brains with impaired glucose metabolism. In this study, we first reevaluated the responses of plasma ketone bodies to oral administration of coconut oil to rats. We found that the coconut oil-induced increase in plasma ketone body concentration was negligible and did not significantly differ from that observed after high-oleic sunflower oil administration. In contrast, the administration of coconut oil substantially increased the plasma free fatty acid concentration and lauric acid content, which is the major MCFA in coconut oil. Next, to elucidate whether lauric acid can activate ketogenesis in astrocytes with the capacity to generate ketone bodies from fatty acids, we treated the KT-5 astrocyte cell line with 50 and 100μM lauric acid for 4 h. The lauric acid treatments increased the total ketone body concentration in the cell culture supernatant to a greater extent than oleic acid, suggesting that lauric acid can directly and potently activate ketogenesis in KT-5 astrocytes. These results suggest that coconut oilintake may improve brain health by directly activating ketogenesis in astrocytes and thereby by providing fuel to neighboring neurons.

Article Published Date : Jul 31, 2016

Study Type : In Vitro Study

26. Coconut oil has antimicrobial activity on Candida species

Abstract Title:

In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria.

Abstract Source:

J Med Food. 2007 Jun;10(2):384-7. PMID: 17651080

Abstract Author(s):

D O Ogbolu, A A Oni, O A Daini, A P Oloko

Article Affiliation:

Department of Medical Microbiology&Parasitology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Abstract:

The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with the availability of fewer antifungal agents with fungicidal actions, prompted this present study to characterize Candida species in our environment and determine the effectiveness of virgin coconut oil as an antifungal agent on these species. In 2004, 52 recent isolates of Candida species were obtained from clinical specimens sent to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Their susceptibilities to virgin coconut oil and fluconazole were studied by using the agar-well diffusion technique. Candida albicans was the most common isolate from clinical specimens (17); others were Candida glabrata (nine), Candida tropicalis (seven), Candida parapsilosis (seven), Candida stellatoidea (six), and Candida krusei (six). C. albicans had the highest susceptibility to coconut oil (100%), with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 25% (1:4 dilution), while fluconazole had 100% susceptibility at an MIC of 64 microg/mL (1:2 dilution). C. krusei showed the highest resistance to coconut oil with an MIC of 100% (undiluted), while fluconazole had an MIC of>128 microg/mL. It is noteworthy that coconut oil was active against species of Candida at 100% concentration compared to fluconazole. Coconut oil should be used in the treatment of fungal infections in view of emerging drug-resistant Candida species.

Article Published Date : Jun 01, 2007

Study Type : In Vitro Study

27. Coconut oil is traditionally used in Indonesian folk medicine for wound management

Abstract Title:

[Wound management with coconut oil in Indonesian folk medicine].

Abstract Source:

Chirurg. 2002 Apr;73(4):387-92. PMID: 12063927

Abstract Author(s):

M Sachs, J von Eichel, F Asskali

Article Affiliation:

Klinik für Allgemein- und Gefässchirurgie, Klinikum der Johann-Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt am Main.

Abstract:

The medical plants which are used to treat wounds and injuries by the ethnic group of Ngada on Flores, an Eastern Indonesian island, will be presented. Additionally, the coconut oil used to treat wounds and to conserve medicinal plants will be analysed biochemically. The people of Ngada use the following plants for wound treatment: seeds of the betel nut (Areca catechu L.), fruits of papaya (Carica papaya L.), leaves of the Indian Hydrocotyle (Centelle asiatica L.), the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma domestica Val. and Curcumara xanthorrhiza Roxb.), leaves of betel (Piper betel L.). Coconut oil is particularly useful because of its biochemical structure: unlike olive oil and animal fatty tissue, it consists of short-chained and saturated fatty acids. These qualities in coconut oil prevent it from becoming oxidized and rancid, thus making it suitable for the preservation of medicinal plants and for wound treatment.

Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2002

Study Type : Commentary

28. Coconut oil attenuates the effects of amyloid-β on cortical neurons in vitro

Coconut oil attenuates the effects of amyloid-β on cortical neurons in vitro.

Abstract Source:

J Alzheimers Dis. 2014 ;39(2):233-7. PMID: 24150106

Abstract Author(s):

Firoozeh Nafar, Karen M Mearow

Article Affiliation:

Firoozeh Nafar

Abstract:

Dietary supplementation has been studied as an approach to ameliorating deficits associated with aging and neurodegeneration. We undertook this pilot study to investigate the effects of coconut oil supplementation directly on cortical neurons treated with amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in vitro. Our results indicate that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ is rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Coconut oil co-treatment also attenuates Aβ-induced mitochondrial alterations. The results of this pilot study provide a basis for further investigation of the effects of coconut oil, or its constituents, on neuronal survival focusing on mechanisms that may be involved.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2013

Study Type : In Vitro Study

29. Coconut Oil Attenuates the Effects of Amyloid-β on Cortical Neurons In Vitro

Abstract Title:

Coconut Oil Attenuates the Effects of Amyloid-β on Cortical Neurons In Vitro.

Abstract Source:

Abstract Author(s):

Firoozeh Nafar, Karen M Mearow

Article Affiliation:

Division of BioMedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada.

Abstract:

Dietary supplementation has been studied as an approach to ameliorating deficits associated with aging and neurodegeneration. We undertook this pilot study to investigate the effects of coconut oil supplementation directly on cortical neurons treated with amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in vitro. Our results indicate that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ is rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Coconut oil co-treatment also attenuates Aβ-induced mitochondrial alterations. The results of this pilot study provide a basis for further investigation of the effects of coconut oil, or its constituents, on neuronal survival focusing on mechanisms that may be involved.

Article Published Date : Oct 21, 2013

Study Type : In Vitro Study

30. Wet process coconut oil extraction is superior to dry extraction in improving lipid metabolic and antioxidant status in cholesterol coadministered rats

Abstract Title:

Wet and dry extraction of coconut oil: impact on lipid metabolic and antioxidant status in cholesterol coadministered rats.

Abstract Source:

Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Aug;87(8):610-6. PMID: 19767885

Abstract Author(s):

K Govindan Nevin, Thankappan Rajamohan

Article Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 581, India.

Abstract:

Because coconut oil extracted by wet process (virgin coconut oil, VCO) is gaining popularity among consumers, this study was conducted to evaluate VCO compared with coconut oil extracted by dry process (copra oil, CO) for their influence on lipid parameters, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant status in rats coadministered with cholesterol. VCO, CO, and cholesterol were fed in a semi-synthetic diet to 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats for 45 days. After the experimental period, lipid and lipid peroxide levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were observed. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the polyphenolic fraction from VCO and CO were also analyzed. The results showed that lipid and lipid peroxide levels were lower in VCO-fed animals than in animals fed either CO or cholesterol alone. Antioxidant enzyme activities in VCO-fed animals were comparable with those in control animals. Although the fatty acid profiles of both oils were similar, a significantly higher level of unsaponifiable components was observed in VCO. Polyphenols from VCO also showed significant radical-scavenging activity compared with those from CO. This study clearly indicates the potential benefits of VCO over CO in maintaining lipid metabolism and antioxidant status. These effects may be attributed in part to the presence of biologically active minor unsaponifiable components.

Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2009

Study Type : Animal Study

31. Virgin coconut oil supplementation ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced systemic toxicity in mice

Abstract Title:

Virgin coconut oil supplementation ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced systemic toxicity in mice.

Abstract Source:

Hum Exp Toxicol. 2015 Mar 24. Epub 2015 Mar 24. PMID: 25805601

Abstract Author(s):

S S Nair, J J Manalil, S K Ramavarma, I M Suseela, A Thekkepatt, A C Raghavamenon

Article Affiliation:

S S Nair

Abstract:

Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is an unrefined kernal oil, prepared from Cocos nucifera L., having substantial nutritional and medicinal value. Experimental studies have suggested its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and hypolipidemic effects. The present study assesses its effect on formalin-induced chronic inflammation and cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced systemic toxicity in murine models. Oral administration of VCO effectively reduced formalin-induced paw oedema in mice with more or less similar efficacy as that of diclofenac. The CTX-induced hike in blood urea, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and liver marker enzymes in mice was marginally decreased by VCO (8 g/kg body weight) ingestion orally. The liver and kidney catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, together with cellular glutathione and TBARS levels, were found to be improved in these animals. Overall the study reveals the protective efficacy of VCO against secondary toxicity induced by CTX possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Article Published Date : Mar 23, 2015

Study Type : Animal Study

32. Virgin coconut oil reduces total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, LDL, and VLDL cholesterol levels and increased HDL cholesterol in serum and tissues

Abstract Title:

Beneficial effects of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and in vitro LDL oxidation.

Abstract Source:

Clin Biochem. 2004 Sep;37(9):830-5. PMID: 15329324

Abstract Author(s):

K G Nevin, T Rajamohan

Article Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, India.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of consumption of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on various lipid parameters in comparison with copra oil (CO). In addition, the preventive effect of polyphenol fraction (PF) from test oils on copper induced oxidation of LDL and carbonyl formation was also studied.

DESIGN AND METHODS: After 45 days of oil feeding to Sprague-Dawley rats, several lipid parameters and lipoprotein levels were determined. PF was isolated from the oils and its effect on in vitro LDL oxidation was assessed.

RESULTS: VCO obtained by wet process has a beneficial effect in lowering lipid components compared to CO. It reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, LDL, and VLDL cholesterol levels and increased HDL cholesterol in serum and tissues. The PF of virgin coconut oil was also found to be capable of preventing in vitro LDL oxidation with reduced carbonyl formation.

CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of virgin coconut oil in lowering lipid levels in serum and tissues and LDL oxidation by physiological oxidants. This property of VCO may be attributed to the biologically active polyphenol components present in the oil.

Article Published Date : Sep 01, 2004

Study Type : Animal Study

33. Virgin coconut oil prevented lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant enzymes in the osteoporotic rat model

Abstract Title:

The Effects of Virgin Coconut Oil on Bone Oxidative Status in Ovariectomised Rat.

Abstract Source:

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012 ;2012:525079. Epub 2012 Aug 15. PMID: 22927879

Abstract Author(s):

Mouna Abdelrahman Abujazia, Norliza Muhammad, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman

Article Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Abstract:

Virgin coconut oil (VCO) was found to have antioxidant property due to its high polyphenol content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the virgin coconut oil on lipid peroxidation in the bone of an osteoporotic rat model. Normal female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 3 months old were randomly divided into 4 groups, with 8 rats in each group: baseline, sham, ovariectomised (OVX) control group, and OVX given 8% VCO in the diet for six weeks. The oxidative status of the bone was assessed by measuring the index of lipid peroxidation, which is malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as well as the endogenous antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the tibia at the end of the study. The results showed that there was a significant decrease in MDA levels in the OVX-VCO group compared to control group. Ovariectomised rats treated with VCO also had significantly higher GPX concentration. The SOD level seemed to be increased in the OVX-VCO group compared to OVX-control group. In conclusion, VCO prevented lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant enzymes in the osteoporotic rat model.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2011

Study Type : Animal Study

34. Virgin coconut oil may improve cardiovascular and liver complications in obesity

Abstract Title:

Coconut Products Improve Signs of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats.

Abstract Source:

Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27. PMID: 29079969

Abstract Author(s):

Sunil K Panchal, Sharyn Carnahan, Lindsay Brown

Article Affiliation:

Sunil K Panchal

Abstract:

Increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome warrants identification of potential therapeutic options for intervention. This study tested commercially available Virgin Coconut Oil and Coconut Nourish, as coconuts are rich sources of lauric and myristic acids. Male Wistar rats were fed either corn starch diet (C); high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H); high-carbohydrate, high-virgin coconut oil diet (HV); or high-carbohydrate, high-coconut Nourish diet (HN) for 16 weeks. Metabolic, liver, and cardiovascular health parameters were measured during and at the end of the study. Virgin coconut oil lowered body weight (C 386±8g, H 516±13g, HV 459±10g), blood glucose concentrations (C 4.2±0.1 mmol/L, H 5.4±0.2 mmol/L, HV 4.6±0.2 mmol/L), systolic blood pressure (C 127±5mmHg, H 149±4mmHg, HV 133±3mmHg,) and diastolic stiffness (C 25.0±1.7, H 31.4±1.2, HV 25.2±2.3,) with improved structure and function of the heart and liver. Coconut Nourish increased total body lean mass (C 255±10g, H 270±16g, HN 303±15g) and lowered plasma total cholesterolconcentrations (C 1.6±0.2 mmol/L, H 1.7±0.1 mmol/L, HN 1.0±0.0 mmol/L), systolic blood pressure (C 127±5mmHg, H 149±4mmHg, HN 130±3mmHg) and diastolic stiffness (C 25.0±1.7, H 31.4±1.2, HN 26.5±1.0), improved structure and function of the heart and liver but increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides (C 0.3±0.1 mmol/L, H 1.1±0.4 mmol/L, HN 1.8±0.2 mmol/L) and non-esterified fatty acids (C 1.2±0.3 mmol/L, H 3.3±0.8 mmol/L, HN 5.6±0.4 mmol/L). Thus, the fiber and protein in coconut Nourish and the medium-chain saturated fatty acids in virgin coconut oil may improvecardiovascular and liver complications in obesity.

Article Published Date : Oct 26, 2017

Study Type : Animal Study

35. Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats–compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil

Abstract Title:

Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats–compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil.

Abstract Source:

Indian J Exp Biol. 2012 Nov ;50(11):802-9. PMID: 23305031

Abstract Author(s):

S Arunima, T Rajamohan

Article Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 581, India.

Abstract:

Effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on lipid levels and regulation of lipid metabolism compared with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and sunflower oil (SFO) has been reported. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with synthetic diet. Results showed that VCO feeding significantly lowered (P<0.05) levels of total cholesterol, LDL+ VLDL cholesterol, Apo B and triglycerides in serum and tissues compared to rats fed CO, OO and SFO, while HDL-cholesterol and Apo A1 were significantly (P<0.05) higher in serum of rats fed VCO than other groups. Hepatic lipogenesis was also down regulated in VCO fed rats, which was evident from the decreased activities of enzymes viz., HMG CoA reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. In addition, VCO significantly (P<0.05) increased the activities of lipoprotein lipase, lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase and enhanced formation of bile acids. Results demonstrated hypolipidemic effect of VCO by regulating the synthesis and degradation of lipids.

Article Published Date : Oct 31, 2012

Study Type : Animal Study

36. Virgin coconut oil has a potential to reduce the development of hypertension and renal injury induced by dietary heated oil.

Abstract Title:

Renoprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats.

Abstract Source:

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Oct ;41(10):1033-1038. Epub 2016 Aug 2. PMID: 27618413

Abstract Author(s):

Yusof Kamisah, Shu-Min Ang, Faizah Othman, Badlishah Sham Nurul-Iman, Hj Mohd Saad Qodriyah

Article Affiliation:

Yusof Kamisah

Abstract:

Virgin coconut oil, rich in antioxidants, was shown to attenuate hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of virgin coconut oil on blood pressure and related parameters in kidneys in rats fed with 5-times-heated palm oil (5HPO). Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Two groups were fed 5HPO (15%) diet and the second group was also given virgin coconut oil (1.42 mL/kg, oral) daily for 16 weeks. The other 2 groups were given basal diet without (control) and with virgin coconut oil. Systolic blood pressure was measured pre- and post-treatment. After 16 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested. Dietary 5HPO increased blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and nitric oxide contents, but decreased heme oxygenase activity. Virgin coconut oil prevented increase in 5HPO-induced blood pressure and renal nitric oxide content as well as the decrease in renal heme oxygenase activity. The virgin coconut oil also reduced the elevation of renal TBARS induced by the heated oil. However, neither dietary 5HPO nor virgin coconut oil affected renal histomorphometry. In conclusion, virgin coconut oil has a potential to reduce the development of hypertension and renal injury induced by dietary heated oil, possibly via its antioxidant protective effects on the kidneys.

Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2016

Study Type : Animal Study

37. Virgin coconut oil extract has potential of ameliorating the deleterious effects on testicles caused by highly active antiretroviral therapy

Article Publish Status: FREE

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Abstract Title:

Coconut Oil Extract Mitigates Testicular Injury Following Adjuvant Treatment with Antiretroviral Drugs.

Abstract Source:

Toxicol Res. 2016 Oct ;32(4):317-325. Epub 2016 Oct 30. PMID: 27818734

Abstract Author(s):

Oluwatosin O Ogedengbe, Ayoola I Jegede, Ismail O Onanuga, Ugochukwu Offor, Edwin Cs Naidu, Aniekan I Peter, Onyemaechi O Azu

Article Affiliation:

Oluwatosin O Ogedengbe

Abstract:

Increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has made the management of drug toxicities an increasingly crucial component of HIV. This study investigated the effects of adjuvant use of coconut oil and HAART on testicular morphology and seminal parameters in Sprague- Dawley rats. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153~169 g were distributed into four groups (A-D) and treated as follows: A served as control (distilled water); B (HAART cocktail- Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine); C (HAART + Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg). After 56 days of treatment, animals were killed and laparotomy to exercise the epididymis for seminal fluid analyses done whilst testicular tissues were processed for histomorphometric studies. Result showed a significant decline in sperm motility (P<0.05) and count (P<0.0001) in HAART-treated animals while there was insignificant changes in other parameters in groups C and D except count that was reduced (P<0.0001) when compared with controls. Histomorphological studies showed HAART caused disorders in seminiferous tubular architecture with significant (P<0.01) decline in epithelial height closely mirrored by extensive reticulin framework and positive PAS cells. Adjuvant Virgin coconut oil + HAART resulted in significant decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter (P<0.05), but other morphometric and histological parameters were similar to control or Virgin coconut oil alone (which showed normal histoarchitecture levels). While derangements in testicular and seminal fluid parameters occurred following HAART, adjuvant treatment with Virgin coconut oil restored the distortions emanating thereof.

Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2016

Study Type : Animal Study

38. Virgin coconut oil could be an efficient nutraceutical in preventing the development of diet induced insulin resistance and associated complications

Abstract Title:

Virgin coconut oil maintains redox status and improves glycemic conditions in high fructose fed rats.

Abstract Source:

J Food Sci Technol. 2016 Jan ;53(1):895-901. Epub 2015 Sep 22. PMID: 26788013

Abstract Author(s):

Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Reshma K Mukesh, Shabna K Ayoob, Smitha K Ramavarma, Indu M Suseela, Jeksy J Manalil, Balu T Kuzhivelil, Achuthan C Raghavamenon

Article Affiliation:

Arunaksharan Narayanankutty

Abstract:

Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO), extracted from fresh coconut kernel possess similar fatty acid composition to that of Copra Oil (CO), a product of dried kernel. Although CO forms the predominant dietary constituent in south India, VCO is being promoted for healthy life due to its constituent antioxidant molecules. High fructose containing CO is an established model for insulin resistance and steatohepatitis in rodents. In this study, replacement of CO with VCO in high fructose diet markedly improved the glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia. The animals fed VCO diet had only 17 % increase in blood glucose level compared to CO fed animals (46 %). Increased level of GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities in VCO fed rats indicate improved hepatic redox status. Reduced lipid peroxidation and carbonyl adducts in VCO fed rats well corroborate with the histopathological findings that hepatic damage and steatosis were comparatively reduced than the CO fed animals. These results suggest that VCO could be an efficient nutraceutical in preventing the development of diet induced insulin resistance and associated complications possibly through its antioxidant efficacy.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

Study Type : Animal Study

39. VCO-treated wounds in rats healed much faster due to higher collagen and antioxidant enzyme activities

Abstract Title:

Effect of topical application of virgin coconut oil on skin components and antioxidant status during dermal wound healing in young rats.

Abstract Source:

Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2010 ;23(6):290-7. Epub 2010 Jun 3. PMID: 20523108

Abstract Author(s):

K G Nevin, T Rajamohan

Article Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, India.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a topical application of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on excision wounds in young rats.

METHODS: Three sets of experiments with 3 groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats each consisting of 6 animals were used for studying wound closure time, antioxidant status and biochemical parameters. Group 1 was the control; groups 2 and 3 were treated with 0.5 and 1.0 ml VCO, respectively, 24 h after wound creation for 10 days. After the experimental period, the healing property of VCO was evaluated by monitoring the time taken for complete epithelization as well as levels of various parameters of the wound’s granulation tissue. The collagen solubility pattern, glycohydrolase activity, and histopathology of the granulation tissue were also analyzed. The antioxidant status during wound healing was monitored continuously for 14 days.

RESULTS: VCO-treated wounds healed much faster, as indicated by a decreased time of complete epithelization and higher levels of various skin components. Pepsin-soluble collagen showed a significant increase in VCO- treated wounds, indicating a higher collagen cross-linking. Glycohydrolase activities were also found to be increased due to a higher turnover of collagen. Antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde levels were found to be increased on the 10th day after wounding, which were found to have returned to normal levels on day 14 in the treated wounds. The lipid peroxide levels were found to be lower in the treated wounds. A histopathological study showed an increase in fibroblast proliferation and neovascularization in VCO-treated wounds compared to controls.

CONCLUSION: The beneficial effect of VCO can be attributed to the cumulative effect of various biologically active minor components present in it.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010

Study Type : Animal Study

40. Roselle seed oil reduces hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia

Abstract Title:

Hypolipidemic and Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Seeds Oil in Experimental Male Rats.

Abstract Source:

J Oleo Sci. 2017 ;66(1):41-49. PMID: 28049927

Abstract Author(s):

Rehab F M Ali, Ayman M El-Anany

Article Affiliation:

Rehab F M Ali

Abstract:

The current investigation aimed to evaluate the influence of roselle seeds oil (RSO), coconut oil (CNO) and binary mixture of them on serum lipids of experimental rats. Fatty acid composition of native and blended oils was determined. Thirty five male Albino rats (145- 160 g) were used throughout this study. The rats were fed AIN-93G diet containing 10% fat from CNO, RSO, B1 (25%RSO+ 75 %CNO), B2 (50 %RSO+ 50 %CNO or B3 (75 %RSO+ 25 % CNO) for eight weeks. Blood samples were collected at the beginning, every two weeks during the experiment, and at the end of the experiment. At the time of sacrifice, organs weights in relation to their body weights were immediately recorded. Substitution of 25, 50 and 75 % of CNO with equal amounts of RSO reduced saturated fatty acids by 16.04, 32.58 and 48.77 %, respectively in blended oils. The content of linoleic (C18:2) increased from not detected level in CNO to 9.81, 19.67 and 29.48 % in CNO blended with 25, 50 and 75 % of RSO, respectively. The relative liver weights of rats fed CNO was significantly higher than that of those fed RSO and blended oils. Mixing CNO with various levels of RSO attenuates the adverse effect in the relative liver weights which caused by CNO administration. At the end of the experiment, blinding coconut oil with 25, 50 and 75 % of roselle oil inhibited the elevation in total cholesterol by 9.69, 28.16 and 36.16 %, respectively compared to CNO rats. Rats fed diet containing CNO for 8 weeks had significantly the highest content (126.49 mg/dl) of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while those fed 100 % RSO (as a source of lipids) had the lowest concentration of LDL-C (64.32 mg/dL). Atherogenic index (AI) values of rats submitted B1, B2 and B3 were about 1.12, 1.23 and 1.28 times as low as those of rats fed CNO diet, respectively. The results of this study indicate that roselle seeds oil (RSO) reduces hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia in rats fed diet rich in saturated fatty acids.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

Study Type : Animal Study

41. Polyphenols isolated from virgin coconut oil attenuate cadmium-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress

Article Publish Status: FREE

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Abstract Title:

Polyphenols isolated from virgin coconut oil attenuate cadmium-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress due to their antioxidant properties and potential benefits on cardiovascular risk ratios in rats.

Abstract Source:

Avicenna J Phytomed. 2018 Jan-Feb;8(1):73-84. PMID: 29387575

Abstract Author(s):

Ademola Clement Famurewa, Fidelis Ebele Ejezie

Article Affiliation:

Ademola Clement Famurewa

Abstract:

Objective: Literature has confirmed the pathogenic role of cadmium (Cd) and its exposure in the induction of dyslipidemia implicated in the development and increasing incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The current study explored whether polyphenolics isolated from virgin coconut oil (VCO) prevent Cd-induced dyslipidemia and investigate the underlying mechanism of action, in rats.

Materials and Methods: Rats were pretreated with VCO polyphenols (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg body weight; orally) 2 weeks prior to concurrent Cd administration (5 mg/kg) for 5 weeks. Subsequently, serum concentrations of lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular risk ratios were determined. Hepatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were analyzed.

Results: Sub-chronic Cd administration significantly increased the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol while markedly reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Hepatic activities of SOD and CAT as well as GSH content were suppressed by Cd, whereas MDA level was obviously increased. The co-administration of VCO polyphenol with Cd remarkably restored lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios and stabilized antioxidant defense systems comparable to control group.

Conclusion: This is the first study presenting that polyphenols isolated from VCO prevent Cd-induced lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk ratios by improving antioxidant defense systems.

Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2017

Study Type : Animal Study

42. Olive oil contains protective agents that block the expansion of brain core at the expense of penumbral neurons

Abstract Title:

Dietary fats significantly influence the survival of penumbral neurons in a rat model of chronic ischemic by modifying lipid mediators, inflammatory biomarkers, NOS production, and redox-dependent apoptotic signals.

Abstract Source:

Nutrition. 2015 Nov-Dec;31(11-12):1430-42. Epub 2015 Jul 2. PMID: 26429666

Abstract Author(s):

Natalia Lausada, Nathalie Arnal, Mariana Astiz, María Cristina Marín, Juan Manuel Lofeudo, Pablo Stringa, María J Tacconi de Alaniz, Nelva Tacconi de Gómez Dumm, Graciela Hurtado de Catalfo, Norma Cristalli de Piñero, María Cristina Pallanza de Stringa, Eva María Illara de Bozzolo, Enrique Gustavo Bozzarello, Diana Olga Cristalli, Carlos Alberto Marra

Article Affiliation:

Natalia Lausada

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Brain stroke is the third most important cause of death in developed countries. We studied the effect of different dietary lipids on the outcome of a permanent ischemic stroke rat model.

METHODS: Wistar rats were fed diets containing 7% commercial oils (S, soybean; O, olive; C, coconut; G, grape seed) for 35 d. Stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Coronal slices from ischemic brains and sham-operated animals were supravitally stained. Penumbra and core volumes were calculated by image digitalization after 24, 48, and 72 h poststroke. Homogenates and mitochondrial fractions were prepared from different zones and analyzed by redox status, inflammatory markers, ceramide, and arachidonate content, phospholipase A2, NOS, and proteases.

RESULTS: Soybean (S) and G diets were mainly prooxidative and proinflammatory by increasing the liberation of arachidonate and its transformation into prostaglandins. O was protective in terms of redox homeostatic balance, minor increases in lipid and protein damage, conservation of reduced glutathione, protective activation of NOS in penumbra, and net ratio of anti-to proinflammatory cytokines. Apoptosis (caspase-3, milli- and microcalpains) was less activated by O than by any other diet.

CONCLUSION: Dietary lipids modulate NOS and PLA2 activities, ceramide production, and glutathione import into the mitochondrial matrix, finally determining the activation of the two main protease systems involved in programmed cell death. Olive oil appears to be a biological source for the isolation of protective agents that block the expansion of brain core at the expense of penumbral neurons.

Article Published Date : Oct 31, 2015

Study Type : Animal Study

43. Dietary coconut oil increases conjugated linoleic acid-induced body fat loss in mice

Abstract Title:

Dietary coconut oil increases conjugated linoleic acid-induced body fat loss in mice independent of essential fatty acid deficiency.

Abstract Source:

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 Oct 15;1737(1):52-60. Epub 2005 Sep 13. PMID: 16216548

Abstract Author(s):

Kimberly M Hargrave, Michael J Azain, Jess L Miner

Abstract:

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induces a body fat loss that is enhanced in mice fed coconut oil (CO), which lacks essential fatty acids (EFA). Our objective was to determine if CO enhancement of CLA-induced body fat loss is due to the lack of EFA. The CLA-EFA interaction was tested by feeding CO and fat free (FF) diets for varying times with and without replenishment of individual EFA. Mice fed CO during only the 2-week CLA-feeding period did not differ from control mice in their adipose EFA content but still tended (P=0.06) to be leaner than mice fed soy oil (SO). Mice raised on CO or FF diets and fed CLA were leaner than the SO+CLA-fed mice (P<0.01). Mice raised on CO and then replenished with linoleic, linolenic, or arachidonic acid were leaner when fed CLA than mice raised on SO (P<0.001). Body fat of CO+CLA-fed mice was not affected by EFA addition. In summary, CO-fed mice not lacking in tissue EFA responded more to CLA than SO-fed mice. Also, EFA addition to CO diets did not alter the enhanced response to CLA. Therefore, the increased response to CLA in mice raised on CO or FF diets appears to be independent of a dietary EFA deficiency.

Article Published Date : Oct 15, 2005

Study Type : Animal Study

44. Coconut water and coconut milk have antiulcerogenic activity

Abstract Title:

Antiulcerogenic effects of coconut (Cocos nucifera) extract in rats.

Abstract Source:

Phytother Res. 2008 Jul;22(7):970-2. PMID: 18521965

Abstract Author(s):

R O Nneli, O A Woyike

Abstract:

A warm water crude extract of coconut milk and a coconut water dispersion were investigated for their antiulcerogenic effects in male Wistar albino rats. Ulcers were induced in the male rats by subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (40 mg/kg) using standard procedures. The ulcer inhibition rate (UIR) was taken as a measure of the cytoprotection offered by test substances. Coconut milk (2 mL daily oral feeding) produced a stronger percentage (54%) reduction in the mean ulcer area than coconut water (39%). The effect of coconut milk was similar to the effect of sucralfate that reduced the mean ulcer area by 56% in this study. Sucralfate is a conventional cytoprotective agent. The results showed that coconut milk and water via macroscopic observation had protective effects on the ulcerated gastric mucosa. It is concluded that coconut milk offered stronger protection on indomethacin-induced ulceration than coconut water in rats.

Article Published Date : Jul 01, 2008

Study Type : Animal Study

44. Coconut oil supplementation combined with exercise training for 30 days promotes beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system of spontaneous hypertensive rats

Article Publish Status: FREE

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Abstract Title:

Coconut oil supplementation and physical exercise improves baroreflex sensitivity and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats.

Abstract Source:

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Apr ;40(4):393-400. Epub 2015 Feb 9. PMID: 25659569

Abstract Author(s):

Naiane F B Alves, Suênia K P Porpino, Matheus M O Monteiro, Enéas R M Gomes, Valdir A Braga

Article Affiliation:

Naiane F B Alves

Abstract:

The hypothesis that oral supplementation with virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) and exercise training would improve impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and reduce oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was tested. Adult male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were divided into 5 groups: WKY + saline (n = 8); SHR + saline (n = 8); SHR + coconut oil (2 mL·day(-1), n = 8); SHR + trained (n = 8); and SHR + trained + coconut oil (n = 8). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded and BRS was tested using phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, intravenous) and sodium nitroprusside (25 μg·kg(-1), intravenous). Oxidative stress was measured using dihydroethidium in heart and aorta. SHR + saline, SHR + coconut oil, and SHR + trained group showed higher MAP compared with WKY + saline (175 ± 6, 148 ± 6, 147 ± 7 vs. 113 ± 2 mm Hg; p<0.05). SHR + coconut oil, SHR + trained group, and SHR + trained + coconut oil groups presented lower MAP compared with SHR + saline group (148± 6, 147 ± 7, 134 ± 8 vs. 175 ± 6 mm Hg; p<0.05). Coconut oil combined with exercise training improved BRS in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (-2.47± 0.3 vs. -1.39 ± 0.09 beats·min(-1)·mm Hg(-1); p<0.05). SHR + saline group showed higher superoxide levels when compared with WKY + saline (774± 31 vs. 634 ± 19 arbitrary units (AU), respectively; p<0.05). SHR + trained + coconut oil group presented reduced oxidative stress compared with SHR + saline in heart (622± 16 vs. 774 ± 31 AU, p<0.05). In aorta, coconut oil reduced oxidative stress in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (454± 33 vs. 689 ± 29 AU, p<0.05). Oral supplementation with coconut oil combined with exercise training improved impaired BRS and reduced oxidative stress in SHR.

Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2015

Study Type : Animal Study

45. Coconut oil reduces ruminal fermentation and methanol production in lactating dairy cows

Abstract Title:

Effects of lauric and myristic acids on ruminal fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

Abstract Source:

J Dairy Sci. 2011 Jan;94(1):382-95. PMID: 21183049

Abstract Author(s):

A N Hristov, C Lee, T Cassidy, M Long, K Heyler, B Corl, R Forster

Article Affiliation:

Department of Dairy and Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. anh13@psu.edu

Abstract:

The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of lauric (LA) and myristic (MA) acids on ruminal fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in lactating dairy cows and to identify the FA responsible for the methanogen-suppressing effect of coconut oil. The experiment was conducted as a replicated 3×3 Latin square. Six ruminally cannulated cows (95±26.4 DIM) were subjected to the following treatments: 240 g/cow per day each of stearic acid (SA, control), LA, or MA. Experimental periods were 28 d and cows were refaunated between periods. Lauric acid reduced protozoal counts in the rumen by 96%, as well as acetate, total VFA, and microbial N outflow from the rumen, compared with SA and MA. Ruminal methane production was not affected by treatment. Dry matter intake was reduced 35% by LA compared with SA and MA, which resulted in decreased milk yield. Milk fat content also was depressed byLA compared with SA and MA. Treatment had no effect on milk protein content. All treatments increased milk concentration of the respective treatment FA. Concentration of C12:0 was more than doubled by LA, and C14:0 was increased (45%) by MA compared with SA. Concentration of milk FAC16 FA and MUFA were increased, by LA compared with the other treatments. In this study, LA had profound effects on ruminal fermentation, mediated through inhibited microbial populations, and decreased DMI, milk yield, and milk fat content. Despite the significant decrease in protozoal counts, however, LA had no effect on ruminal methane production. Thus, the antimethanogenic effect of coconut oil, observed in related studies, is likely due to total FA application level, the additive effect of LA and MA, or a combination of both. Both LA and MA modified milk FA profile significantly.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2011

Study Type : Animal Study

46. Coconut oil reduces prostate weight to body ratio

Abstract Title:

Effects of coconut oil on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Abstract Source:

J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007 Jul;59(7):995-9. PMID: 17637195

Abstract Author(s):

María de Lourdes Arruzazabala, Vivian Molina, Rosa Más, Daisy Carbajal, David Marrero, Víctor González, Eduardo Rodríguez

Abstract:

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the benign uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland, leading to difficulty with urination. Saw palmetto lipid extracts (SPLE), used to treat BPH, have been shown to inhibit prostate 5a-reductase, and some major components, such as lauric, myristic and oleic acids also inhibit this enzyme. Coconut oil (CO) is also rich in fatty acids, mainly lauric and myristic acids. We investigated whether CO prevents testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia (PH) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were distributed into seven groups (10 rats each). A negative control group were injected with soya oil; six groups were injected with testosterone (3 mg kg(-1)) to induce PH: a positive control group, and five groups treated orally with SPLE (400 mg kg(-1)), CO or sunflower oil (SO) (400 and 800 mg kg(-1)). Treatments were given for 14 days. Rats were weighed before treatment and weekly thereafter. Rats were then killed and the prostates were removed and weighed. CO (400 and 800 mg kg(-1)), SPLE (400 mg kg(-1)) and SO at 800 mg kg(-1), but not at 400 mg kg(-1), significantly reduced the increase in prostate weight (PW) and PW:body weight (BW) ratio induced by testosterone (% inhibition 61.5%, 82.0%, 43.8% and 28.2%, respectively). Since CO and SPLE, but not SO, contain appreciable concentrations of lauric and myristic acids, these results could be attributed to this fact. In conclusion, this study shows that CO reduced the increase of both PW and PW:BW ratio, markers of testosterone-induced PH in rats.

Article Published Date : Jul 01, 2007

Study Type : Animal Study

47. Coconut oil is superior to safflower oil in enhancing the absorption of tomato carotenoid in an animal model

Abstract Title:

Coconut Oil Enhances Tomato Carotenoid Tissue Accumulation Compared to Safflower Oil in the Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

Abstract Source:

J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Aug 7. Epub 2012 Aug 7. PMID: 22866697

Abstract Author(s):

Lauren E Conlon, Ryan D King, Nancy E Moran, John W Erdman

Abstract:

Evidence suggests that monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats facilitate greater absorption of carotenoids than saturated fats. However, the comparison of consuming a polyunsaturated fat source versus a saturated fat source on tomato carotenoid bioaccumulation has not been examined. Our goal was to determine the influence of coconut oil and safflower oil on tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) fed a 20% fat diet. Coconut oil feeding increased carotenoid concentrations among many compartments including total carotenoids in the serum (p = 0.0003), adrenal glandular phytoene (p = 0.04), hepatic phytofluene (p = 0.0001), testicular all-trans lycopene (p = 0.01), and cis-lycopene (p = 0.006) in the prostate-seminal vesicle complex compared to safflower oil. Safflower oil-fed gerbils had greater splenic lycopene concentrations (p = 0.006) compared to coconut oil-fed gerbils. Coconut oil feeding increased serum cholesterol (p = 0.0001), and decreased hepatic cholesterol (p = 0.0003) compared to safflower oil. In summary, coconut oil, enhanced tissue uptake of tomato carotenoids to a greater degree than safflower oil. These results may have been due to the large proportion of medium chain fatty acids in coconut oil which might have caused a shift in cholesterol flux to favor extrahepatic carotenoid tissue deposition.

Article Published Date : Aug 06, 2012

Study Type : Animal Study

48. Coconut oil has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities

Abstract Title:

Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

Abstract Source:

Pharm Biol. 2010 Feb;48(2):151-7. PMID: 20645831

Abstract Author(s):

S Intahphuak, P Khonsung, A Panthong

Article Affiliation:

McCormick Faculty of Nursing, Payap University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. sophaphan_in@yahoo.com

Abstract:

This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2010

Study Type : Animal Study

49. Coconut oil exhibits beneficial properties for cardiovascular health

Abstract Title:

Effect of combination therapy of Fatty acids, calcium, vitamin d and boron with regular physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in rat.

Abstract Source:

J Oleo Sci. 2012 ;61(2):103-11. PMID: 22277894

Abstract Author(s):

M R Naghii, P Darvishi, Y Ebrahimpour, G Ghanizadeh, M Mofid, M Hedayati, A R Asgari

Article Affiliation:

Sport Physiology Research Center, and Health School , Baqiyatallah (a.s.) University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN.

Abstract:

The effect of consumption of fatty acids and selected nutrients, along with regular physical activity, on cardiovascular risk factors in rats was investigated.Male rats were divided into the seven groups: Group 1: regular food and drinking water, Group 2: same as Group. 1 + physical activity (whole body vibration; WBV), Group 3: same as Group. 2 + calcium, vitamin D, boron, Group 4: same as Group. 3 + canola oil, Group 5: same as Group. 3 + sunflower oil, Group 6: same as Group. 3 + mix of sunflower oil and canola oil, Group 7: same as Group. 3 + coconut oil. Rats were treated for 8 weeks, and analysis of the frozen plasmas was performed. A- Analysis between the treatment groups and control revealed that vibration training in Group 2 increased body weight (P = 0.04), plasma creatin kinase (CK), (P = 0.02), and estradiol (E2), (P = 0.03). Rats in Group 5 consumed less food and plasma levels of cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased significantly (P = 0.02) in Group 6 and in Group 7 (p<0.05). B- Analysis of data among Group 4 – 7 (the oil consuming groups) and Group 3 revealed significant differences in cholesterol (Chol), LDL-C, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), C- reactive protein (hs-CRP), estradiol (E2), atherogenic index (AI), and risk factor (RF), (p<0.05). In addition, plasma levels of testosterone (T) and free testosterone (FT) in Group 7 had a remarkable but non-significant increase. As a result of vibration training, a similar trend was observed for vitamin D in Group 2-7. The findings show that WBV is effective in improving health status by influencing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Moreover, canola oil and sunflower oil, separately, showed beneficial impacts on CVD risk factors; whereas their combination had negative impacts on lipid profile. Coconut oil revealed to be efficient to provide health benefits in terms of CVD treatments.

Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2012

Study Type : Animal Study

50. Coconut and olive oil consumption is associated with higher levels of testosterone and antioxidants in the testes of rats

Abstract Title:

Dietary lipids modify redox homeostasis and steroidogenic status in rat testis.

Abstract Source:

Phytother Res. 2010 Feb;24(2):163-8. PMID: 18549927

Abstract Author(s):

Graciela E Hurtado de Catalfo, María J T de Alaniz, Carlos A Marra

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: The present study explored the effect of dietary oils on lipid composition, antioxidant status, and the activity of the main steroidogenic enzymes in the testis. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n = 10) fed for 60 d on the same basal diet plus different lipid sources as commercial oils: soybean, olive, coconut, or grapeseed. After sacrifice, testicular lipids and fatty acid composition, free radical biomarkers, antioxidant levels, hormones, and steroidogenic enzymes were determined. RESULTS: The lipid composition of diets produced significant changes in neutral/phospholipids, free/esterified cholesterol, and plasmalogen proportion. Fatty acid patterns of these lipids were also strongly modified, influencing the double bond index. We also found a close correlation between the type of diet and the generation of free radicals. The oxidative stress in testes was higher with the grapeseed oil-supplemented diet and decreased with the other diets in this order: soybean oil > olive oil > coconut oil. Animals fed with the olive oil and coconut oil diets showed the highest testicular levels of antioxidants in addition to significantly high levels of testosterone and 3beta- or 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes. CONCLUSION: Different oils in the diets strongly modified the homeostasis of the testicular antioxidant defense system and, in consequence, affected steroidogenic function, showing a clear correlation with the damage induced. According to our results, an appropriate mixture of olive and soybean oils could be a healthy recommendation.

Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2010

Study Type : Animal Study

51. Ylang ylang oil and lemongrass oil are suitable to be used as green repellents for mosquito control, which are safe for humans, domestic animals and environmental friendly

Abstract Title:

Efficacy of Thai herbal essential oils as green repellent against mosquito vectors.

Abstract Source:

Acta Trop. 2015 Feb ;142:127-30. Epub 2014 Nov 28. PMID: 25438256

Abstract Author(s):

Mayura Soonwera, Siriporn Phasomkusolsil

Article Affiliation:

Mayura Soonwera

Abstract:

Repellency activity of Thai essential oils derived from ylang ylang (Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f.&Thomson: Annonaceae) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf: Poaceae) were tested against two mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). There were compared with two chemical repellents (DEET 20% w/w; Sketolene Shield(®) and IR3535, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate 12.5% w/w; Johnson’s Baby Clear Lotion Anti-Mosquito(®)). Each herbal repellent was applied in three diluents; coconut oil, soybean oil and olive oil at 0.33 μl/cm(2) on the forearm of volunteers. All herbal repellent exhibited higher repellent activity than IR3535 12.5% w/w, but lower repellent activity than DEET 20% w/w. The C. odorata oil in coconut oil exhibited excellent activity with 98.9% protection from bites of A. aegypti for 88.7±10.4 min. In addition, C. citratus in olive oil showed excellent activity with 98.8% protection from bites of C. quinquefasciatus for 170.0±9.0 min. While, DEET 20% w/w gave protection for 155.0±7.1-182.0±12.2 min and 98.5% protection from bites of two mosquito species. However, all herbal repellent provided lower repellency activity (97.4-98.9% protection for 10.5-88.7 min) against A. aegypti thanC. quinquefasciatus (98.3-99.2% protection for 60-170 min). Our data exhibited that C. odorata oil and C. citratus oil are suitable to be used as green repellents for mosquito control, which are safe for humans, domestic animals and environmental friendly.

Article Published Date : Jan 31, 2015

Study Type : Human Study

52. Oil pulling using coconut oil could be an effective adjuvant procedure in decreasing plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis

Article Publish Status: FREE

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Abstract Title:

Effect of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis – A preliminary report.

Abstract Source:

Niger Med J. 2015 Mar-Apr;56(2):143-7. PMID: 25838632

Abstract Author(s):

Faizal C Peedikayil, Prathima Sreenivasan, Arun Narayanan

Article Affiliation:

Faizal C Peedikayil

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Oil pulling or oil swishing therapy is a traditional procedure in which the practitioners rinse or swish oil in their mouth. It is supposed to cure oral and systemic diseases but the evidence is minimal. Oil pulling with sesame oil and sunflower oil was found to reduce plaque related gingivitis. Coconut oil is an easily available edible oil. It is unique because it contains predominantly medium chain fatty acids of which 45-50 percent is lauric acid. Lauric acid has proven anti inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. No studies have been done on the benefits of oil pulling using coconut oil to date. So a pilot study was planned to assess the effect of coconut oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coconut oil pulling/oil swishing on plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. A prospective interventional study was carried out. 60 age matched adolescent boys and girls in the age-group of 16-18 years with plaque induced gingivitis were included in the study and oil pulling was included in their oral hygiene routine. The study period was 30 days. Plaque and gingival indices of the subjects were assessed at baseline days 1,7,15 and 30. The data was analyzed using paired t test.

RESULTS: A statistically significant decrease in the plaque and gingival indices was noticed from day 7 and the scores continued to decrease during the period of study.

CONCLUSION: Oil pulling using coconut oil could be an effective adjuvant procedure in decreasing plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis.

Article Published Date : Feb 28, 2015

Study Type : Human Study

MORE RESEARCH ARTICLES TO COME!

TO LEARN MORE READ: The pH Miracle, The pH Miracle revised and updated, the pH Miracle for Diabetes, The pH Miracle for Weight Loss, The pH Miracle for Cancer and The pH Miracle for the Heart – http://www.drrobertyoung.com and http://www.phoreveryoung.com

An Acidic pH Linked to Alzheimer’s

An estimated 5.7 million Americans are currently living with Alzheimer’s and the emotional pain that comes along with it. According to Robert O. Young, PhD, “the cause of Alzheimer’s is the result of the inability of the glymphatic system of the brain to remove acidic metabolic waste that is then buffered by alkaline buffers leading to the buildup of plaque. The plaque buildup in the brain is a defensive mechanism to protect healthy brain cells from acidic metabolic waste and then breakdown. Therefore, the true cause of dementia and Alzheimer’s is damage to healthy brain cells due to the buildup of metabolic acidic waste not properly being eliminated via the glymphatic system and then dumped into the interstitial fluids and removed by the lymphatic system via bowels, kidneys or pores of the skin. The following scan illustrates the brain degeneration caused by the buildup of acidic waste.

THE LINK BETWEEN pH AND ALZHEIMER’S

Just recently scientists have claimed that they have discovered new evidence that one of the plausible roots of Alzheimer’s disease could be a simple acid-alkaline pH imbalance in certain fluid areas of the brain.

 

In a new study from John Hopkins Medicine, mice with an Alzheimer’s gene were given histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. The experiment successfully reversed the pH problem and improved the capacity for amyloid beta clearance.

“By the time Alzheimer’s disease is diagnosed, most of the neurological damage is done, and it’s likely too late to reverse the disease’s progression,” says Professor of Physiology at the Johns Hopkins University, Rajini Rao.

“That’s why we need to focus on the earliest pathological symptoms or markers of Alzheimer’s disease, and we know that the biology and chemistry of endosomes is an important factor long before cognitive decline sets in.”

Nearly 20 years ago, scientists at Johns Hopkins and New York University discovered that endosomes, compartments that ferry molecules within cells, are larger and more abundant in the brains of people destined to develop Alzheimer’s disease. This hinted at an underlying problem that could lead to an accumulation of amyloid protein in spaces around neurons, says Prof. Rao.

To shuttle their cargo from place to place, endosomes use chaperones – proteins that bind to specific cargo and bring them back and forth from the cell’s surface.

Whether and how well this binding occurs depends on the proper pH level inside the endosome, a delicate balance of acidity and alkalinity, that makes endosomes float to the surface and slip back down into the cell.

Embedded in the endosome membrane are proteins that shuttle charged hydrogen atoms, known as protons, in and out of endosomes. The amount of protons inside the endosome determines its pH.

When fluids in the endosome become too acidic, the cargo is trapped within the endosome deep inside the cell. When the endosome contents are more alkaline, the cargo lingers at the cell’s surface for too long.

 

According to Robert O. Young, PhD., it all begins in the fluid spaces of the brain and certain cells called astrocytes. Astrocytes are responsible for cleaning up memory-destroying amyloid beta metabolic acid bound plaques between neurons. Normally, they do their job, and the metabolic acidic waste is eliminated during sleep preventing plaque buildup. But, when astrocytes are over-whelmed by the buildup of metabolic waste from bran cells, the acid bound plaque begin to build up within the brain to prevent damage to healthy brain cells, causing the hallmark signs of Alzheimer’s.

 

It turns out that this problem is caused by a simple pH imbalance inside crucial nutrient-transport fluid parts of brain cells. Scientists gave an HDAC inhibitor (a drug usually reserved for treating blood cancers) to pH imbalanced astrocytes with the Alzheimer’s genetic variant, and as internal pH was restored to a normal 7.365, astrocyte function and acid bound plaque cleanup was significantly improved.

“Simply improving the the alkaline pH environment around these brain cells improved overall function and clearance of the damaging acidic bound plaque as the body’s way of protecting healthy brain cells from the metabolic waste that was NOT eliminated during a restful sleep by the glymphatic system,” according to Robert O. Young, PhD. In fact Dr. Young suggests that ALL sickness and disease, including ALL cancers are the result of an over-acidification of the blood and then interstitial fluids due to an inverted way of living, eating, drinking, breathing and thinking.”

Of course, this research was conducted on lab-grown astrocytes, so it is far from conclusive, but it does bear promise for future research and treatment options. In the meantime, here are a few basic tips to reduce and eliminate acidity and encourage a balanced alkaline pH throughout your entire body and maintaining the its alkaline design.

HOW TO GET YOUR PH IN BALANCE

Start your day with a glass of alkaline water with chlorophyll and lemon

Chlorophyll is the major molecule of plants that make them green and is identical to human blood or hemoglobin other than their center atoms – chlorophyll has a center atom of magnesium and hemoglobin has a center atom or iron. In my research I have found that not only does chlorophyll detox the alimentary canal from food and drink acids but more important it builds healthy blood and its hemoglobin. This helps to increase oxygenation of the body and helps in the building of healthy body cells.

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Adding lemon juice to your alkaline chlorophyll water will help in detoxing and alkalizing your body. You may think lemons are acidic, but lemon juice is actually alkaline-forming in the body. It’s the easiest (and tastiest) way to bring up the pH levels of your body fluids while ensuring your body is fully hydrated and ready to start the day clean and energetic. To purchase pure chlorophyll and lemon juice powders go to: http://www.ijuicenow.com

 

Finally, drinking alkaline chlorophyll water with lemon will neutralize the toxic acidic waste of hydrochloric acid in the stomach that is created when the stomach is producing sodium bicarbonate to alkalize acidic foods or liquids ingested or to buffer metabolic acidic waste in the blood, interstitial fluids and intracellular fluids of the body and especially the brain.

Steer clear of ALL sugars – Sugar in Any Form is Poison

 

Stay clear of ALL high sugar fruit, high sugar fruit juices, sugar junk foods and processed foods which are heavily acidic. As your body has a tendency to skew acidic over alkaline, it is important to reduce acid-promoting foods in your regular diet. Other acidic foods to be steer clear of include:

  • all animal protein, including beef, chicken, duck, pork, and even fish
  • all dairy products, including milk, cheese, yogurt and especially ice cream
  • alcohol, including so-called nutritional products that contain alcohol or glycerin
  • coffee, tea and chocolate

Eat ALL green vegetables, sprouts, grasses and low sugar fruit

  • all leafy greens such as kale, spinach, arugula and butter lettuce
  • broccoli, brussel sprouts,
  • all low sugar fruit including cucumber, avocado, lemon, lime, green peppers, green olives and tomato
  • all sprouts including bean, broccoli, alfalfa, etc.
  • all green oils such as hemp, olive, and avocado
  • all grasses including wheat grass, barley grass, lemon grass, oat grass, kamut grass, etc.
  • seeds and nuts, especially almond and hazel nut milks

 

What promotes your body to become more alkaline? Green vegetables green grasses, cold-pressed green oils and and green fruit! So steam those greens, munch on some raw sprouts, or blend a little broccoli and avocado into a smoothie. A vegetable-heavy, plant-based diet can tilt the pH scales in your favor in maintaining the alkaline design of the body.

Manage physical and emotional stress better

Physical and emotional stress increases metabolic acidic waste that impairs your body’s ability to detoxify these inflammatory toxins via the lungs, kidneys, bowels and skin. Too little sleep and too little low-impact exercise does it, too. When the body is in deep sleep the glymphatic system removes toxic acidic metabolic waste from the brain. If this does not happen the increase in brain acidosis leads to the death of brain cells. Balance your lifestyle, practice meditation techniques, and get plenty of movement and rest in to ensure that your body and especially your brain cells are not swimming in a pool of acid.

 

The glymphatic system is a functional acidic waste clearance pathway for the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). The pathway consists of a para-arterial influx route for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to enter the brain parenchyma, coupled to a clearance mechanism for the removal of interstitial fluid (ISF) and extracellular solutes from the interstitial compartments of the brain and spinal cord.

 

The name “glymphatic system” was coined in 2012 by the Danish neuroscientist Maiken Nedergaard in recognition of its dependence upon glial cells and the similarity of its functions to those of the peripheral lymphatic system. This system activates only when you are in deep sleep, removing metabolic acidic waste from the functioning of brain cells. When these metabolic acids build-up they can cause brain damage leading to cognitive disfunction and the condition dementia, leading to Alzheimers.

To learn how to prevent or reverse the symptoms of dementia and Alzheimer’s dis-ease read, The pH Miracle revised and updated and The pH Miracle for Cancer – http://www.phoreveryoung.com

 

To order alkalizing food, juices, nutritional supplements and light therapy for the brain go to: http://www.phoreveryoung.com, wwwijuicenow.com, http://www.innerlightblue.com, http://www.phmiracle.com and http://www.phmiraclestore.com

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References:

  1. Hari Prasad, Rajini Rao. Amyloid clearance defect in ApoE4 astrocytes is reversed by epigenetic correction of endosomal pHProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2018; 115 (28): E6640 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801612115
  2. Johns Hopkins Medicine. “pH imbalance in brain cells may contribute to Alzheimer’s disease: Study identifies potential drug targets to reverse problem found in tiny organelles in astrocytes.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 August 2018. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180802130758.htm>
  3. Young O. Robert. The pH Miracle for Cancer, Discover the Truth About the Cause, Prevention, Treatments and Reversals of All Types of Cancers, Hikari Publishing, Alpine, Utah, 2015 – http://www.phoreveryoung.com
  4. Young O. Robert, Young Redford Shelley. The pH Miracle, revised and updated, Balance Your Diet, Reclaim Your Health, Hachette Publishing, Wellness Central, 2010 – http://www.phoreveryoung.com

 

Health and Nutritional Benefits of iJuice Green Coffee Bean Essential Oil

Green Coffee Bean Essential Oil is cold pressed from the green coffee beans harvested still green, crushed mechanically in a cold expeller pressing machine yielding a greening light oil. It does not smell either like brewed coffee or coffee essential oil which is made from roasted coffee. When roasted there is a change in the chemical and aromatic composition of coffee beans. Our Green coffee oil comes from a coffee farm in the South of Brazil organic certified by BCS Öko Garantie and the Brazilian Government Agency of Organic Program.

Green Coffee Bean Essential Oil is becoming increasingly popular in the cosmetics industry due to its high level of chlorogenic acid, which is a powerful antioxidant, and significant amounts of fatty acids and phytosterols which promote excellent moisture retention and rapid skin penetration. The antioxidant properties present in green coffee oil is 3 times greater than green tea (in amounts of polyphenols ) and four times more potent than vitamin C.

 

Green Coffee Bean Essential Oil is very similar to the natural oils in the body, and has the same pH level of human skin. A fact which helps to maintain the balance of moisture levels of the skin, leaving it healthy. Coffee oil can be used directly to the skin as an intense night treatment for aged skin and is readily absorbed through the skin leaving an extremely light, silky feel.

Green Coffee Bean Oil has been a highly prized searched ingredient to be used in formulations intended to control lines and wrinkles, products for sensitive treatments, anti -cellulite treatments such body firming lotions – Enzymes green coffee help break down fat and smooth the swollen areas of skin thus, reducing the appearance of cellulite.

For its anti-inflammatory properties help Green Coffee Bean Essential Oil has been used in eyes creams and serums to diminish puffiness.

iJuice Green Coffee Bean Essential Oil helps to control symptoms of skin disorders such sores, itchy, scaling and dead cell build up. Acne – coffee oil contains enzymes that stimulate detoxification and help in cleaning the skin, thus making it ideal to help skin prone to acne.

iJuice Green Coffee Bean Essentail Oil is excellent source of linolenic acid, oleic and palmitic acids the great potential of green coffee is its high content of flavonódes which protects the skin against UV rays as well as help in the treatment of injuries caused by excessive sun exposure. Green Coffee Oil has been used for years as a beauty treatment and is now being used by some of the most famous spas in the world to purify the skin and for the treatment of cellulite.

 

Researchers are beginning to find a wide range of therapeutic uses green coffee oil and is considered one of the best free radical scavengers with effective prophylactic and therapeutically properties.

Color/Scent: Medium to Dark Brownish Green with a crispy herbal scent

Packaging: Up to 1 fl.oz: Glass Bottle

Packaging: 2.0 fl.oz and up FDA Compliant Brown or White PET Bottle.

Attribute: Unrefined/Cold Pressed from organically cultivated coffee beans.

Shelf Life: 2 year AP

Texture: Thin liquid at 75F

SAP Value: 190

Main Health Fats:

* Palmítico: 26.6-27.8 %

* Esteárico: 5.6-6.3 %

* Oléico – (ômega 9): 6.7-8.2 %

* Linoléico – (ômega 6): 52.2-54.3 %

* Linolênico – (ômega 3) 2.2-2.6 %

 

To order go to: https://www.ijuicenow.com/product-page/ijuice-green-coffee-bean-essential-oil-2-ounce

Preventing and Reversing Multiple Sclerosis?

So What Does Multiple Sclerosis Look Like as Viewed in Human Blood?

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative acidic condition that I refer to as Stage 7 metabolic acidosis. This condition will show numerous colloidal symplasts of crystalized lactic acid associated with a mold called aspergillus niger. If you look closely at the edge of the colloidal symplast you will see a green tint associated with the acid, lactic acid. Lactic acid is a major metabolic acid associated with ALL sickness and disease beginning with enervation, then inflammation, then induration, then ulceration and finally degeneration or the symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis.

Multiple sclerosis and the condition of metabolic acidosis can be determined through a Full Body 3D Bio-Electro Functionality testing which will quantify the chemistry and pH of the interstitial fluids of the largest organ of the body called the Interstitium.

 

The ideal pH of the Interstitium is 7.365. In the condition of Multiple Sclerosis the interstitial fluid pH will be less than 7.2, a sure sign of metabolic acidosis and the symptoms of inflammation and degeneration associated with MS. This would also be the same condition of the interstitial fluids of the Interstitium in ANY cancerous condition.

In the prevention of any inflammatory and/or degenerative or cancerous condition, it is critical to determine the chemistry and especially the pH of the Interstitial fluids and compare this data with the chemistry, including the pH of the blood plasma.

With this critical information a good doctor can prevent a serious health challenge and determine the efficacy of ANY treatments, whether medical or alternative.

To learn more about Pathological Blood Coagulation and non-invasive Full Body 3D Bio-Electro Functionality Scanning, email: phmiraclelife@gmail.com

http://www.drroberyoung.com and http://www.phoreveryoung

THYROID DYSFUNCTION – AN ACIDIC LIFESTYLE & DIE-IT

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Hyper or Hypo thyroid is the result in a deficiency of alkalizing mineral salts such as sodium, chloride, potassium and iodine caused by an acidic lifestyle and diet.

My own clinical research has shown that over 90 percent of those patients tested by an Ultra Sound scan showed one or a combination of cysts, calcium deposits and/or solid masses/tumors on the thyroid.

 

I also found that when there was a deficiency of the thyroid there was a deficiency of blood plasma sodium, chloride and iodine. Sodium, chloride and iodine are essential for the healthy function of the thyroid.

The thyroid is responsible for regulating and transporting the energy demands of the body cells in the form of the electron through a matrix of salt. When salt is deficient or absent because of an acidic lifestyle and diet the body cells become enervated and the thyroid becomes stressed and begins to over-compensate in a hyper way until it breaks down and becomes hypo.  It would be like driving your car on flat tires or no tires, stressing out your car engine until the car breaks down and stops.

The solution for hyper or hypo thyroid is an alkalizing lifestyle and diet that will restore the alkalize design of the body and the healthy function of the thyroid. I have suggested a thyroid support nutritional plan by taking 125mg of Potassium Iodide daily, pHlavor salts, pHour salts, our Thyroid Support Formula, the pHlush salts, whole leaf aloe juice, 4 to 6 liters of pH Miracle Greens, and finally our L-Arginine Max, 4 to 6 times a day.

WHAT IS POTASSIUM IODIDE USP (KI)?

Young pHorever Potassium Iodide USP (KI)

Potassium Iodide

Potassium Iodide (KI) may be used when it is desirable to maintain a high level of beneficial iodides in the thyroid gland. Iodide is a form of iodine that is preferentially taken up by the thyroid gland. This product also supports the body’s normal detoxification of environmental, metabolic, gastrointestinal and respiratory acids, including the removal of heavy metals. Potassium Iodide helps shield (or block) the absorption of harmful radioactive iodine by the thyroid following a nuclear emergency.

Potassium iodide is a salt, similar to table salt. Its chemical symbol is KI. It is routinely added to table salt to make it iodized. Potassium iodide, if taken in time and at the appropriate dosage, blocks the thyroid gland’s uptake of radioactive iodine and thus could reduce the risk of thyroid cancers and other diseases that might otherwise be caused by exposure to radioactive iodine that could be dispersed in a severe nuclear accident.

• Potassium iodide is a blocker of thyroid radio-iodine uptake.

• Promotes healthy metabolism

• Supports the immune function

• Supports a healthy thyroid

• Promotes breast and prostate health

• Combats iodine deficiency that causes hypothyroidism

• Supports balanced mood

• Assist in regulation of healthy pulse and blood pressure

• Promotes the destruction of harmful cells

• Helps to decrease high blood sugar and cholesterol levels

• Detoxifies the body from heavy metals, radioactive elements, free radicals and metabolic acids

• Helps those who are overweight by improving the function of the gastro-intestinal tract

• Improves the structure of hair and nails and helps them grow

• Helps to detoxify smokers from strontium and cadmium

In stock & shipped within 2-3 business days. This item contains 150 tablets. Because of the volume of orders for KI, we cannot change or cancel your order once placed so please make sure that your order and address are correct.

Young pHorever Product Specifications

65mg KI

150 Tablets.

1 per order only.

$24.99

To order call: 760-751-8321.

This product is Hypoallergenic & Pharmaceutical grade.

The United States government mandates the distribution of Potassium Iodide to the population within 10 miles of any nuclear power plant. The following information is taken directly from The U.S. Nuclear Regulation Commissions (NRC) website. links have been provide below.

What is potassium iodide?

Potassium iodide is a salt, similar to table salt. Its chemical symbol is KI. It is routinely added to table salt to make it “iodized.” Potassium iodide, if taken in time and at the appropriate dosage, blocks the thyroid gland’s uptake of radioactive iodine and thus could reduce the risk of thyroid cancers and other diseases that might otherwise be caused by exposure to radioactive iodine that could be dispersed in a severe nuclear accident.

What is the role of potassium iodide in radiological emergency preparedness?

Potassium iodide is a special kind of protective measure in that it offers very specialized protection. Potassium iodide protects the thyroid gland against internal uptake of radioiodines that may be released in the unlikely event of a nuclear reactor accident. The purpose of radiological emergency preparedness is to protect people from the effects of radiation exposure after an accident at a nuclear power plant. Evacuation is the most effective protective measure in the event of a radiological emergency because it protects the whole body (including the thyroid gland and other organs) from all radionuclides and all exposure pathways. Administering KI can be a reasonable, prudent, and inexpensive supplement to in-place sheltering and evacuation.

Does this rule imply that America’s nuclear reactors are less safe?

In 2001, the NRC revised of its emergency preparedness regulation that requires that States with a population within the 10-mile emergency planning zone of commercial nuclear power plants consider including potassium iodide as a protective measure for the general public to supplement sheltering and evacuation in the unlikely event of a severe nuclear power plant accident. The rule does not imply that the present generation of nuclear power plants are less safe than previously thought. On the contrary, present indications are that nuclear power plant safety has significantly improved since the existing emergency preparedness requirements became effective after the Three Mile Island-2 accident in 1979.

Why does the rule require States to consider the use of potassium iodide instead of mandating its use?

The NRC will not require use of potassium iodide by the general public because the NRC believes that current emergency planning and protective measures–evacuation and sheltering–are adequate and protective of public health and safety. However, the NRC recognizes the supplemental value of potassium iodide and the prerogative of the States to decide the appropriateness of the use of potassium iodide by its citizens. The NRC believes the final rule together with the decision to provide funding for the purchase of a State’s supply of potassium iodide strikes a proper balance between encouraging (but not requiring) State authorities to take advantage of the benefits of potassium iodide. By requiring consideration of the use of potassium iodide, the Commission recognizes the important role of States and local governments in matters of emergency planning. This rule applies to States and Tribal governments that have a nuclear power plant within their borders and populations within the 10-mile emergency planning zone and to local governments designated by States to request funding for potassium iodide.

Can individual members of the public obtain potassium iodide?

FDA has approved potassium iodide as an over-the-counter medication. As with any medication, individuals should check with their doctor or pharmacist before using it.

The United States Government provides Potassium Iodide to the population within 10-mile EPZ around nuclear power plants?

The population closest (within the 10 mile EPZ) to the nuclear power plant are at greatest risk of exposure to radiation and radioactive materials. The purpose of radiological emergency preparedness is to protect people from the effects of radiation exposure after an accident at a nuclear power plant. Evacuation is the most effective protective measure in the event of a radiological emergency because it protects the whole body (including the thyroid gland and other organs) from all radionuclides and all exposure pathways. However, in situations when evacuation is not feasible, in-place sheltering is substituted as an effective protective action. In addition, administering potassium iodide is a reasonable, prudent, and inexpensive supplement to both evacuation and sheltering. When the population is evacuated out of the area, and potentially contaminated foodstuffs are interdicted, the risk from further radioactive iodine exposure to the thyroid gland is essentially eliminated.

References:

United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission:

Frequently asked questions about Potassium Iodide.

Federal Policy on the Use of Potassium Iodide (10 CFR Part 50 RIN 3150–AG11)

A California Jury Found Roundup Does Cause Cancer – A Big Reason For Buying Pesticide Free Organic Produce!

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August 10th, 2018, a California court found that Monsanto (just acquired by the German Company Bayer) glyphosate Roundup does cause cancer, a jury has declared in an unprecedented trial into the health dangers of Monsanto’s weedkiller.

After three days of deliberations, jurors on Friday sided with terminally-ill groundsman Dewayne Johnson, 46, who has just weeks to live, awarding him $250 million in punitive damages, plus nearly $40m in compensatory damages, bringing the total to $289m.

Specifically, in eight weeks of proceedings, the jury was left convinced that Monsanto’s product caused Johnson’s cancer.

You can read the entire story here: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-6049007/Roundup-cancerous-jury-declares.html

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Study Links Genetically Modified Organism’s (GMO’s) To Cancer, Liver/Kidney Damage & Severe Hormonal Disruption!

In November 2012, the Journal of Food and Chemical Toxicology published a paper titled Long Term Toxicity of Roundup Herbicide and a Roundup-Tolerant genetically modified maize by Gilles-Eric Seralini and his team of researchers at France’s Caen University(source) It was a very significant study that made a lot of noise worldwide, the first of its kind under controlled conditions that examined the possible effects of a GMO maize diet treated with Monsanto’s Roundup Herbicide.

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After the research was completed, it went through rigorous reviews, as well as a four-month review process by scientists and researchers. It was eventually approved and published, only to be retracted by request of the Journal. Although hundreds of scientists around the world condemned the retraction, and the researchers addressed the criticisms, it was to no avail.

There is great news to report however, as this major GMO study has now been republished following its controversial retraction (under strong commercial pressure), with even more up to date information and a response to previous criticisms. You can read more about that here.

The study has now been published by Environmental Sciences Europe. (source)

The chronic toxicity study examined the health impacts on rats of eating  commercialized genetically modified (GM) maize, alongside Monsanto’s NK603 glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup.

The study found severe liver and kidney damage as well as hormonal disturbances in rats fed with GM maize in conjunction with low levels of Roundup that were below those permitted in most drinking water across Europe. Results also indicated high rates of large tumors and mortality in most treatment groups.

The republished study also has a section describing the lobbying efforts of GMO crop supporters to force the retraction of the original publication. This is scientific fraud at its best. The authors express how the previous retraction was “a historic example of conflicts of interest in the scientific assessments of products commercialized worldwide.”

“We also show that the decision to retract cannot be rationalized on any discernible scientific or ethical grounds. Censorship of research into health risks undermines the value and the credibility of science, thus, we republish our paper.” –  Seralini

“Censorship on research into the risks of a technology so critically entwined with global food safety undermines the value and the credibility of science.” – Seralini

This study has now successfully passed through multiple rounds of rigorous peer review. Again, the study shows that Roundup-treated GM corn as well as the herbicide used on it increases cancer in rats. There are a number of studies that demonstrate the potential health risks of GM plants, this one in particular drew heavy criticism from industry scientists.

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“The major criticisms of the Seralini manuscript were that the proper strain of rats was not used and their numbers were too small. Neither criticism is valid. The strain of rat is that which is required by the FDA for drug toxicology, and the toxic effects were unambiguously significant. In fact, Monsanto published a similar study in the same journal eight years before using the same number and strain of rats. Their study was for 90 days and claimed no harm. In contrast, the Seralini study was for two years and did not see any tumors until after nine months. Therefore, it is clear that the short 90-day feeding paradigm is not sufficiently long to detect the carcinogenic effects of GM products. It takes a long time before low-level exposure to environmental toxins affect health. For example, a recent associated press report documented the dramatic increase in birth defects and cancer in areas  of Argentina that have grown GM soy for a decade. Given these facts, what was the justification of the editorial decision to retract the Seralini Manuscript?”  (source)

Other Studies Regarding GMOs and Herbicides

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There is a reason that multiple countries all over the world have been banning GMOs and the pesticides that go with them. More information is emerging everyday from scientists and researchers all over the world that clearly points to the fact that we just don’t know enough about GM’s to deem them totally safe for human consumption.

By slipping it into our food without our knowledge, without any indication that there are genetically modified organisms in our food, we are now unwittingly part of a massive experiment.The FDA has said that genetically modified organisms are not much different from regular food, so they’ll be treated in the same way. The problem is this, geneticists follow the inheritance of genes, what biotechnology allows us to do is to take this organism, and move it horizontally into a totally unrelated species. Now David Suzuki doesn’t normally mate with a carrot and exchange genes, what biotechnology allows us to do is to switch genes from one to the other without regard to the biological constraints. It’s very very bad science, we assume that the principles governing the inheritance of genes vertically, applies when you move genes laterally or horizontally. There’s absolutely no reason to make that conclusion – Geneticist David Suzuki (source)

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1. Multiple Toxins From GMOs Detected In Maternal and Fetal Blood

Research from Canada (the first of its kind) has successfully identified the presence of pesticides associated with genetically modified foods in maternal, fetal and non-pregnant women’s blood. They also found the presence of Monsanto’s Bt toxin. The study was published in the Journal Reproductive Toxicology in 2011.(1) You can read the FULL study here.

“Given the potential toxicity of these environmental pollutants and the fragility of the fetus, more studies are needed, particularly those using the placental transfer approach. Thus, our present results will provide baseline data for future studies exploring a new area of research relating to nutrition, toxicology and reproduction in women. Today, obstetric-gynecological disorders that are associated with environmental chemicals are not known.  Thus, knowing the actual concentration of genetically modified foods in humans constitutes a cornerstone in the advancement of research in this area.” (1)

The study used blood samples from thirty pregnant women and thirty non-pregnant women. The study also pointed out that the fetus is considered to be highly susceptible to the adverse affects of xenobiotics (foreign chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced.)  This is why the study emphasizes that knowing more about GMOs is crucial, because environmental agents could disrupt the biological events that are required to ensure normal growth and development.

2. DNA From Genetically Modified Crops Can Be Transferred Into Humans Who Eat Them

In a new study published in the peer-reviewed Public Library of Science (PLOS), researchers emphasize that there is sufficient evidence that meal-derived DNA fragments carry complete genes that can enter into the human circulation system through an unknown mechanism.(2)

In one of the blood samples the relative concentration of plant DNA is higher than the human DNA.  The study was based on the analysis of over 1000 human samples from four independent studies. PLOS is an open access, well-respected peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers primary research from disciplines within science and medicine. It’s great to see this study published in it, confirming what many have been suspected for years.

“Our bloodstream is considered to be an environment well separated from the outside world and the digestive tract. According to the standard paradigm large macromolecules consumed with food cannot pass directly to the circulatory system. During digestion proteins and DNA are thought to be degraded into small constituents, amino acids and nucleic acids, respectively, and then absorbed by a complex active process and distributed to various parts of the body through the circulation system. Here, based on the analysis of over 1000 human samples from four independent studies, we report evidence that meal-derived DNA fragments which are large enough to carry complete genes can avoid degradation and through an unknown mechanism enter the human circulation system. In one of the blood samples the relative concentration of plant DNA is higher than the human DNA. The plant DNA concentration shows a surprisingly precise log-normal distribution in the plasma samples while non-plasma (cord blood) control sample was found to be free of plant DNA.” (2)

This still doesn’t mean that GMOs can enter into our cells, but given the fact GMOs have been linked to cancer (later in this article) it is safe to assume it is indeed a possibility. The bottom line is that we don’t know, and this study demonstrates another cause for concern.

3. New Study Links GMOs To Gluten Disorders That Affect 18 Million Americans

This study was recently released by the Institute for Responsible Technology (IRT), and uses data from the US department of Agriculture, US Environmental Protection Agency, medical journal reviews as well as other independent research. (3)(4) The authors relate GM foods to five conditions that may either trigger or exacerbate gluten-related disorders, including the autoimmune disorder, Celiac Disease:

  • Intestinal permeability
  • Imbalanced gut bacteria
  • Immune activation and allergic response
  • Impaired digestion
  • Damage to the intestinal wall

The Institute for Responsible technology is a world leader in educating policy makers and the public about GMO foods and crops. The institute reports and investigates on the impact GM foods can have on health, environment, agriculture and more.

4. Study Links Genetically Modified Corn to Rat Tumors

In November 2012, The Journal of Food and Chemical Toxicology published a paper titled ‘Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize’ by Gilles-Eric Seralini and his team of researchers at France’s Caen University. (5)

It was a very significant study, which obviously looks bad for the big bio tech companies like Monsanto, being the first and only long-term study under controlled conditions examining the possible effects of a diet of GMO maize treated with Monsanto roundup herbicide.

This study has since been retracted, which is odd, because the journal it was published in is a very well-known, reputable peer-reviewed scientific journal. In order for a study to be published here it has to go through a rigorous review process.

It’s also important to note that hundreds of scientists from around the world have condemned the retraction of the study. This study was done by experts, and a correlation between GMOs and these tumors can’t be denied, something happened.

The multiple criticisms of the study have also been answered by the team of researchers that conducted the study. You can read them and find out more about the study here.

GM Crop Production is Lowering US Yields and Increasing Pesticide Use

5. Glyphosate Induces Human Breast Cancer Cells Growth via Estrogen Receptors

A study is published in the US National Library of Medicine (4) and will soon be published in the journal Food and Chemical Toxicology. Several recent studies showed glyphosate’s potential to be an endocrine disruptor. Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with the hormone system in mammals. These disruptors can cause developmental disorders, birth defects and cancer tumors. (6)

Glyphosate exerted proliferative effects only in human hormone-dependent breast cancer. We found that glyphosate exhibited a weaker estrogenic activity than estradiol. Furthermore, this study demonstrated the additive estrogenic effects of glyphosate and genisein which implied that the use of contaminated soybean products as dietary supplements may pose a risk of breast cancer because of their potential additive estrogenicity. (6)

Researchers also determined that Monsanto’s roundup is considered an “xenoestrogen,” which is a foreign estrogen that mimics real estrogen in our bodies. This can cause a number of problems that include an increased risk of various cancers, early onset of puberty, thyroid issues, infertility and more.

6. Glyphosate Linked To Birth Defects

A group of scientists put together a comprehensive review of existing data that shows how European regulators have known that Monsanto’s glyphosate causes a number of birth malformations since at least 2002. Regulators misled the public about glyphosate’s safety, and in Germany the Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety told the European Commission that there was no evidence to suggest that glyphosate causes birth defects. (7) (link might not work for some, if not you can access that report HERE)

Our examination of the evidence leads us to the conclusion that the current approval of glyphosate and Roundup is deeply flawed and unreliable. In this report, we examine the industry studies and regulatory documents that led to the approval of glyphosate. We show that industry and regulators knew as long ago as the 1980s and 1990s that glyphosate causes malformation – but that this information was not made public. We demonstrate how EU regulators reasoned their way from clear evidence of glyphosate’s teratogenicity in industry’s own studies to a conclusion that minimized these findings in the EU Commission’s final review report (7)

Here is a summary of the report:

  • Multiple peer-reviewed scientific literature documenting serious health hazards posed by glyphosate
  • Industry (including Monsanto) has known since the 1980′s that glyphosate causes malformations in experimental animals at high doses
  • Industry has known since 1993 that these effects could also occur at lower and mid doses
  • The German government has known since at least 1998 that glyphosate causes malformations
  • The EU Commission’s expert scientific review panel knew in 1999 that glyphosate causes malformations
  • The EU Commission has known since 2002 that glyphosate causes malformations. This was the year DG SANCO division published its final review report, laying out the basis for the current approval of glyphosate

Another study published by the American Chemical Society, from the university of Buenos Aires, Argentina also showed that Glyphosate can cause abnormalities.(8)

The direct effect of glyphosate on early mechanisms of morphogenesis in vertebrate embryos opens concerns about the clinical findings from human offspring in populations exposed to glyphosate in agricultural fields (8)

7. Study Links Glyphosate To Autism, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s

When you ingest Glyphosate, you are in essence altering the chemistry of your body. It’s completely unnatural and the body doesn’t resonate with it. P450 (CYP) is the gene pathway disrupted when the body takes in Glyphosate. P450 creates enzymes that assist with the formation of molecules in cells, as well as breaking them down. CYP enzymes are abundant and have many important functions. They are responsible for detoxifying xenobiotics from the body, things like the various chemicals found in pesticides, drugs and carcinogens. Glyphosate inhibits the CYP enzymes. The CYP pathway is critical for normal, natural functioning of multiple biological systems within our bodies. Because humans that’ve been exposed to glyphosate have a drop in amino acid tryptophan levels, they do not have the necessary active signalling of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is associated with weight gain, depression and Alzheimer’s disease. (9)

8. Chronically Ill Humans Have Higher Glyphosate Levels Than Healthy Humans

A new study out of Germany concludes that Glyphosate residue could reach humans and animals through feed and can be excreted in urine. It outlines how presence of glyphosate in urine and its accumulation in animal tissues is alarming even at low concentrations. (10)

To this day, Monsanto continues to advertise its Roundup products as environmentally friendly and claims that neither animals nor humans are affected by this toxin. Environmentalists, veterinarians, medical doctors and scientists however, have raised increasing alarms about the danger of glyphosate in the animal and human food chain as well as the environment. The fact that glyphosate has been found in animals and humans is of great concern. In search for the causes of serious diseases amongst entire herds of animals in northern Germany, especially cattle, glyphosate has repeatedly been detected in the urine, feces, milk and feed of the animals. Even more alarming, glyphosate was detected in the urine of the farmers.  (10)

9. Studies Link GMO Animal Feed to Severe Stomach Inflammation and Enlarged Uteri in Pigs

A study by scientist Judy Carman, PhD that was recently published in the peer-reviewed journal Organic Systems outlines the effects of a diet mixed with GMO feed for pigs, and how it is a cause for concern when it comes to health. (11) Scientists randomized and fed isowean pigs either a mixed GM soy and GM corn (maize) diet for approximately 23 weeks (nothing out of the ordinary for most pigs in the United States), which is unfortunately the normal lifespan of a commercial pig from weaning to slaughter. Equal numbers of male and female pigs were present in each group. The GM diet was associated with gastric and uterine differences in pigs. GM pigs had uteri that were 25% heavier than non-GM fed pigs. GM-fed pigs had a higher rate of severe stomach inflammation with a rate of 32% compared to 125 of non-GM fed pigs.

The study concluded that pigs fed a GMO diet exhibited a heavier uteri and a higher rate of severe stomach inflammation than pigs who weren’t fed a GMO diet. Because the use of GMO feed for livestock and humans is so widespread, this is definitely another cause for concern when it comes to GMO consumption. Humans have a similar gastrointestinal tract to pigs, and these GM crops are consumed widely by people, especially in the United States.

10. GMO risk assessment is based on very little scientific evidence in the sense that the testing methods recommended are not adequate to ensure safety. (12)(13)(14)

Deficiencies have been revealed numerous times with regards to testing GM foods.

The first guidelines were originally designed to regulate the introduction of GM microbes and plants into the environment with no attention being paid to food safety concerns. However, they have been widely cited as adding authoritative scientific support to food safety assessment. Additionally, the Statement of Policy released by the Food and Drug Administration of the United States, presumptively recognizing the GM foods as GRAS (generally recognized as safe), was prepared while there were critical guidelines prepared by the International Life Sciences Institute Europe and FAO/WHO recommend that safety evaluation should be based on the concept of substantial equivalence, considering parameters such as molecular characterization, phenotypic characteristics, key nutrients, toxicants and allergens. Since 2003, official standards for food safety assessment have been published by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO/WHO. Published reviews with around 25 peer-reviewed studies have found that despite the guidelines, the risk assessment of GM foods has not followed a defined prototype.(12) (15)

“The risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops for human nutrition and health has not been systematic. Evaluations for each GM crop or trait have been conducted using different feeding periods, animal models and parameters. The most common results are that GM and conventional sources include similar nutritional performance and growth in animals. However, adverse microscopic and molecular effects of some GM foods in different organs or tissues have been reported. While there are currently no standardized methods to evaluate the safety of GM foods, attempts towards harmonization are on the way. More scientific effort is necessary in order to build confidence in the evaluation and acceptance of GM foods.” (12) (15)

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The Russian government has ordered all relevant agencies to examine whether or not to continue imports of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the country. http://www.naturalnews.com/042325_GMO_ban_Russia_genetically_modified_crops.html

Resources:

(All other sources not listed here are highlighted throughout the article)

http://www.enveurope.com/content/26/1/13

(1)https://www.uclm.es/Actividades/repositorio/pdf/doc_3721_4666.pdf

(2)http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0069805

(3) http://rt.com/usa/gmo-gluten-sensitivity-trigger-343/

(4)http://responsibletechnology.org/media/images/content/Press_Release_Gluten_11_25.pdf

(5)http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691512005637

(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23756170

(7) http://earthopensource.org/files/pdfs/Roundup-and-birth-defects/RoundupandBirthDefectsv5.pdf

(8) http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/tx1001749

(9) http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/15/4/1416

(10) http://omicsonline.org/open-access/detection-of-glyphosate-residues-in-animals-and-humans-2161-0525.1000210.pdf

(11) http://www.organic-systems.org/journal/81/8106.pdf

(12)http://static.aboca.com/www.aboca.com/files/attach/news/risk_assessment_of_genetically_modified_crops_for_nutrition.pdf

(13) Reese W, Schubert D. Safety testing and regulation of genetically engineered foods. Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev. 2004;21:299–324

(14) Schubert D. A different perspective on GM food. Nat Biotechnol. 2002;20:969–969.

(15) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19146501

(16) http://www.phoreveryoung.wordpress.com

(17) http://www.phoreveryoung.wordpress.com

GLOBAL WARMING AND BODY WARMING BOTH CAUSED BY ACID RAIN!

Global Warming and Body Warming May Be Caused By Environmental, Dietary, Respiratory and Metabolic Acids!

The following picture shows the acidification of blood plasma due to an inverted way of living, eating, breathing and thinking which causes degeneration of the red and white blood cells, internal blood clotting and chaining of the red blood cells. This condition of the blood plasma leads to light headedness, cold hands, cold feet, forgetfulness, muddle thinking or brain fog, stroke, heart attack, tumor formation and internal bleeding, just to name a few.

 

I have been studying the acid/alkaline conditions of the blood for over thirty years and have determined that all sickness and disease or body warming from acid rain is caused by the over-acidification of the blood and interstitial fluids. The following is a picture of the compartments, just below the dermis, that hold the acid rain until it can be released through perspiration, urination or defecation. The interstitial fluid compartments makes up the largest organ in the human body and is called the colloidal connective tissue of the Schade or the Interstitium.

 

Scientists have been studying the acid/alkaline conditions at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. Natural carbon dioxide vents on the sea floor are showing scientists how carbon emissions will affect marine life.

Dissolved CO2 makes water more acidic, and around the vents, researchers saw a fall in species numbers, and snails with their shells disintegrating because of the increase of acid C02. Writing in the journal Nature, the UK scientists suggest these impacts are likely to be seen across the world as CO2 levels rise in the atmosphere. Some of the extra CO2 emitted enters the oceans, acidifying waters globally.

The only way of reducing the impact of ocean acidification is the urgent reduction in CO2 emissions.

 

“These same principles of acidification of the ocean also apply to the acidification of our body and the causative reason for the increase in cancer, heart disease, diabetes and all other degenerative diseases,” states Dr. Robert O. Young, a research scientist at the pH Miracle Living Center.

“Studies have shown that the seas have become more acidic since the industrial revolution,” states Carol Turley. of the Plymouth Marine Laboratory.

Research leader Jason Hall-Spencer from the University of Plymouth said that atmospheric CO2 concentrations were now so high that even a sharp fall in emissions would not prevent some further acidification of the ocean.

“It’s clear that marine food webs as we know them are going to alter, and biodiversity will decrease,” he told BBC News.

“Those impacts are inevitable because acidification is inevitable – we’ve started it, and we can’t stop it.”

 

Corals construct their external skeletons by extracting dissolved calcium carbonate from seawater and using it to form two minerals, calcite and aragonite. Molluscs use the same process to make their shells.

As water becomes more acidic, the concentration of calcium carbonate falls. Eventually there is so little that shells or skeletons cannot form.

The oceans are thought to have absorbed about half of the extra CO2 put into the atmosphere in the industrial age. This has lowered its pH by 0.1 pH is the measure of acidity and alkalinity.

 

The vast majority of liquids lie between pH 0 (highly acidic) and pH 14 (highly alkaline); 7 is the midpoint of the pH scale. Seawater is mildly alkaline with a “natural” pH of about 8.350.

The IPCC forecasts that ocean pH will fall by “between 0.14 and 0.35 units over the 21st Century, adding to the present decrease of 0.1 units since pre-industrial times.”

Around the vents which Dr Hall-Spencer’s team investigated, in the Mediterranean Sea near the Italian coast, CO2 bubbling into the water forms a sort of natural laboratory for studying the impacts of acidified water on marine life.

Globally, the seas now have an average pH of about 8.1 – down about 0.1 since the dawn of the industrial age.

Around the vents, it fell as low as 7.4 in some places. But even at 7.8 to 7.9, the number of species present was 30% down compared with neighboring areas.

Coral was absent, and species of algae that use calcium carbonate were displaced in favour of species that do not use it.

Snails were seen with their shells dissolving. There were no snails at all in zones with a pH of 7.4.

 

Meanwhile, sea grasses thrived, perhaps because they benefit from the extra carbon in the water.

These observations confirm that some of the processes seen in laboratory experiments and some of the predictions made by computer models of ocean ecosystems do also happen in the real world.

“I can’t count the number of times that scientific talks end with ‘responses have not yet been documented in the field’,” said Elliott Norse, President of the Marine Conservation Biology Institute (MCBI).

“This paper puts that to rest for several ecologically important marine groups.”

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggests that without measures to restrain carbon dioxide emissions, ocean pH is likely to fall to about 7.8 by 2100.

This suggests that some of the impacts seen around the Mediterranean vents might be widespread. “I think we will see the same pattern in other parts of the world, because we’re talking about keystone species such as mussels and limpets and barnacles being lost as pH drops,” said Dr Hall-Spencer. The IPCC suggests that some areas, notably the Southern Ocean, might feel the impacts at lower concentrations of CO2.

Last month, scientists reported that water with CO2 levels high enough to be “corrosive” to marine life was rising up off the western US coast.

 

Bottom water naturally contains more CO2 than at shallower depths. This scientific team argues that human emissions have pushed these levels even higher, contributing to pH values as low 7.5 in waters heavily used by US fishermen.

 

“If [pH 7.8] is a universal ‘tipping point’, then it indicates that sections of the western coast waters off North America may have passed this threshold during periods when this upwelling of waters high in CO2 occurs,” commented Carol Turley from Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML), who was not involved in the Mediterranean Sea study (PML is not affiliated with Plymouth University).

Organisms such as coral are also damaged by rising temperatures, and studies are ongoing into the combined effect of a warming and acidifying ocean.

Seagrasses were among the few beneficiaries of more acid waters. There is much to learn. Scientists will announce the inauguration of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (Epoca), a four-year, 16m euro (£12.5m) initiative aiming to find some answers.

Studying the impacts may prove easier than doing anything about them.

“The reason that the oceans are becoming more acidic is because of the CO2 emissions that we are producing from burning fossil fuels,” observed Dr Turley.

The following picture is the Acid Rain over Los Angeles, California.

 

“Add CO2 to seawater and you get carbonic acid; its simple chemistry, and therefore certain with a pH of less than 3.00.

“This means that the only way of reducing the future impact of ocean acidification is the urgent, substantial reduction in CO2 emissions.”

According to Dr. Young, “ocean acidification is the macro view of our oceans becoming sick and tired and the primary causative factor in global warming. The death and extinction of marine life is the result of this acidification which can be prevented with alkalizing measures. Such measures would include stop dumping sewage waste and garbage into our oceans.”

 

“Body acidification is the micro view of our internal oceans becoming sick and tired and the primary causative factor in body warming or all sickness and dis-ease. The death and extinction of the human race will be a result of an over-acidification of the blood and interstitial fluids due to an inverted way of living, eating, breathing and thinking. This is what scientist have determined happened to the extinction of the Mayan Race. We can prevent all sickness and disease (cancer, heart dis-ease, diabetes, etc.) and the potential extinction of the human race by learning how to maintain the alkaline design of our body.

 

To learn more about acid rain and the increase of human sickness and disease read The pH Miracle revised and updated (2010), The pH Miracle for Cancer and Sick and Tired – http://www.phoreveryoung.com by Robert O Young PhD

The Real Truth About How NOT to DIE and DIE-IT!

20 Ways on How to Live Longer and Healthier – Free from ALL Sickness and Disease and Old Age

Have you heard about the ravages of acid rain in Australia and the loss of the coral reef or in Alaska and the loss of millions of pine trees or maybe you have heard about the oceans and the pH dropping because of acid rain. The cause is the result of toxic acidic carbon emissions in the global environment. Acid rain damages the leaves and needles on trees, reduces a tree’s ability to withstand cold, drought, disease and pests, and even inhibits or prevents plant reproduction. The oceans of the World are dying because of acidic carbon emissions from cars and cows. In an effort for the Earth and the oceans to stay alive and combat increased acidic pollution, as tree roots pull important nutrients such as calcium and magnesium from the soil and calcium and the oceans are pulling calcium and magnesium from the coral reefs and sodium from the ocean water increasing acidity. The extraction of alkaline minerals from the soil and water is necessary for all living things on the earth and oceans to stay alive and avoid sudden death. These alkaline nutrients help to balance the increased effects of acid rain, but as they become depleted from the soil or from the ocean, the trees’ and marine life’s ability to survive is strained and placed in certain danger of extinction. Just look at the pictures below and see what is happening to the forests of Denali, Alaska and the great barrier reef in Queensland, Australia. The forests in Alaska and the great barrier reef in Queensland, Australia are both headed towards irreversible extinction because of acid rain.

We Are All Subject to Acid Rain!

What if I told you that most ALL people living today are unknowingly doing similar things to their body? A highly acidic lifestyle and diet is like acid rain in our blood, interstitial fluids and intracellular fluids that constitutes over 65% of the whole body. While the body has an alkaline buffering system (headed up by the stomach) in place to ensure that the blood and the interstitial fluids stay slightly alkaline at 7.365 pH, the depletion of alkaline minerals from the bones, muscles and other parts of your body may leave YOU vulnerable to health issues leading to ALL sickness and disease.

What is pH – The Power of Hydrogen or Perfectly Healthy or Both?

The pH (potential of hydrogen) is the measurement of acid (a measurement of hydrogen ions or protons) or alkalinity (a measurement of reduced hydrogen or electrons) on a scale from 0 to 14 with a midpoint of 7. The lower the number the higher the acidity (or the greater the concentration of hydrogen ions or protons) based upon a logarithm to the power of negative 10! For example, the pH of a healthy ocean environment free from acid rain would be 8.350. If the ocean pH drops 1 point due to acid rain to a pH of 7.350, which is a 10 times drop in pH, all life as we know it in the oceans would die. In fact, if the ocean pH drops from 8.350 to 8.100, which is a .235 drop, ALL life in the oceans would die! That is all it takes for ALL marine life to cease in our Oceans! JUST a small drop of 2/10’s of 1 point for ALL life to end! Here is another very important example that I truly want you to understand. The healthy pH of the human blood and interstitial fluids which makes up 80 percent of ALL body fluids is 7.365. This pH of the blood and interstitial fluids is a dynamic and is always changing. How do I know this? Because Dr. Galina Migalko, MD, NMD and I are the only scientist in the World measuring and comparing the pH and chemistries of the blood against the pH and chemistries of the interstitium. This is critical to truly understand when you are moving toward metabolic alkalosis or metabolic acidosis and preventing and/or reversing any sickness and disease as well as determining the efficacy of any non-invasive or invasive treatments. In other words, are the treatments for any sickness and disease making you sicker or better, whether conventional or traditional? This can now be measured and determined with certainty.

Why is YOUR Stomach So Important to the pH of the Blood and Interstitum

So why does the body, primarily the stomach work so hard to maintain the delicate pH of the blood and interstitial fluids of the interstitium? Here is the most important answer YOU will read in YOUR life! If the blood and interstitial fluids drop below 7.100 from the ideal healthy pH of 7.365 you would go into a coma. When the blood and interstitial fluid pH drops to 6.900 you are DEAD! From what? Not global warming but from body warming or in other words acidosis! The key to avoid death is to maintain the alkaline design of the blood and interstitial fluids at a precise pH of 7.365 which can be measured without drawing one drop of blood or interstitial fluid. The technology is here and the science is real!

What is the Common Denominator of pH in Relationship to the Cause of ALL Sickness and Disease

This is the common denominator for ALL sickness and disease – ALL sickness and disease are caused by acidosis or acid rain or body warming! Therefore, there are NO specific diseases, there are ONLY specific disease or sickness conditions. All sickness and disease is caused by acid rain from within and is exactly what is happening in the oceans, the soils of our planet and in all humanity. Planetary and human sickness and disease is on the rise because of personal acidic lifestyles and dietary choices and because of ignorance. Name any disease and that disease or sickness is caused by metabolic, respiratory, gastrointestinal or environmental acidosis.

Check out this YouTube video on the 7 signs YOU and TOO Acidic

I hope you can see NOW how important it is to understand and then monitor your pH daily by having your your blood and interstitial fluids tested. Unfortunately, this new science and technology for testing the pH of the blood and interstitial fluids is limited Worldwide. (For more information concerning the testing of the blood and interstitial fluids or to make an appointment email: phmiraclelife@gmail.com) In the meantime, there is a simple, inexpensive and noninvasive way for testing the fluids of the interstitium, but not of the blood, for those of you who desire to monitor your interstitial fluid pH daily. You can test the pH of the morning urine, since this urine is a product of the interstitium and NOT of the blood, by using special pHydrion strips (www.phoreveryoung.com). When you measure the pH of your urine using these special pHydrion strips it is important to achieve each morning a pH of at least 7.300 by following the suggested lifestyle and diet as described below. When you are testing your morning urine, which is the most acidic time of the day, you are testing the pH of the interstitial fluids which makes up over 60 percent of the body fluids (25 liters). You can also test your saliva using the same special pHydrion strips. When you are testing your saliva pH you are testing your body reserves available for buffering acid rain. Both the urine and saliva pH should be at least 7.300 and must be tested daily as you follow the pH Miracle alkaline lifestyle and diet in order to achieve an ideal pH for “Perfect Health!”

What Does the Stomach Have to Do With pH

An acidic pH of the blood and then interstitial fluids is what causes acid reflux—a condition in which the stomach creates when it is trying to buffer dietary acids from your toxic acidic food or drink ingested or metabolic acids from all functions of the body or respiratory acids from your respiratory system to maintain the pH of the blood and interstitial fluids at a delicate pH of 7.365. The following is the stomach chemistry as it creates sodium bicarbonate to buffer excess acid rain on your blood, interstitial fluids and intercellular fluids: H20 (water) + NaCl (salt) + C02 (carbon dioxide) = NaHC03 (sodium bicarbonate) + HCL (hydrochloric acid).

This may be the first time you have ever heard this, but I have been saying this for many years, “the stomach DOES NOT DIGEST FOOD it ALKALIZES FOOD and protects ALL of our body fluids, organs and tissues from dietary, metabolic, respiratory and environmental acidosis! In other words, the stomach is an organ of contribution and NOT an organ of digestion. Eat any food without chewing it, like a piece of corn and see what happens. The corn comes out of your anus the same way it went into your mouth. The stomach digests nothing. The hydrochloric acid in your stomach is a waste product of sodium bicarbonate production for buffering acid rain or acidic waste from what you eat, what you drink, what you breath and what you think. This is why when an athlete goes into lactic acidosis they throw-up to rid their body of all the hydrochloric acid build-up in the gastric pits of the stomach. You see the body is working hard to buffer the increased lactic acid from increased metabolism so the athlete doesn’t die from acidic rain from a declining pH in the blood and interstitium. Even when a pregnant woman throws-up (generally in her first trimester) her stomach is producing sodium bicarbonate to buffer the acidic loads in her and her unborn child’s blood and interstitium. The increased need for alkalinity during pregnancy is significant and is NOT understood or even considered by medical savants. They think, unknowingly that the body just takes care of the pH of the blood and tissues and that what you eat, what you drink, what you breath, and what you think cannot effect this delicate pH balance. You see, morning sickness is nothing more than increased acids from diet, respiration and metabolism! It requires twice the energy to make a baby and with that the pregnant Mother has increased acid rain. So I want you to understand that the stomach’s main purpose is to maintain the alkaline design of the body to keep it alive. That is IT! Get IT?

To learn more about the physiology of the stomach read the following book. You can order this book online at the following link:

How is acid/base created in the body?

a) The parietal or cover cells of the stomach split the sodium chloride of the blood. The sodium is used to bind with water and carbon dioxide to form the alkaline salt, sodium bicarbonate or NaHCO3. The biochemistry is: H20 + CO2 + NaCl = NaHCO3 + HCL. This is why I call the stomach an alkalizing organ NOT an organ of digestion. The stomach DOES NOT digest the food or liquids you ingest it alkalizes the food and liquid you ingest.

b) For each molecule of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) made, a molecule of hydrochloric acid (HCL) is made and secreted into the so-called digestive system – specifically, the stomach (the gastric pits in the stomach) – to be eliminated. Therefore HCL is an acidic waste product of sodium bicarbonate production created by the stomach to alkalize the food and liquids ingested and to maintain the delicate pH of the blood and interstitial fluids at a pH of 7.365.

c) The chloride ion from the sodium chloride (salt) binds to an acid or proton forming HCL as a waste product of sodium bicarbonate production. HCL has a pH of 1 and is highly toxic to the body and the cause of indigestion, acid reflux, ulcers and cancer. In fact HCL is in all pharmaceuticals and most dietary nutritional supplements.

d) When large amounts of acids, including HCL, enter the stomach from a rich animal protein or dairy product meal, such as meat and cheese, acid is withdrawn from the acid-base household. The organism would die if the resulting alkalosis – or NaHCO3 (base flood) or base surplus – created by the stomach was not taken up by the alkalophile glands (pancreas, gallbladder, Lieberkuhn glands in the liver and the Brunner glands between the pylorus and the junctions of the bile and pancreatic ducts), that need these quick bases in order to build up their strong sodium bicarbonate secretions. These glands and organs, once again are the stomach, pancreas, Brunner’s glands (between the pylorus and the junctions of the bile and pancreatic ducts, Lieberkuhn’s glands in the liver and its bile with its strong acid binding capabilities which it has to release on the highly acidic meat and cheese to buffer its strong acids of nitric, sulphuric, phosphoric, uric and lactic acids.

e) When a rich animal protein and dairy product meal is ingested, the stomach begins to manufacture and secrete sodium bicarbonate (NHCO3) to alkalize the acids from the food ingested. This causes a loss in the alkaline reserves and an increase in acid and/or HCL found in the gastric pits of the stomach. These acids and/or HCL are taken up by the blood which lowers blood plasma pH. The blood eliminates this increase in gastrointestinal acid by throwing it off into the Pishinger’s spaces or what recent scientist are calling the Interstitium pictured below.

 

f) The space enclosed by these finer and finer fibers is called the Pishinger’s space, or the spaces of the interstitium that contains the fluids that bath and feed each and every cell while carrying away the acidic waste from those same cells. There is no mention of this organ in American physiology or medical school text books. There is mention of the space but not of any organ that stores acids from metabolism, respiration, environment and diet, like the kidney. I call this organ the “pre-kidney” because it stores metabolic respiratory, environmental and gastrointestinal acids until they can be buffered and eliminated via the skin, urinary tract, or bowels.

g) After a rich animal protein or dairy product meal, the urine pH becomes alkaline.The ingestion of meat and cheese causes a reaction in acidic fashion in the organism by the production of sulfuric, phosphoric, nitric, uric, lactic, acetylaldehyde and ethanol acids, respectively, but also through the formation and excretion of base in the urine. Therefore eating meat and cheese causes a double loss of bases leading to tissue acidosis and eventual disease, especially inflammation and degenerative diseases.

h) During heavy exercise, if the the resulting lactic acid was not adsorbed by the collagen fibers, the specific acid catchers of the body, the organism would die. The total collection of these fibers is the largest organ of the body called SCHADE, the colloidal connective tissue organ or the interstitium. NO liquid exchange occurs between the blood and the parenchyma cells, or in reverse, unless it passes through this connective tissue organ or the interstitium. This organ connects and holds everything in our bodies in place. This organ is composed of ligaments, tendons, sinew, and the finer fibers that become the scaffolding that holds every single cell in our bodies in place. When acids are stored in this organ (just discovered by American science in 2018. Dr. Robert O. Young with Dr. Galina Migalko published their pH findings of the blood, interstitial fluids of the Interstitium and the intracellular fluids in 2015. Their publication is pictured below), which includes the muscles, inflammation and pain develop. The production of lactic acid is increased with the ingestion of milk, cheese, yogurt, butter and especially ice cream.

 

That is why I have stated for years, “acid is pain and pain is acid.” You cannot have one without the other. This is the beginning of latent tissue acidosis leading to irritation, inflammation and degeneration of the cells, tissues and organs.

i) The more acidity created from eating meat, cheese, milk or ice cream the more gastrointestinal acids are adsorbed into the the collagen fibers to be neutralized and the less sodium bicarbonate or NaHCO3 that is taken up by the alkalophile glands. The larger the potential difference between the adsorbed acids and the amount of NaHCO3 generated with each meal, the more or less alkaline are the alkalophile glands like the pancreas, gallbladder, pylorus glands, blood, etc. The acid binding power of the connective tissue, the blood, and the alkalophile glands depends on its alkali reserve, which can be determined through blood, urine, and saliva pH testing, including live and dried blood analysis. (Currently we are the only two scientist in the World that are doing non-invasive testing of the stomach, blood, interstitium and intracellular fluid pH with results in less than 15 minutes) The saliva pH is an indication of alkali reserves in the alkalophile glands and the urine pH is an indication of the pH of the fluids that surround the cells or the Pishinger’s space.

 

j) The iso-structure of the blood maintains the pH of the blood by pushing off gastrointestinal or metabolic acids into the connective tissue or the Pishinger’s space or the Interstitium. The blood gives to the urine the same amount of acid that it receives from the tissues and liver so it can retain its iso-form. A base deficiency is always related to the deterioration of the deposit ability of the connective tissues or the Pishinger’s space or interstitial fluid spaces. As long as the iso-structure of the blood is maintained, the urine – which originates from the blood – remains a faithful reflected image of the acid-base regulation, not of the blood, but of the tissues. The urine therefore is an excretion product of the connective tissues or the interstitium, not the blood. So when you are testing the pH of your urine, you are testing the pH of the tissues or the interstitial fluids of the Interstitium.

k) A latent “acidosis” is the condition that exists when there are not enough bases in the alkalophile glands because they have been used up in the process of neutralizing the acids adsorbed to the collagen fibers. This leads to compensated “acidosis.” This means the blood pH has not changed but other body systems have changed. This can then lead to decompensated “acidosis” where the alkaline reserves of the blood are used up and the pH of the blood is altered. Decompensated “acidosis” can be determined by testing the blood pH, urine pH and the saliva pH. The decrease in the alkaline reserves in the body occurs because of hyper-proteinization, (eating Meat and Cheese!)or too much protein, and hyper-carbonization, or too much sugar. This is why 80 to 90 year old folks are all shrunk up and look like prunes. They have very little or no alkaline reserves in their alkalophile glands. When all the alkaline minerals are gone, so are you and your battery runs down. The charge of your cellular battery can be measured by testing the ORP or the oxidative reduction potential of the blood, urine or saliva using an ORP meter. As you become more acidic this energy potential or ORP increases.

l) If there is not enough base left over after meat and cheese or surgary meal, or enough base to neutralize and clear the acids stored in the connective tissues or interstitium, a relative base deficiency develops which leads to latent tissue acidosis.When this happens the liver and pancreas are deficient of adequate alkaline juices to ensure proper alkalization of the food in your stomach and small intestine.

m) Digestion or alkalization cannot proceed without enough of these alkaline juices for the liver and pancreas, etc., and so the stomach has to produce more acid in order to make enough base, ad nauseam, and one can develop indigestion, nausea, acid reflux, GERD, ulcers, esophageal cancer and stomach cancer. All of these symptoms are not the result of too much acid or HCL in the stomach. On the contrary, it is the result of too little base in the form of sodium bicarbonate!

n) Therefore the stomach is NOT an organ of digestion as currently taught in ALL biology and medical texts, BUT an organ of contribution or deposit. It’s function is to deposit alkaline juices to the stomach to alkalize the food and to the blood to carry to the alklophile glands!!!!

o) There is a daily rhythm to this acid base ebb and flow of the fluids of the body. The stored acids are mobilized from the connective tissues and Pishinger’s spaces or the spaces of the interstitium while we sleep.

These acids reach their maximum (base tide) concentration in this fluid, and thereby the urine (around 2 a.m. is the most acidic). The acid content of the urine directly reflects the acid content of the fluid in the Pishinger’s spaces, the interstitial fluid compartments of the body. On the other hand, the Pishinger’s spaces become most alkaline around 2 p.m. (the base flood) as then the most sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is being generated by the cover cells of the stomach to alkalize the food and drink we have ingested.

p) If your urine is not alkaline by 2 p.m. you are definitely in an ACIDIC condition and lacking in alkaline reserves. The pH of the urine should run between 6.8 and 8.4 but ideally 7.2 or greater.

q) After a high protein meal or meat or cheese, the free acids formed such as sulfuric, phosphoric, uric, and nitric acids stick to the collagen fibers to remove them from the blood and protect the delicate pH of the blood at 7.365. The H+ or proton ions from these acids are neutralized by the next base flood, the sodium bicarbonate produced after the meal. The H+ or proton ion combines with the carbonate or HCO3, converts to carbonic acid, H2CO3, which converts to CO2 and H2O. The sulfuric and other acids from proteins are neutralized as follows where the HR represents any acid with the R as its acid radical (SO4, PO4, or NO3) HR + NaHCO3 <=> H2O + NaR (Ca, Mg, K)+ CO2.

r) Medical doctors are not taught the above science in medical school and therefore do not understand the complex chemistry between the stomach, blood and interstitium or even recognize the effects of an acidic lifestyle and diet leading to latent tissue acidosis in the largest organ of the body called the Interstitium. They understand and recognize compensated acidosis and decompensated acidosis in the blood but do not know about or even understand a single thing about the Interstitium. In compensated acidosis, breathing increases in order to blow off more carbonic acid which decreases PCO2 because of the lowered carbonate or HCO3. When the breathing rate can no longer get any faster and when the kidneys can no longer increase its’ function to keep up with the acid load, then the blood pH starts to change from a pH of 7.365 to 7.3 then to 7.2. At a blood pH of 6.95 the heart relaxes and the client goes into a coma or dies.

s) Metabolism of a normal adult diet results in the generation of 50 to 100 meq of H+ or proton per day, which must be excreted if the urine acid-base balance is to be maintained. A meq is a milliequivalent which is an expression of concentration of substance per liter of solution, calculated by dividing the concentration in milligrams per 100 milliliters by the molecular weight. This process involves two basis steps; 1) the reabsorption of the filtered sodium bicarbonate or NaHCO3 and, 2) excretion of the 50 to 100 meq of H+ or proton produced each day by the formation of titratable acidity and NH4+ or ammonium. Both steps involve H+ or proton secretion from the cells of the kidney into the urine.

t) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) must be reabsorbed into the blood stream, since the loss of NaHCO3 will increase the net acid load and lower the plasma NaHCO3 concentration. The loss of NaHCO3 in the urine is equivalent to the addition of H+ to the body since both are derived from the dissociation of H2CO3 or carbonic acid.

u) The biochemistry is: CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 = HCO3 + H+. The normal subject must reabsorb 4300 meq of NaHCO3 each day! The secreted H+ or proton ions are generated within the kidney cells from the dissociation of H2O or water. This process also results in the equimolar production OH- or hydroxyl ions. The OH- ions bind to the active zinc-containing site of the intracellular carbonic anhydrase; they then combine with CO2 to form HCO3- ions which are released back into the kidney cells and returned to the systemic circulation. Second, the dietary acid load is excreted by the secretion of H+ or proton ions from the kidney cells into the urine. These H+ or proton ions can do one of two things: the H+ or proton ions can be combined with the urinary buffers, particularly HPO4, in a process called titratable acidity (The biochemistry is: H+ + HPO4 = H2PO4), or the phosphate buffering system or the H+ or proton ions can combine with ammonia (NH3) to form ammonium as follows: NH3 + H+ = NH4.

v) This ammonia is trapped and concentrated in the kidney as ammonium which is then excreted in the urine.

w) In response to acid load, 36% of the H+ or proton goes intracellular in exchange for the release of Na+ (sodium) into the blood stream. 15% of the acid goes intracellular in exchange for K+ (potassium) – common in diabetics. 6% of the H+ or proton or acid goes directly into the cell to be buffered by intracellular processes. 43% is buffered by the interstitium as NaHCO3- or sodium bicarbonate combining with H+ or proton to form H2CO3 or carbonic acid which breaks down to CO2 or carbon dioxide to be released by the lungs. 10% of CO2 or carbon dioxide is excreted through the lungs and 90% is used by the body to reabsorb alkaline minerals and make sodium bicarbonate for buffering gastrointestinal, respiratory, enivronmenta and metabolic acids.

The biochemistry is: CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 = HCO3 + H+.

You can order the following book on sodium and potassium bicarbonate at: http://www.phoreveryoung.com or https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B01JLHJ1Y8/ref=dbs_a_def_rwt_hsch_vapi_taft_p3_i9

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x) Of all the ways the body can buffer metabolic and dietary acids, the excretion of protein (the eating of meat and cheese) generated acid residues is the only process that does not add sodium bicarbonate back into blood circulation. This creates a loss of bases which is the forerunner of all sickness and disease. In the long run, the only way to replace these lost bases is by eating more alkaline electron-rich green foods and long-chain polyunsaturated fats. Eating meat and cheese is definitely hazardous to your health. That is why I say, “a cucumber a day keeps the doctor away while eating meat, cheese and even an apple creates more excess acid in the colloidal connective tissues of the Schade or the Interstitium, leading to latent tissue acidosis and then sickness, disease and finally death.

y) With over 30 years of research and testing over 500,000 samples of blood and over 1,000,000 samples of urine and saliva I have come to the conclusion that the Human Body is an acid producing organism by function – yet, it is an alkaline organism by design. Eating animal protein, especially meat and cheese and sugar from any source are deadly acidic choices – unless you interested in becoming sick, tired and fat over time.

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z) Bottom line – the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet is a program that focuses on the foundational principal that the body is alkaline by design and yet acidic by function. These are my two greatest discoveries. This make this program the ultimate program for preventing and reversing aging and the onset of sickness and dis-ease. I would say that the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet is the diet for a longer healthier life free from all sickness and disease. That is why you are seeing a slew of celebrities (Harry and Meghan, Tom Brady, Rhianna, Elle Macpherson, Gwyneth Paltrow, David Beckham, NeNe, Tony Robbins, just to name a few) can attest to the benefits of a pH Miracle alkaline lifestyle and diet and the drinking of alkaline water for improving the quality of their skin, hair and body and to avert over-acidity which often leads to breakouts of the skin and many other health challenges.

Harry and Meghan live an alkaline lifestyle and diet

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Tom Brady is an avid supporter of the alkaline lifestyle and diet and states it is keeping in the game playing the best football of his life!

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David Beckham is a follower of the alkaline lifestyle and diet

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Ellie Macpherson drinks her green drink and tests her pH daily at the age of 54 enjoying extraordinary health and fitness

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Tony Robbins has been teaching Dr. Young’s pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet to Millions Around the World for Over 20 Years!

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Gwyneth Paltrow has been following the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet for over 10 years and attributes her health, energy, vitality, fitness, and anti-aging benefits to this lifestyle and diet.

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Rhianna attributes her glowing skin to the alkaline lifestyle and diet.

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Please remember this very important truth, hydrochloric acid in the stomach is not the cause of digestion but the result of alkalization. Start alkalizing today and begin improving the quality and quantity of your life today.

The Break-Through Research of Robert O Young CPT, MSc, DSc, PhD, Naturopathic Practitioner

My research has linked acidity to every sickness and disease, including enervation, irritation, catarrh, inflammation, induration, ulceration and degeneration. People do not die from disease they die from the inability to maintain the alkaline design of their body. The key to living a long and healthy life is managing the alkaline design of the body. For example pain equals acid and acid equals pain. You cannot have pain with acid. It is that simple! Remove the acid and you remove the pain.

 

The following are 20 suggestions on how to manage the alkaline design of your body and to increase your energy, vitality and quantity and quantity of life which is in your complete control! YOU determine YOUR Destiny!

20 Suggestions for Maintaining the Alkaline Design of YOUR Body for a Longer and Healthier Life

1. Start your day with a large glass of 9.5 alkaline water with the juice of a whole, freshly-squeezed lemon. While lemons are wrongly considered acidic, they are NOT! They are loaded with sodium bicarbonate which means they contribute to your alkaline reserves and protect the blood and interstitium from acid rain.

Be Alkaline and be healthy and loving

Get weekly alkaline tips of the day for leading a long and healthy and compassionate alkaline life when you sign-up as a member of our pH Miracle Fan Club on our facebook page at: https://www.facebook.com/groups/50864627953/

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 2. Better yet, invest in a water filtration system that alkalinizes the water and increases the pH of the water to a 9.5 or greater. Pure water found in nature, which is hard to come by now thanks to acid rain, is quite alkaline. If you’re already drinking purified water, you can also purchase water alkalinizing drops to add to your water bottle and to raise the pH of your water to pH or 9.5 or greater. Here is the link to purchase alkaline pH drops for you water: https://store.phoreveryoung.com/collections/supplements/products/activator-by-ph-miracle-2-fl-oz-59-14ml

3. Eat a large green vegetable salad tossed in alkalizing lemon juice and olive oil. Greens are among the best sources of alkaline minerals like calcium and are high in chlorophyll for building hemoglobin and red blood cell counts.

4. Drink raw organic almond milk. Almonds are packed with natural alkaline minerals like calcium, magnesium and potassium which can help to balance out acidity while buffering another acid called glucose or blood sugar.

5. Drink an Avocado smoothie daily. Using a Vita-mix blender you can blend an avocado with spinach greens, cucumber, celery, ginger and almond milk for an incredible alkalizing and energizing green shake.

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6. Add green powder like wheat grass, barley grass, moringa grass or other greens to your daily diet since these foods that are highly alkalizing and energizing. It’s easy to throw a tablespoon of these greens into your Avocado based almond milk smoothie. To order the best green powder in the World go to: https://store.phoreveryoung.com/collections/supplements/products/innerlight-supergreens

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7. Take a brisk walk, bicycle ride, swim, rebound or some other exercise for at least 30 minutes everyday. Exercise helps move acidic waste products out of the interstitium and through the pores of the skin via perspiration.

8. Breathe deeply. Ideally, choose a spot that has fresh, oxygen-rich air. And, sorry, air filled with Febreze, Glade and all the other so-called “air fresheners,” is not what I’m talking about here. Take a deep breath in through your nose and then switch to breathing through your mouth without letting go of your first inhalation through your nose.

 

9. Go for Meatless and Eggless Mondays. Better yet, opt for meat-free Tuesdays, Wednesdays and other days throughout the week. During the chewing of meat, acid residues like uric acid, nitric acid, sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid residues are left behind for the stomach to address. There is zero health benefits from eating the flesh of another living being. All flesh is acidic and causes a double-loss of alkalinity in the blood and interstitium.

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10. Skip the sugar-laden soda and drink some iJuice Wheat Grass Juice.(www.ijuicenow.com) Sugar is one of the most acidic foods we consume. Sugar is a waste product of metabolism and fermentation. You need over 30 glasses of alkaline water at a pH of 8.4 just to neutralize the acidity (sugar and carbonic acid) of ONE can or bottle of soda.

 

11. Skip the artificially-sweetened diet beverages and other diet products. They contain artificial sweeteners like aspartame (now known as NeoTame), sucralose (also known as Splenda) or saccharin (also known as SugarTwin) and they all cause body warming and acid rain inside your body.

12. Add more green fruit and vegetables to your diet. No, fried potatoes don’t count, including sweet potatoes. Asparagus, green peppers, green string beans, kale, spinach, beet tops, carrot tops, wheat grass, barley grass, broccoli, cucumber, avocado, and lime and other green fruit and vegetables are also excellent choices for supporting the alkaline design of the body.

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13. Instead of slathering your vegetables in acid-forming butter, drizzle alkaline flaxseed oil, hemp seed oil, and/or green olive oil over them.

14. Sprout it out. Add more sprouts to your daily diet like bean sprouts, sunflower seed sprouts and broccoli sprouts. They are extremely alkalizing and supercharged with nutrients and energy-boosting electrons.

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15. Skip ALL desserts or reserve them as occasional treats instead of daily habits. Sugar consumption has been linked to a whole host of health problems and is best minimized or eliminated. If you are in body warming then removing all acidic foods and drinks are a must.

16. Avoid all alcoholic beverages or so-called nutritional supplements that contain alcohol. Alcohol is a devastating acid that causes pancreatic and liver cancer.

17, Avoid corn and peanuts because they are loaded with bacteria, yeast and mold and the cancer causing acid lactic acid.

18. No acidic beverages like coffee, black or green tea or chocolate. They all contain food acids that robs your body of its alkaline reserves causing many diseases, including cancer.

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19. Stay far away from vinegar. Vinegar is pure acid and steals years off your life! Do not believe the so-called health experts to state the vinegar is good for digestion. Remember this very important point. There is only one instrument in the human body that can digest or breakdown food and the is your teeth. When you pour vinegar into your body all you have done is poison yourself. The stomach has to rob alkalinity from the blood, interstitium, organs and glands to buffer this highly toxic chemical setting the stage for enervation, inflammation, induration, ulceration , degeneration and finally death. Vinegar is death in a bottle.

20. Test your urine and saliva and drink pHour Salts every morning. Your ideal pH of your urine and saliva should be at least 7.300. If your pH is lower than 7.300 take a scoop of pHour salts in a small glass of alkaline water. Ideally, you should drink a glass of phour salts which contains sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, magnesium chloride and calcium at least 3 times daily. To order pHour salts go to: https://store.phoreveryoung.com/collections/supplements/products/phour-salts-per-case

 

You can also order saliva and urine testing strips at the following link: https://store.phoreveryoung.com/products/phydrion-strips-5-5-8-0?variant=2085775876

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To learn more about the work, research and discoveries of Robert O Young go to the following websites: http://www.drrobertyoung.com, http://www.phmiracleretreat.com, http://www.ijuicenow.com, http://www.innerlightblue.com and http://www.phoreveryoung.com

To learn more read The pH Miracle, The pH Miracle revised and updated, The pH Miracle for Diabetes, The pH Miracle for Weight Loss, The pH Miracle for Cancer and Sick and Tired, just to name a few of Robert O Young’s published books. To order any of these books go to: http://www.phoreveryoung.com

Dr Galina Migalko and I will be key note speakers sharing our research and findings at the 3rd World Congress on Advanced Cancer Science and Therapy on October 15th and 16th in Osaka, Japan.  If you would like to attend our lecture on our break-through science you can email: phmiraclelife@gmail.com
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Our Next pH Miracle Event will be from November 18th to December 2nd – To learn more email us at: phmiracleliving@aol.com
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The Power Love

Love = energy = mc2

Love = energy = mc2

Can positive or negative thoughts and emotions affect your body’s delicate biochemistry or the acid/alkaline pH balance?

Love, fear, joy, anger, sadness, happiness, resentment. Can positive or negative emotions affect your body’s physical, mental and spiritual health?

Is a woman more likely to become pregnant if she eats a lot of vegetables or if she were to go on a long, relaxing vacation?

Are you more likely to do cancer if you have a hot temper?

Do people who laugh a lot live longer?

Does your anxiety or fear of crowds, elevators, blood, heights, spiders, hospitals, or airplanes somehow affect your health?

My theory of one sickness, one disease and one health, set forth in what I call “The New Biology,” not only considers how our diet affects our physiology, but also how our psychology affects our physiology and how our psychology affects our spirituality.

Not only does the health of your body affect the emotions of your mind, but your thoughts and feelings can affect the health of your entire body.

Bottom line, your mental state is ever so critical. In so many ways, your mental state, if it’s negative, can create more metabolic acids than the acidic food that you’re eating

In fact, you can create two or three times more metabolic acids from your thoughts or your mental and emotional state than from ingesting highly acidic dairy, animal protein, sugar and alcohol.

So your thoughts are critical. Your thoughts or words do become matter, and can affect your physiology in a negative or positive way. Your thoughts do become biology. And the way that thoughts become biology is as follows:

When you have a thought or say a word, it requires electrical or electron energy for the brain cell(s) to produce those actions. And as you carry on with that thought, you are burning or consuming energy. And when you are consuming electrical energy in your thoughts, you are producing a biological waste product called acid which is an energetic waste product which can be measured in pH, oxidative reduction potential, rH2 or redox, hertz and decibels.

Next, if the metabolic acids from your thoughts are not properly eliminated through the four channels of elimination which are urination, perspiration, respiration or defecation (form women menstruation), then the acids from your thoughts are moved out into your connective and fatty tissues ­because it must not be allowed to affect the pH of the blood and the interstitial fluids of the interstitium or the fluids that surround the cells. The delicate pH balance of the blood and the interstitium must remain quite constant 7.365 to remain healthy.

What happens next is this. As the excess and overload of acid are thrown out into the body tissues or intestitium, this can easily lead to all sorts of symptomologies: lupus, fibromyalgia, Lyme’s, arthritis, muscle pain, fatigue, tiredness, obesity, cancerous breasts, cancerous prostate, cancerous stomach and/or bowels, indigestion, acid reflux, heart burn, heart attacks, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s, dementia, autism, and the list goes on and on.

 

For example let’s say you’ve been doing sadness or depression. This downer feeling is coming from a negative experience that you keep looping and re-looping in your head. It’s like a mind movie. It’s a mini-drama that you keep playing over and over. And because you are constantly thinking about it, eventually you even start to be concerned or worried about the fact that you are so preoccupied with the whole affair. So now in addition to the sad drama, you are experiencing upset about the fact that you’re having the drama itself. All of this thinking requires electrical energy and when you’re consuming electrical energy in the form of electrons you are also producing metabolic acids.

Do you know any angry people? You may not know it, but many people who become angry easily not only get angry at various people, events, and situations, but eventually they are irritated with themselves for being so angry at everything else. Anger, for instance, requires a tremendous amount of energy and emits a great deal of electrical energy. You have undoubtedly felt the vibrational energy of someone who is angry. Or maybe you have felt your own anger and how it can upset your physiology, i.e., especially upset your stomach and bowels with excess acid leading to indigestion, stomach pain, acid reflux or ulcers.

Even worse, many of these negative emotions are chronic and can be traced all the way back to early childhood experiences. So, at one level or another, it’s been going on for a long time­ and creating excessive acid all along.

For many people, early childhood represents some of the most fearful and vulnerable years. Have you ever wondered why you can’t remember much before age five or six? Many of those years are filled with fears and tears, mads and sads ­and how about the “bads”? Do you remember what happened when you were “bad?” Imagine the acid from those experiences. In addition to the punitive experience itself, imagine the acidity a child deals with by simply a) remembering such a “bad” experience or b) anticipating the possibility of another such “bad” experience…or c) both! Some “children” remember these events forever!

Some chronic emotions begin early:

 

“O dear white children casual as birds, Playing among the ruined languages,

So small beside their large confusing words,

So gay against the greater silences, Of dreadful things you did…”

It is during these vulnerable and unprotected years that we often plant eternal seeds of emotion that will yield an unwelcome harvest of acidic internal results, perhaps throughout one’s entire life.

The turmoil between parents and children, not to mention the conflicts between children and children, have been documented by many thousands of social science books and articles.

“Children begin by loving their parents; after a time they judge them;

Rarely, if ever, do they forgive them.”

So, let’s take a look at all of that emotion. Perhaps you are feeling a strong emotion. It could be any emotion.

Emotions Are Energy in Motion

 

First of all, emotions are energy in motion. When you are (e)motional, you are energetic, either in a positive or negative way. And if you are energetic, you are literally energy in (e)motion. You are now producing metabolic acids at a very high rate which is a waste product of such (e)motions.

The rate of acid production in an (e)motional state can be even greater than that of someone who is jogging or working out. So, your thoughts do become biological or metabolic acids that can make you sick, tired, depressed, angry and even too fat or underweight.

When you start producing acids with your thoughts, words and actions, what happens inside? First, you activate the alkaline-buffering systems of the body in order to neutralize these (e)motional acids. The body begins making a primary alkaline buffer known as sodium bicarbonate. It’s actually made from the blood in corporation with the cover cells of the stomach and during its production, it creates a waste product known as hydrochloric acid.

Hydrochloric acid is a poisonous acidic toxin and cannot remain in the blood. So it is dropped down into the gastric pits of the stomach. This is why people get upset stomachs or become constipated when they are (e)motional. This increase of sodium bicarbonate is critical in maintaining the alkaline design of the body, the pH of 7.365 for the blood, and for maintaining alkalinity of the interstitial fluids. If these acids, including hydrochloric acid, are not buffered and/or eliminated through the four channels of elimination, they can create serious health challenges in your body, mind, and spirit.

On the other hand, positive (e)motions, such as love, peace, hope, faith, joy, forgiveness and charity can be alkalizing to the blood and tissues. These (e)motions require far less energy and can cause you to be relaxed in your mind and stop the playing of some acidic toxic movie in your head. Students of higher consciousness know that you can even enter into a state of bliss wherein you have no thoughts and wherein you are producing no metabolic acid.

I Want Young Love

 

For myself, I have decided to call this wonderful place “Young Love.” That’s because I exercise and meditate every day. And I Love it! And it raises my level of consciousness and positive connection with the world. The connections between “Young” and “Love” are numerous. My name is Young, of course, but more importantly, being young is a term we normally associate with being youthful, energetic, open, optimistic, and filled with excitement. And the ultimate purpose of life is Love. And Love is the sweetest expression of life. So Young and Love go together.

To be sure, I Love my exercising and it Loves me back in terms of its gifts to me. I find myself Loving this state of bliss daily which I know is helping to alkalize my body. That is why I am addicted to­ why I Love­ this type of alkalizing exercise that I do every day. It’s called a “Positive Addiction”. I Love to have my friends and guests work out with me as I lead them through the steps. I teach them the Young version of Yoga. I tell them that it is known as “Younga Yoga”. They Love that. (Well, at least they laugh.) It incorporates proper breathing, stretching, toning, mediation, relaxation, and of course some sweating to remove yesterday’s dietary and metabolic acid and to help bring me into a state of happiness and bliss.

Through my personal and clinical research, I have found that maintaining the alkaline design of my body with an alkaline lifestyle and diet is the most important thing anyone can do to live a happier and more blissful life. Having an alkaline day is a way of life that I call “Young Living”. I guarantee you that what I call “Young Love” will go hand-in-hand with the goal of “Young Living”.

Are YOU Angry?

 

Now this next thought is very important! The negative (e)motions of anger, resentment, and fear­ being the most powerful and acidifying of all (e)motions­ are all highly acidic to the blood and tissues and in many ways are paralyzing to all bodily functions. Over time, the fear of the unknown is probably the most powerful and acidic of them all. Fear is so devastating to the body that even if you’re on an alkaline diet, overcoming a serious health challenge is practically impossible.

In such a dire case, with what may seem to be little or no improvement, you might be wondering if the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet may not be working. You may be asking, “What else am I not doing that I should be? How come I feel the way that I’m feeling? I’m eating the right way, I’m drinking the right alkaline electron rich water, but I can’t seem to achieve the type of extraordinary health and energy that I’m seeking.”

In most cases like this, when you are eating and drinking correctly, it will come down to your negative acidic (e)motions or thoughts that are holding you back from achieving extraordinary health, fitness, mental clarity, happiness, and bliss. However, keep this in mind:

When you’re eating an alkaline diet and you are doing everything you know how to do, and yet you are overwhelmed with worry, doubt and negative (e)motions, thank God you’re eating an alkaline diet! If your body were not seriously in the alkaline direction, you might very well be experiencing a struggle for your life. Your acidic (e)motions can literally kill you. So the alkaline diet is the saving grace. Knowing that should give you the positive hope that you can hang on, get through the emotional stress, and still come out physically and mentally able.

Hope and positive expectations are always the key, and knowing that you are on an alkaline diet should aid significantly in boosting your hope and confidence. You can live without food for forty days. You can live without water for about four days. You can live without air for maybe four minutes. But you cannot live without hope and love at all. Hope, love, positive expectations, confidence in what you are doing, and trust in your own good intentions ­this is the key, and that’s what the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet will do for you. It will give you hope!

The Leading Cause of Death in the World?

 

The leading cause of death in the world today is said to be heart attacks. But people are really having “thought attacks,” NOT “heart attacks.” There are studies showing that over 80% of all heart attacks are (e)motionally triggered. I have said that people don’t die of a heart attack. They die of a thought attack that medical science simply refers to as a heart attack because that’s the end result.

And if you have wondered if you can die from a broken heart, the answer is absolutely! And the cause? Acids from energy in motion or (e)motion. The loss of a cherished love one can increase your metabolic acids from the (e)motion to the point that it can stop your heart from beating and pumping life-giving blood throughout your blood vessels. And we all know or should know that life and death is in the blood, the most important “organ” of the body.

So let’s take a moment to talk about what I do when I have a client who’s in a highly negative acid-forming (e)motional situation and all the body fluids, including the blood, will show a decline in the pH even when this person has been eating an alkaline diet.

In order to buffer the acid forming (e)motions, the client will have to hyper-alkalize the blood and then the tissues in order to bring the body back into alkaline balance. When the client is hyper-alkalizing, the pH of the urine will increase into the high 8’s and even into the 9’s. Hyper-alkalization is necessary in order to overcompensate for the negative acidic producing (e)motions and to bring the body back to health, energy, vitality, hope, peace, harmony and love.

So, does a person have a fair chance of healing themselves from a degenerative disease or dis-ease like heart disease or cancer? Can you ever achieve a state of blissful happiness? Can you recover from the devastating shock of a loss or from having been diagnosed with a scary-sounding health challenge? I say “absolutely, YES!” And I just told you how.

Given the importance of (e)motions in cancer or acidic causation, etc., I have been particularly interested in the unique biochemistry of the “reptilian brain” which includes the Amygdala, a part of the brain associated with the senses and emotions and their storage or memory. Acid or sugar specifically activates the areas of the Amygdala. I have often wished that our traditional medical industry would spend some of their billions of research dollars checking out and verifying for the world what I have demonstrated for years that the pH Miracle electron-rich alkaline Lifestyle and Diet would be much more calming to the lower (e)motions of grief, shame, guilt, anger, fear, etc­., responses of the reptilian brain­ as compared to a toxic acidic chemical drug.

A chemical acidic drug may temporarily calm a person down, but it will also inhibit the entire spectrum of normal and healthy functioning of the Amygdala. I am assuming here that most of us still value and are interested in the healthy functions of socialization, sexual attraction, and the enjoyment of the myriad of feelings associated with home and hearth. All of these wonderful human experiences and memories are also functions of the Amygdala every bit as much as the feisty adrenal functions responding to “fight and flight.”

In our attempts to find a chemical drug to treat almost everything, we (more often than not) create more problems than we eliminate­ one step forward and two steps backward. I know that attention deficit problems (ADHD) respond to an alkaline regimen….and hyperactivity is an Amygdala function. So it follows that an alkaline lifestyle and diet would produce less overall adrenal and most important Amygdala “stress” as well (really just the fight or flight mechanism by another name).

The pH Miracle electron-rich alkaline lifestyle and diet is calming to the mind and thus calms the negative (e)motions or energy in motion. This appropriate calming of the Amygdala function produces less “stress.” And, with less “stress” you have less “acid.” And, with less “acid” you have less sickness, dis-ease, so-called disease, depression and unhappiness. Understand NOW?

Can our (e)motions cause cancer?

 

I have said that cancer is a four letter word­ ACID. When you are doing negative acidic (e)motions, such as anger, revenge, hate, sadness or depression, you are creating metabolic acids that can cause ANY and ALL cancerous conditions across all body tissues. If metabolic acids are not removed via urination, perspiration, defecation or respiration (menstruation -why women live longer), then they are delivered to body tissues. When constant excess acid from negative (e)motions are poured into the body tissues, the body tissues will degenerate causing a cancerous condition. Pharmaceutical companies are creating drugs addressing symptoms that may give you the illusion of feeling better, but they DO NOT deal with the causative metabolic acids from eating, drinking and negative acidic (e)motions. This can only lead to more physical and (e)motional pain and unnecessary suffering.

Young Life, Young Energy and Young Love

 

When you are in a negative (e)motional state, it can become impossible for you to heal your serious degenerative or acidic challenge. But, I will say this: if you are willing to commit to change and begin the alkalizing process, even if you are not completely out of your state of fear, anger, depression or anger, you will begin to put more “Young Life,” “Young Energy,” and “Young Love” into your mind, body and spirit.

I have found over the years that when you start feeling better, you start thinking better. And when you start thinking better, you start doing better. So, you don’t have to have your (e)motions completely under control in order to start losing weight, feeling better, reversing a serious illness, having more sustainable energy and to start being happy and more spiritually connected.

When you start the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet program, you are then making a conscious decision to try to do a little better. And, when you get on this healing path that leads to Young Living, Young Energy, and Young Love­ this gradual alkalizing process­ you start having those little and then those big pH miracles. You start feeling better and you start thinking better. And, when you start feeling and thinking better, you realize at some point that you have forgotten your depression and your sadness. Feelings of anger have disappeared ­and even what you were upset about. You soon forget what you were fearful about in the first place.

Why? These changes come about because you feel so good. You are rewriting your genetic expressions with your positive (e)motions. You are taking your alkalizing eraser and erasing all your past life’s negative emotions. On the pH Miracle Lifestyle and Diet your (e)motions or energy in motion will finally be under your control. You will become the master of your mind, body and spirit. You will be living an alkaline lifestyle and diet full of energy, happiness, bliss and love. You will be living and breathing “Young Love.”

To learn more about the affect of negative and positive (e)motions on the brain and body and to learn more about “Young Living” “Young Energy” and “Young Love” read, The pH Miracle, The pH Miracle revised and update, The pH Miracle for Diabetes, The pH Miracle for Weight Loss and The pH Miracle for Cancer – http://www.phoreveryoung.com